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jeproaches with being a Tory, and says_“To vowing revenge." In a few weeks after-cool your insolence a little, know that the the change being by that time complete-he Queen, and Court, and House of Lords, and takes his part definitively, and makes his aphialf the Commons almost, are Whigs, and the proaches to Harley, in a manner which we number daily increases::—And, among in- should really imagine no rat of the present numerable other proofs, by the memorable day would have confidence enough to imitate. verses on Whitehall, in which, alluding to the In mentioning his first interview with that execution of King Charles in front of that eminent person, he says, “I had prepared building, he is pleased to say, with more zeal him before by another hand, where he was than good prosody,
very intimate, and got myself represented " That theatre produced an action truly great,
(which I might justly do) as one extremely ill On which eternal acclamations waii," &c. used by the last ministry, after some obligation, Such being the principles, by the zealous because I refused to go certain lengths they profession of which he had first obtained dis- would have me." (Vol. xv. p. 350.) About tinction and preferment, and been admitted the same period, he gives us farther lights to the friendship of such men as Somers, Ad- into the conduct of this memorable converdison, and Steele, it only remains to be seen sion, in the following passages of the Journal. on what occasion, and on what considerations, he afterwards renounced them. It is, of itself, Mr. Sr. John and me acquainted ; and spoke so
“ Oct. 7. He (Harley) told me he must bring a tolerably decisive fact, that this change many things of personal kindness and esteem, that took place just when the Whig ministry went I am inclined to believe what some friends had told out of power, and their adversaries came into me, that he would do every thing to bring me over. full possession of all the patronage and inter- He desired me to dine with him on Tuesday; and, est of the government. The whole matter, St. James's coffee-house in a Hackney.coach.
after four hours being with him, set me down al however, is fairly spoken out in various parts " I must tell you a great piece of refinement in of his own writings :—and we do not believe Harley. He charged me to come and see him there is anywhere on record a more barefaced often; I told him I was loath to trouble him, in so avowal of political apostasy, undisguised and much business as he had, and desired I might have unpalliated by the slightest colour or pretence refused, and said, "That was no place for friends!
leave to come at his levee ; which he immediately of public or conscientious motives. It is quite
“I believe never was any thing compassed so a singular fact, we believe, in the history of soon : and purely done by my personal credit with this sort of conversion, that he nowhere pre- Mr. Harley; who is so excessively obliging, that I tends to say that he had become aware of any know not what to make of it, unless to shew the rasdanger to ihe country from the continuance cals of the other party, that they used a man unwor. of the Whig ministry—nor ever presumes to thily who had deserved better. He speaks all the
kind things of me in the world.-Oct. 14. I stand call in question the patriotism or penetration with the new people ten times better than ever ! of Addison and the rest of his former asso- did with the old, and forty times more caressed." ciates, who remained faithful to their first Life, vol. i. p. 126. professions. His only apology, in short, for * Nov. 8.' Why should the Whigs think I came this sudden dereliction of the principles what they think? Am 1 under obligations in the
to England to leave ihem? But who the devil cares which he had maintained for near forty years least to any of them all? Rot them, ungrateful --for it was at this ripe age that he got the dogs. I will make them repent their usage of me, first glimpse of his youthful folly—is a pre- before I leave this place. They say the same thing tence of ill usage from the party with whom here of my leaving the Whigs ; but they own they he had held them; a pretence-to say nothing cannoi blame me, considering the treatment I have of its inherent baseness--which appears to be had," &c. &c. utterly without foundation, and of which it is If he really ever scrupled about going enough to say, that no mention is made, till lengths with his Whig friends (which we do that same party is overthrown. While they believe), he seems to have resolved, that his remain in office, they have full credit for the fortune should not be hurt by any delicacy of sincerity of their good wishes (see vol. xv. p. this sort in his new connection ;—for he took 250, &c.):-and it is not till it becomes both up the cudgels this time with the ferocity of safe and profitable to abuse them, that we a hireling, and the rancour of a renegade. In hear of their ingratitude. Nay, so critically taking upon himself the conduct of the paper and judiciously timed is this discovery of called “The Examiner,” he gave a new chartheir unworthiness, that, even after the worthy acter of acrimony and bitterness to the conauthor's arrival in London in 1710, when the tention in which he mingled-and not only movements had begun which terminated in made the most furious and unmeasured attheir ruin, he continues, for some months, to tacks upon the body of the party to which it had krep on fair terms with them, and does not formerly been his boast that he belonged, but give way to his well considered resentment, singled out, with a sort of savage discourtesy, till it is quite apparent that his interest must a variety of his former friends and benefackain by the indulgence. He says, in the tors, and made them, by name and descripJournal to Stella, a few days after his arrival, tion, the objects of the most malignant abuse. "The Whigs would gladly lay hold on me, as Lord Somers, Godolphin, Steele, and many a twig, while they are drowning—and their others with whom he had formerly lived in teat men are making me their clumsy apolo-intimacy, and from whom he had received nies. Bat my Lord Treasurer (Godolphin) obligations, were successively attacked in pubreceived me with a great deal of coldness, lic with the most rancorous personalities, and which has enraged me so, that I am almost often with the falsest insinuations: In short, as he has himself emphatically expressed it substantially absolute by the assistance of a in the Journal, he “libelled them all round.” military force, in order to make it impossible While he was thus abusing men he could not that their principles should ever again acquire have ceased to esteem, it is quite natural, and a preponderance in the country. It is imposin course, to find him professing the greatest sible, we conceive, to give any other meanaffection for those he hated and despised. A ing to the advice contained in his "Free thorough partisan is a thorough despiser of Thoughts on the State of Affairs,” which he sincerity; and no man seems to have got over wrote just before the Queen's death, and that weakness more completely than the rev. which Boling broke himself thought too strong erend person before us. In every page of for publication, even at that critical period. the Journal to Stella,' we find a triumphant His leading injunction there, is to adopt a sysstatement of things he was writing or saying tem of the most rigorous exclusion of all to the people about him, in direct contradic-Whigs from every kind of employment; and tion to his real sentiments. We may quote a that, as they cannot be too much or too soon line or two from the first passage that pre- disabled, they ought to be proceeded against sents itself. “I desired my Lord Radnor's with as strong measures as can possibly conbrother to let my lord know I would call on sist with the lenity of our government; so him at six, which I did; and was arguing that in no time to come it should be in the with him three hours to bring him over to us; power of the Crown, even if it wished it, to and I spoke so closely, that I believe he will choose an ill majority in the House of Combe tractable. But he is a scoundrel; and mons. This great work, he adds very explicthough I said I only talked from my love to him, itly, could only be well carried on by an I told a lie ; for I did not care if he were hang- entire new-modelling of the army: and espeed: but every one gained over is of conse- cially of the Royal Guards,—which, as they quence.”—Vol. iii. p. 2. We think there are then stood, he chooses to allege were fitter to not many even of those who have served a guard a prince to the bar of a high court of regular apprenticeship to corruption and job- justice, than to secure him on the throne. bing, who could go through their base task (Vol. v. p. 404.) This, even Mr. Scott is so wi h more coolness and hardihood than this little able to reconcile with the alleged Whig pious neophyte.
principles of his author, that he is forced to These few references are, of themselves, suf- observe upon it, that it is “daring, uncomficient to show the spirit and the true motives promising counsel; better suited to the genius of this dereliction of his first principles; and of the man who gave it, than to that of the seem entirely to exclude the only apology British nation, and most likely, if followed, to which the partiality of his biographer has have led to a civil war.” After this admisbeen able to suggest, viz. that though, from sion, it really is not very easy to understand first to last, a Whig in politics, he was all by what singular stretch of charity the learn. along still more zealously a High-Church- ed editor conceives he may consistently hold, man as to religion ; and left the Whigs merely that Swift was always a good Revolution because the Tories seemed more favourable to Whig as to politics, and only sided with the ecclesiastical pretensions. It is obvious, how- Tories—reluctantly, we must suppose, and ever, that this is quite inadmissible. The with great tenderness to his political oppa Whigs were as notoriously connected with the nents-out of his overpowering zeal for the Low-Church party when he joined and de- Church. fended m, as when he deserted and re- While he thus stooped to the dirtiest and viled them ;—nor is this anywhere made the most dishonourable part of a partisan's drudgespecific ground of his revilings. It would not ry, it was not to be expected that he should have been very easy, indeed, to have asserted decline any of the mean arts by which a Court such a principle as the motive of his libels on party may be maintained. Accordingly, we the Earl of Nottingham, who, though a Whig, find him regular in his attendance upon Mrs. was a zealous High-Churchman, or his eulo- Masham, the Queen's favourite; and, after gies on Bolingbroke, who was pretty well reading the contemptuous notices that occur known to be no churchman at all. It is plain, of her in some of his Whig letters, as "one indeed, that Swift's High-Church principles of the Queen's dressers, who, by great inwere all along but a part of his selfishness and trigue and fattery, had gained an ascendant ambition; and meant nothing else than a de- over her," it is very edifying to find him sire to raise the consequence of the order to writing periodical accounts of the progress of which he happened to belong. If he had her pregnancy, and praying God to preserve been a layman, we have no doubt he would her life, which is of great importance to this have treated the pretensions of the priesthood, nation," &c. &c. as he treated the persons of all priests who A connection thus begun upon an avowed were opposed to him, with the most bitter dissatisfaction with the reward of former and irreverent disdain. Accordingly, he is so services, cannot, with consistency, be supfar from ever recommending Whig principles posed to have had any thing but self-interest of government to his High-Chuich friends, or as its foundation: and though Swift's love of from confining his abuse of the Whigs to their power
, and especially of the power of wound. tenets in matters ecclesiastical, that he goes ing, was probably gratified by his exertions the whole length of proscribing the party, and in behalf of the triumphant party, no room is proposing, with the desperation of a true left for doubting that these exertions were aportate, that the Monarch should be made substantially prompted by a desire to better nis own fortune, and that his opinion of the here; and then I will drive them to give me a merits of the party depended entirely upon sum of money.' And a little afte-"I shall their power and apparent inclination to per- be sadly cramped, unless the Queen will give form this first of all duties. The thing is me a thousand pounds. I am sure she owes spoken out continually in the confidential me a great deal more. Lord Treasurer rallies Journal to Stella ; and though he was very me upon it, and, I am sure, intends it-but angry with Harley for offering him a bank quando?" And again—"Lord Treasurer uses note for fifty pounds, and refused to be his me barbarously. He laughs when I mention a chaplain, this was very plainly because he thousand pounds—though a thousand pounds considered these as no sufficient pay for his is a very serious thing.' It appears, however, services—by no means because he wished to that this modest request never was complied serve without pay. Very soon after his pro- with; for, though Bolingbroke got the Queen's fession of Toryism, he writes to Stella-" This warrant for it, to secure Swift's attachment is the last sally I shall ever make; but I hope after he had turned out Harley, yet her mai will turn to some account. I have done more jesty's immediate death rendered the gift for these, and I think they are more honest unavailing. than the last." And a little after—“My new If any thing were wanting to show that his friends are very kind; and I have promises change of party and his attachment to that enough. To return without some mark of which was now uppermost, was wholly foundistinction, would look extremely little; and ded on personal, and in no degree on public I would likewise gladly be somewhat richer than considerations, it would be supplied by the I am.” At last, he seems to have fairly asked innumerable traits of personal vanity, and the for the see of Hereford (Vol. xvi. p. 45.); and unrestrained expressions of eulogy or abuse, when this is refused, he says, "I dined with according as that vanity was gratified or Lord Treasurer, who chid me for being absent thwarted, that are scattered over the whole three days. Mighty kind with a p-! Less journal and correspondence,---and which are of civility, and more of interest !" At last, utterly irreconcileable with the conduct of a when the state of the Queen's health made man who was acting on any principle of dig. the duration of the ministry extremely pre- nity or fairness. With all his talent and all carious, and the support of their friends more his pride, indeed, it appears that Swift exessential, he speaks out like a true Swiss, and hibited, during this period of favour, as much tells them that he will run away and leave of the ridiculous airs of a parvenu—of a lowthem, if they do not instantly make a provi- bred underling brought suddenly into contact sion for him. In the Journal to Stella, he with wealth and splendour, as any of the base writes, that having seen the warrants for three understrappers that ever made party disgust. deaneries, and none of them for him, he had ing. The studied rudeness and ostentatious gone to the Lord Treasurer, and “ told him I arrogance with which he withheld the usual had nothing to do but to go back to Ireland tribute of respect that all well-bred persons immediately; for I could not, with any reputa- pay to rank and office, may be reckoned tion, stay longer here, unless I had something among the signs of this. But for a fuller pichonourable immediately given to me. He after- ture, we would refer to the Diary of Bishop wards told me he had stopped the warrants, Kennet, who thus describes the demeanour and hoped something might be compassed for of this politic partisan in the year 1713. me," &c. And in the page following we find, that all his love for his dear friend the Lord
“Dr. Swift came into the coffee-house, and had a
bow from every body but me. When I came to Treasurer, would not induce him ever to see the antichamber to wait before prayers, Dr. Swift him again, if he was disappointed in this ob- was the principal man of talk and business, and ject of ambition. “The warrants for the acted as a master of requests. He was soliciting deaneries are still stopped, for fear I should the Earl of Arran to speak to his brother the Duke be gone. Do you think any thing will be of Ormond, to get a chaplain's place established in done? In the mean time, I prepare for my, that neighbourhood, who had lately been in jail, and
the garrison of Hull for Mr. Fiddes, a clergy man in journey, and see no great people ;-nor will I published sermons to pay fees. He was promising see Lord Treasurer any more, if I go." (Vol. ii. Mr. Thorold to undertake with my Lord Treasurer, p. 207.) It is under this threat that he extorts that, according 10 his petition, he should obtain a the Deanery of St. Patrick's,--which he ac- salary of 2001. per annum as minister of the English cepts with much grumbling and discontent, Esq.: going in with the red bag to the Queen, and and does not enter into possession till all hope told hin aloud he had something to say to him from of better preferment seems for the time at an my Lord Treasurer. He talked with the son of end.
In this extremity he seems resolved, Dr. Davenant to be sent abroad, and took out his however, to make the most of it; and finding pocket-book, and wrote down several things, as that the expenses of his induction and the memoranda, to do for him. He turned 10 the fire, usual payments 10 government on the occa
and took out his gold watch, and telling the time of siou come to a considerable sum, he boldly said he was too fast.' – How can I help it,' says
the day, complained it was very late. A gentleman resolves to ask a thousand pounds from the the doctor, if the courtiers give me a watch that ministers, on the score of his past services, in won't go right?' Then he instructed a young no. order to make himself easy. This he an-bleman, that the best poet in England was Mr. nounces to Stella soon after ihe appointment. Homer into English verse, for which he must have
Pope (a papist), who had begun a translation of "I hope in time they will be persuaded to libem all subscribe ; – for,' says he, “the author zive me some money to clear off these debts. shall not begin to print till I have a thousand guineas They expect I shall pass the next winter for him. Lord Treasurer, atter leaving the Queen, came through the room, beckoning Dr. Swift to decessor in vain. The following, too, are the follow him: both went off just before prayers.”- terms in which Bolingbroke, at that very time, Life, vol. i. p. 139, 140.
thought there was no impropriety, and could We are very unwilling, in any case, to as- be no offence, in writing of Oxford, in a pricribe to unworthy motives, what may be suf- vate confidential letter to this his dear deficiently accounted for upon better considera- voted friend. “Your state of late passages is tions; but we really have not charity enough right enough. I reflect upon thein with into impute Swift's zealous efforts to prevent the dignation; and shall never forgive myself for rupture between Harley and Bolingbroke, or having trusted so long to so much real pride his continued friendship with both after that and awkward humility;—to an air of such farupture took place, to his personal and disin- miliar friendship, and a heart so void of all terested affection for those two individuals. tenderness ;- to such a temper of engrossing In the first place, he had a most manifest in- business and power, and so perfect an incaterest to prevent their disunion, as that which pacity to manage one, with such a tyrannical plainly tended to the entire dissolution of the disposition to abuse the other," &c. &c. (Vol. ministry, and the ruin of the party on which xvi. p. 219.) If Swift's feelings for Oxford had he depended; and, as to his remaining the borne any resemblance to those which Mr. friend of both after they had become the most Scott has imputed to him, it is not conceivrancorous enemies of each other, it must be able that he should have continued upon a remembered that they were still respectively footing of the greatest cordiality with the man the two most eminent individuals with whom who, after supplanting him, could speak in he had been connected; and that, if ever that those terms of his fallen rival. Yet Swift's party should be restored to power, from which friendship, as they called it, with Bolingbroke, alone he could now look for preferment, he continued as long as that with Oxford, and who stood well with both these statesmen we find him not only giving him his advice would have a double chance of success. Con- how to act in the government which had now sidering, indeed, the facility with which he fallen entirely into his hands, but kindly ofseems to have cast off friendships far more fering, “if his own services may be of any intimate than the inequality of their condition use, to attend him by the beginning of winrenders it possible that those of Oxford or Bo- ter.” (Id. p. 215.) Those who know of what lingbroke could be with him, whenever party stuff political friendships are generally made, interest interfered with them;-considering indeed, will not require even this evidence 16 the disrespect with which he spoke of Sir prove the hollowness of those in which Swift William Temple's memory, after he had ab- was now connected. The following passage, jured his principles;—the coarseness with in a letter from Lewis, the most intimate and which he calls Lord Somers "a false deceit- confidential of all his coadjutors, dated only a ful rascal," after having designated him as the week or two before Oxford's disgrace, gives a modern Aristides, for his blameless integrity; delicious picture, we think, of the whole of —and the unfeeling rancour with which he those persons for whom the learned Dean was exposes the personal failings and pecuniary thus professing the most disinterested attachembarrassments of Steele, with whom he had ment, and receiving, no doubt, in return, probeen long so closely united ;-it would seem fessions not less animated and sincere. It is to require something more than the mere per- addressed to Swift in July, 1714. sonal attachment of a needy pamphleteer to two rival peers, to account for his expressions
“I meet with no man or woman, who pretend of affection for both, after one had supplanted the great point. Our female friend (Mrs. Masham
upon any probable grounds to judge who will carry the other. The natural solution, indeed, sold i he dragon (Lord Oxford) in her own house, seems to lie sufficiently open. After the per- last Thursday morning, these words: You never fidy he had shown to the Whig party, and the did the Queen any service, nor are you capable of virulence with which he had revenged his doing her any;, He made no reply, bui supped own apostasy, there was no possibility of his with her and Mercurialis (Bolingbroke) that nighe being again received by them. His only tated for that. He tells the words clearly and dis
at her own house.-His revenge is not the less medi. chance, therefore, was in the restoration of the inctly to all mankind. Those who range under his Tories, and his only policy to keep well with banner, call her ten thousand bitches and kitchen. both their great leaders.
wenches. Those who hate him do the same. And Mr. Scott, indeed, chooses to represent him from my heart, I grieve that she should give such as actuated by a romantic attachment to Lord friendship, and has many social and domestic vir
a loose io her passion; for she is susceprible of true Oxford, and pronounces an eloquent encomium The great attorney (Lord Chancellor Har. on his devoted generosity in applying for couri) who made you the sham offer of the Yorkleave of absence, upon that nobleman's dis shire living, had a long conterence with the dragon grace, in order to be able to visit him in his on Thursday, kissed him al parling, and cursed him retirement. Though he talks of such a visit,
at night!''-vol. xvi. p. 173, 174. however, it is certain that he never did pay The death of Queen Anne, however, which it; and that he was all the time engaged in happened on the 1st of August thereafter, the most friendly correspondence with Bo- speedily composed all those dissensions, and lingbroke, from whom the very day after he confounded the victors and the vanquished in had kicked out his dear friend with the most one common proscription. Among the most undisguised anger and contempt, he conde- miserable and downcast of all the mourners scended to receive an order for the thousand on that occasion, we confess we were some. pounds he had so long solicited from his pre- what surprised to find our reverend author.
He who, but a few months before, was willing | good office for the other, in the most insultto have hazarded all the horrors of a civil war, ing and malignant manner he could devise : for the chance of keeping his party in office, and yet the worthy Dean had charity enough sunk instantly into pitiable and unmanly des- to love them both just as dearly as ever. He pondency upon the final disgrace of that party. was always a zealous advocate, too, for the We are unwilling to believe, and we do not Act of Settlement; and has in twenty places in fact believe, that Swift was privy to the de- expressed his abomination of all who could sigis of Bolingbroke, Ormond, and Mar, to allow themselves to think of the guilt of callbring in the Pretender on the Queen's demise, ing in the Pretender. If, therefore, he could and are even disposed to hold it doubtful love and honour and flatter Bolingbroke, who whether Oxford concurred in those measures; not only turned out his beloved Oxford, but but we are sure that no man of common firm- actually went over to the Pretender, it is not ness could have felt more sorrow and despair, easy to see why he should have been so imif the country had been conquered by a law- placable towards those older friends of his, less invader, than this friend of the Act of who only turned out Bolingbroke in order to Settlement did upon the quiet and regular prevent the Pretender from being brought in. transmission of the sceptre to the appointed On public grounds, in short, there is nothing heir; and the discomfiture of those ministers to be said for him ;-nor can his conduct or who are proved to have traitorously conspired feelings ever receive any explanation upon to accomplish a counter revolution, and re- such principles. But every thing becomes store a dynasty which he always affected to plain and consistent when we look to another consider as justly rejected. How all this sor-quarter—when we consider, that by the ex. row is to be reconciled to the character of a tinction of the Tory party, his hopes of pregood Revolution Whig, we leave it to the ferment were also extinguished; and that he learned editor, who has invested him with was no longer to enjoy the dearer delight of that character, to discover. To us it merely bustling in the front of a triumphant partyatfords new evidence of the selfishness and of inhaling the incense of adulation from its ambition of the individual, and of that utter servile dependants—and of insulting with imand almost avowed disregard of the public, punity the principles and the benefactors he which constituted his political character. Of had himself deserted. the sorrow and despondency itself, we need That this was the true key to his feelings, produce no proofs, --for they are to be found on this and on every other occasion, may be in every page of his subsequent writings. concluded indeed with safety, not only from His whole life, indeed, after this event, was his former, but from his after life. His Irish ore long fit of spleen and lamentation : and, politics may all be referred to one principleto the very end of his days, he never ceases a desire to insult and embarrass the governbewailing the irreparable and grievous calam- ment by which he was neglected, and with ity which the world had suffered in the death which he despaired of being reconciled :-A of that most imbecile princess. He speaks single fact is decisive upon this point. While of it, in short, throughout, as a pious divine his friends were in power, we hear nothing might be supposed to speak of the fall of of the grievances of Ireland; and to the last primeval man from the state of innocence. we hear nothing of its radical grievance, the The sun seems darkened for ever in his eyes, oppression of its Catholic population. His and mankind degenerated beyond the tolera- object was, not to do good to Ireland, but to tion of one who was cursed with the remem- vex and annoy the English ministry. To do brance of their former dignity! And all this this however with effect, it was necessary for what?-because the government was, with that he should speak to the interests and the the full assent of the nation, restored to the feelings of some party who possessed a cerhands of those whose talents and integrity he tain degree of power and influence. This had once been proud to celebrate-or rather, unfortunately was not the case in that day because it was taken from those who would with the Catholics; and though this gave them have attempted, at the evident risk of a civil only a stronger title to the services of a truly war, to defeat that solemn settlement of which brave or generous advocate, it was sufficient he had always approved, and in virtue of to silence Swift. They are not so much as which alone the late Sovereign had succeed-named above two or three times in his writed;-because the liberties of the nation were ings—and then only with scorn and reprobaagain to be secured in peace, under the same tion. In the topics which he does take up, it councils which had carried its glories so high is no doubt true, that he frequently inveighs in war-and the true friends of ihe Revolution against real oppression and acts of indisputof 1688 to succeed to that patronage which able impolicy; yet it is no want of charity to hail previously been exercised by its virtual say, that it is quite manifest that these were enemies! Such were the public calamities not his reasons for bringing them forward, and which he had to lament as a patriot ;-and that he had just as litile scruple to make an the violence done to his political attachments outery, where no public interest was concernkeems to have been of the same character. ed, as where it was apparent. It was suffiHis two friends were Bolingbroke and Ox- cient for him, that the subject was likely to ford: and both these had been abusing each excite popular prejudice and clamour,-05 other
, and endeavouring to supplant each that he had some personal pique or animosity other, with all their might, for a long period to gratify. The Drapier's letters are a suffi of time ;-and, at last, one of them did this cient proof of the influence of the former