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tions. In his love of controversy and of print-, Mayor and Recorder for preaching in a Quaing, indeed, this worthy sectary seems to have ker meeting. He afterwards published an acbeen the very PRIESTLEY of the 17th century. count of this proceeding ;-and it is in our He not only responded in due form to every opinion one of the most curious and instrucwork in which the principles of his sect were tive pieces that ever came from his pen. The directly or indirectly attacked, --but whenever times to which it relates, are sufficiently he heard a sermon that he did not like,- known to have been times of gross oppression or learned that any of the Friends had been and judicial abuse ;-but the brutality of the put in the stocks ;-whenever he was pre- Court upon this occasion seems to us to exvented from preaching, -or learned any edi- ceed any thing that is recorded elsewhere ;fying particulars of the death of a Quaker, or and the noble firmness of the jury still deof a persecutor of Quakers, he was instantly serves to be remembered, for example to hapat the press, with a letter, or a narrative, or pier days. The prisoner came into court, acan admonition--and never desisted from the cording to Quaker costume, with his hat on contest till he had reduced the adversary to his head ;-but the doorkeeper, with a due silence.

zeal for the dignity of the place, pulled it off The members of the established Church, as he entered. Upon this, however, the Lord indeed, were rarely so unwary as to make any Mayor became quite furious, and ordered the rejoinder; and most of his disputes, accord- unfortunate beaver to be instantly replacedingly, were with rival sectaries; in whom the which was no sooner done than he fined the spirit of proselytism and jealous zeal is always poor culprit for appearing covered in his prestronger than in the members of a larger and sence! – William Penn now insisted upon more powerful body. They were not always knowing what law he was accused of having contented indeed with the regular and general broken, -to which simple question the Rewar of the press, but frequently challenged corder was reduced to answer, " that he was each other to personal combat, in the form of an impertinent fellow,—and that many had solemn and public disputations. William Penn studied thirty or forty years to understand the had the honour of being repeatedly appointed law, which he was for having expounded in a the champion of the Quakers in these theo- moment !” The learned controversialist howlogical duels; and never failed, according to ever was not to be silenced so easily ;-he his partial biographer, completely to demolish quoted Lord Coke and Magna Charta on his his opponent;—though it appears that he did antagonist in a moment; and chastised his innot always meet with perfectly fair play, and solence by one of the best and most characthat the chivalrous law of arms was by no teristic repartees that we recollect ever to have means correctly observed in these ghostly en met with. “I tell you to be silent,” cried the counters. His first set to, was with one Vincent, Recorder, in a great passion; "if we should the oracle of a neighbouring congregation of suffer you to ask questions till to-morrow Presbyterians; and affords rather a ludicrous morning, you will be never the wiser !"example of the futility and indecorum which "That,” replied the Quaker, with his immovare apt to characterise all such exhibitions.- able tranquillity, “that is, according as the After the debate had gone on for some time, answers are. _“Take him away, take him Vincent made a long discourse, in which he away?exclaimed the Mayor and the Roopenly accused the Quakers of blasphemy; corder in a breath—“turn him into the Bale and as soon as he had done, he made off, and Dock ;"—and into the Bale Dock, a filthy and desired all his friends to follow him. Penn pestilent dungeon in the neighbourhood, he insisted upon being heard in reply: but the was accordingly turned-discoursing calmly Presbyterian troops pulled him down by the all the way on Magna Charter and the rights, skirts; and proceeding to blow out the can- of Englishmen;—while the courtly Recorder dles, (for the battle had already lasted till delivered a very animated charge to the Jury, midnight,) left the indignant orator in utter in the absence of the prisoner. darkness! He was not to be baffled or ap- The Jury, however, after a short consultapalled, however, by a privation of this de- tion, brought in a verdict, finding him merely, scription; and accordingly went on to argue "guilty of speaking in Grace-Church Street." and retort in the dark, with such force and For this cautious and most correct deliverance, effect, that it was thought advisable to send they were loaded with reproaches by the out for his fugitive opponent, who, after some Court, and sent out to amend their verdict,time, reappeared with a candle in his hand, but in half an hour they returned with the and begged that the debate might be adjourn- same ingenious finding, written out at large, ed to another day. But he could never be and subscribed with all their names. The prevailed on, Mr. Clarkson assures us, to re. Court now became more furious than ever, and new the combat; and Penn, after going and shut them up without meat, drink, or fire, till defying him in his own meeting-house, had next morning; when they twice over came recourse, as usual, to the press; and put forth back with the same verdict;-upon which they The Sandy Foundation Shaken,” for which were reviled, and threatened so outrageonsly ne had the pleasure of being committed to by the Recorder, that William Penn protest the Tower, on the instigation of the Bishop ed against this plain intimidation of the perof London'; and solaced himself, during his sons, to whose free suffrages the law had enconfinement, by writing six other pamphlets. trusted his cause. The answer of the Recorder

Soon after his deliverance, he was again was, “Stop his mouth, jailor-bring fetters taken up, and hronight to trial before the Lord I and stake him to the ground.” William Penn us,

replied with the temper of a Quaker, and the in Newgate; where he amused himself, as spirit of a martyr, "Do your pleasure-I mat- usual, by writing and publishing four painter not your fetters !" And ihe Recorder took phlets in support of his opinions. occasion to observe, “that, till now, he had It is by no means our intention, however, never understood the policy of the Spaniards to digest a chronicle either of his persecutions in suffering the Inquisition among them. But or his publications. In the earlier part of his now he saw that it would never be well with career, he seems to have been in prison every

till we had something like the Spanish In- six months; and, for a very considerable pequisition in England !" After this sage re- riod of it, certainly favoured the world with mark, the Jury were again sent back, -and at least six new pamphlets every year. In all kept other twenty-four hours, without food or these, as well as in his public appearances refreshment. On the third day, the natural there is a singular mixture of earnestness and and glorious effect of this brutality on the sobriety-a devotedness to the cause in which spirits of Englishmen was at length produced. he was engaged, that is almost sublime; and Instead of the special and unmeaning form of a temperance and patience towards his oppotheir first verdict, they now, all in one voice, nents, that is truly admirable: while in the declared the prisoner Not Guilty. The Re- whole of his private life, there is redundant corder again broke out into abuse and menace; testimony, even from the mouths of his eneand, after “praying God to keep his life out mies, that his conduct was pure and philanof such hands," proceeded, we really do not thropic in an extraordinary degree, and distinsee on what pretext, to fine every man of them guished at the some time for singular pruin forty marks, and to order them to prison till dence and judgment in all ordinary affairs. payment. William Penn then demanded his His virtues and his sufferings appear at last 10 Îiberty; but was ordered into custody till he have overcome his father's objections to his paid the fine imposed on him for wearing his peculiar tenets, and a thorough and cordial hat; and was forthwith dragged away to his reconciliation took place previous to their final old lodging in the Bale Dock, while in the separation. On his death-bed, indeed, the advery act of quoting the twenty-ninth chapter miral is said to have approved warmly of the Great Charter, “ Nullus liber homo,&c. every part of his son's conduct; and to have As he positively refused to acknowledge the predicted, that "if he and his friends kept to legality of this infliction by paying the fine, their plain way of preaching and of living, he might have lain long enough in this dun- they would speedily make an end of the geon; but his father, who was now reconciled priests, to the end of the world.”—By his to him, sent the money privately ; and he was father's death he succeeded to a handsome es. at last set at liberty.

tate, then yielding upwards of 15001. a year; The spirit, however, which had dictated but made no change either in his professions these proceedings was not likely to cease from or way of life. He was at the press and in troubling; and, within less than a year, the Newgate, after this event, exactly as before: poor Quaker was again bronght before the and defied and reviled the luxury of the age, Magistrate on an accusation of illegal preach- just as vehemently, when he was in a comšiing; and was again about to be dismissed for tion to partake of it, as in the days of his powant of evidence, when the worthy Justice verty. Within a short time after his succes. ingeniously bethought himself of tendering to sion, he made a pilgrimage to Holland and the prisoner the oath of allegiance, which, as Germany in company with George Fox; where well as every other oath, he well knew that it is said that they converted many of all his principles would oblige him to refuse. In- ranks, including young ladies of quality and stead of the oath, W. Penn, accordingly offer- old professors of divinity. They were iil ed to give his reasons for not swearing; but used, however, by a surly Graf or two, who the Magistrate refused to hear him: and an sent them out of their dominions under a cor. altercation ensued, in the course of which the poral's guard ; an attention which they repaid, Justice having insinuated, that, in spite of his by long letters of expostulation and advice, sanctified exterior, the young preacher was as which the worthy Grafs were probably neither bad as other folks in his practice, the Quaker very able nor very willing to read. forgot, for one moment, the systematic meek- In the midst of these la bours and trials, he ness and composure of his sect, and burst out found time to marry a lady of great beauty into this triumphant appeal

and accomplishments; and settled himself in

a comfortable and orderly house in the coun I make this bold challenge to all men, women, try—but, at the same time, remitted nothing and children upon earth. justly to accrise me with of his zeal and activity in support of the caus: having seen me drunk, heard me swear, utier a curse, or speak one obscene word, much less that i in which he had embarked. When the pena! ever made it my practice. I speak this to God's statutes against Popish recusants were about glory, who has ever preserved me from the power to be passed, in 1678, by the tenor of which, of these pollutions, and who from a child begot an certain grievous punishments were inflicte' haired in me towards them. Thy words shall be Thy burthen, and I trample thy slander as dirt un upon all who did not frequent the established der my feet!"-pp. 99, 100.

church, or purge themselves upon orth, fronı

Popery, William Penn was allowed to be heard The greater part of the audience confirmed before a Committee of the House of Commons, this statement; and the judicial calumniator in support of the Quakers' application for had nothing for it, but to sentence this unrea- some exemption from the unintended severity sonable Puritan to six months' imprisonment of these edicts;—and what has been preserved


cof his speech, upon that occasion, certainly is of the great province in question, was immenot the least respectable of his performances. diately struck with the opportunity it afforded, It required no ordinary magnanimity for any both for a beneficent arrangement of the inteone, in the very height of the frenzy of the rests of its inhabitants, and for providing a Popish plot, boldly to tell the House of Com- pleasant and desirable retreat for such of his mons, “that it was unlawful to inflict punish- own communion as might be willing to leave ment upon Catholics themselves, on account their native land in pursuit of religious liberty. of a conscientious dissent." This, however, The original charter had vested the proprietur, William Penn did, with the firmness of a true under certain limitations, with the power of philosopher; but, at the same time, with so legislation ; and one of the first works of Wilmuch of the meekness and humility of a liam Penn was to draw up a sort of constituQuaker, that he was heard without offence or tion for the land vested in Billynge-the carinterruption :--and having thus put in his pro- dinal foundation of which was, that no man test against the general principle of intoler- should be troubled, molested, or subjected to ance, he proceeded to plead his own cause, any disability, on account of his religion. He and that of his brethren, with admirable force then superintended the embarkation of two or and temper as follows :

three ship-loads of Quakers, who set off for "I was bred a Protestant, and that strictly too.

this land of promise ;-and continued, from I lost nothing by time or study. For years, read. time to time, both to hear so much of their ing, travel, and observation, made the religion of prosperity, and to feel how much a larger promy education the religion of my judgment. My prietor might have it in his power to promote alieration hath brought none to that belief; and and extend it that he at length conceived the though the posture I am in may seem odd or strange idea of acquiring to himself a much larger to you, yet I am conscientious; and, till you know me better, I hope your charity will call it rather

district, and founding a settlement upon a still unhappiness than my crime. I do tell you again, more liberal and comprehensive plan. The and here solemnly declare, in the presence of the means of doing this were providentially placed Almighty God, and before you all, that the profes in his hands, by the circumstance of his father sion I now make,

and the Society. I now adhere to having a claim upon the dissolute and needy have been so far from altering that Protestant judg. ment I had, that I am not conscious to myself of government of the day, for no less than having receded from an iota of any one principle 16,0001., --in lieu of which W. Penn proposed maintained by those first Protestants and Reformers that the district, since called Pennsylvania, of Germany, and our own martyrs at home, against should be made over to him, with such ample the see of Rome : And therefore it is, we think it powers of administration, as made him little hard, that though we deny in common with you those doctrines of Rome so zealously protested The right of legislation was left entirely to

less than absolute sovereign of the country. against, (from whence the name of Protestanis.) vet that we should be so unhappy as to suffer, and him, and such councils as he might appoint; ihat with extreme severity, by laws made only with no other limitation, than that his laws against the maintainers of ihose doctrines which we should be liable to be rescinded by the Privy, do so deny. We choose no suffering; for God Council of England, within six months after knows what we have already suffered, and how they were reported to it. This memorable many sufficient and trading families are reduced to great poverty by it. We think ourselves an useful charter was signed on the 4th of March, 1681. people. We are sure we are a peaceable people; He originally intended, that the country should yet, if we must still suffer, let us not suffer as have been called New Wales; but the UnderPopish Recusants, but as Protestant Dissenters.” Secretary of State, being a Welshman, thought,

pp. 220, 221.

it seems that this was using too much liberty About the same period we find him closely with the ancient principality, and objected to leagued with no less a person than Algernon it! He then suggested Sylvania ; but the Sydney, and busily employed in canvassing king himself insisted upon adding Penn to it, for him in the burgh of Guildford. But the -and after some struggles of modesty, it was most important of his occupations at this time found necessary to submit to his gracious were those which connected him with that desires. region which was destined to be the scene He now proceeded to encourage settlers of of his greatest and most memorable exertions. all sorts,—but especially such sectaries as An accidental circumstance had a few years were impatient of the restraints and persecubefore engaged him in some inquiries with tions to which they were subjected in Engregard to the state of that district in Northland; and published certain conditions and America, since called New Jersey, and Penn- regulations, the first fundamental of which,”' sylvania. A great part of this territory had as he expresses it

, was, “That every person been granted by the Crown to the family of should enjoy the free profession of his faith, Lord Berkeley, who had recently sold a large and exercise of worship towards God, in such part of it to a Quaker of the name of Billynge ; a way as he shall in his conscience believe is and this person having fallen into pecuniary most acceptable; and should be protected in embarrassments, prevailed upon William Penn this liberty by the authority of the civil magisto accept of a conveyance of this property, trate.". With regard to the native inhabitants, and to undertake the management of it, as he positively enacted, that “whoever should trustee for his creditors. The conscientious hurt, wrong, or offend any Indian, should intrustee applied himself to the discharge of this cur the same penalty as if he had offended in duty with his habitual scrupulousness and ac- like manner against his fellow planter;" and tivity ;-and having speedily made himself that the planters should not be their own acquainted with the condition and capabilities I judges in case of any difference with the I:

dians, but that all such differences should be endearedly visits you with eternal embraces, and settled by twelve referees, six Indians and six will abide with you for ever: and may the God of planters; under the direction, if need were, my life watch over you, and bless you, and do you of the Governor of the province, and the Chief, good in this world and for ever! --Some things are

upon my spirit to leave with you in your respective or King of the Indians concerned. Under capacities, as I am to one a husband, and to the these wise and merciful regulations, three rest a father, if I should never see you more in this ships full of passengers sailed for the new world. province in the end of 1681. In one of these

“My dear wife! remember thou wast the love was Colonel Markham, a relation of Penn's, of my youth, and much the joy of my life; the and intended to act as his secretary when he earthly comforts: and the reason of that love was

most beloved, as well as most worthy of all my should himself arrive. He was the chief of more thy inward than thy outward excellencies, several commissioners, who were appointed to which yet were many. "God knows, and thou confer with the Indians with regard to the ces- knowest it, I can say it was a match of Providence's sion or purchase of their lands, and the terms making; and God's image in us both was the first of a perpetual peace, and was the bearer of ihing, and the most amiable and engaging orna

ment in our eyes. Now I am to leave thee, and the following letter to them from the Governor, that without knowing whether I shall ever see thee a part of which we think worthy of being more in this world, take my counsel into thy bosom, transcribed, for the singular plainness, and and let it dwell with thee in my stead while thou engaging honesty, of its manner.

livest." “Now, I would have you well observe, that I Then, after some counsel about godliness am very sensible of the unkindness and injustice and economy, he proceeds— which have been too much exercised toward you by the people of these parts of the world, who have “And now, my dearest, let me recommend to sought ihemselves to make great advantages by you, thy care my dear children; abundantly beloved of rather than to be examples of goodness and patience me, as the Lord's blessings, and the sweet pledges unto you. This I hear hath been a matter of trouble of our mutual and endeared affection. Above all to you, and caused great grudging and animosities, things endeavour to breed them up in the love of sometimes to the shedding of blood. But I am noi virtue, and that holy plain way of it which we have such a man; as is well known in my own country lived in, that the world in no part of it get into I have great love and regard toward you, and desire my family. I had rather they were homely than to win and gain your love and friendship by a kind, finely bred as to outward behaviour; yet I love just, and peaceable life; and the people I send are sweetness mixed with gravity, and cheerfulness of the same mind, and shall in all ihings behave tempered with sobriety. Religion in the heart leads themselves accordingly; and if in any thing any into this true civility, teaching men and women to shall offend you or your people, you shall have be mild and courteous in their behaviour; an aca full and speedy satisfaction for the same, by an complishment worthy indeerd of praise. equal number of just men on both sides, that by no “Next breed them up in a love one of another: means you may have just occasion of being offended tell them it is the charge I left behind me ; and against them.

that it is the way to have the love and blessing of I shall shortly come to see you myself, at God upon them. Sometimes separate them, but which time we may more largely and freely confer not long; and allow them to send and give each and discourse of these matters. In the mean time other small things, in endear one another with I have sent my Commissioners to treat with you, Once more I say, tell them it was my counsel they about land, and a firm league of peace. Let me should be tender and affectionate one to another. desire you to be kind to them and to the people, For their learning be liberal. Spare no cost; for and receive the presents and tokens, which I have by such parsimony all is lost that is saved: but let sent you, as a jestimony of my good will to you, it be useful knowledge, such as is consistent with and of my resolution to live justly, peaceably, and truth and godliness, not cherishing a vain conversa. friendly with you. I am, your loving Friend, tion or idle mind; but ingenuity mixed with indus

“William Penn." try is good for the body and the mind 100. Rather In the course of the succeeding year, he keep an ingenious person in the house to teach prepared to follow these colonists; and ac- impressions being commonly received there. Be

them, than send them to schools; 100 many evil cordingly embarked, with about an hundred sure to observe their genius, and do not cross it as other Quakers, in the month of September, to learning; let them not dwell too long on one 1682. Before separating himself, however, thing; but let their change be agreeable, and all addressed a long letter of love and admoni- for then there are more snares, both within and from his family on this long pilgrimage, he heir diversions have some little bodily labour in tion to his wife and children, from which we without. When marriageable, see that they have are tempted to make a pretty large extract worthy persons in their eye, of good life, and good for the entertainment and edification of our fame for piety and understanding. I desire no readers. There is something, we think, very dear, fervent, and murual, that it may be happy for touching and venerable in the affectionateness them. I choose not they should be married to of its whole strain, and the patriarchal sim- earthly, covetous kindred and of cities and towns plicity in which it is conceived; while the concourse, beware : the world is apt to stick language appears to us to be one of the most close to those who have lived and got wealth there : beautiful specimens of that soft and mellow a counıry life and estate I like best for my children. English, which, with all its redundancy and I prefer a decent mansion of a hundred pounds per cumbrous volume, has, to our ears, a far richer annum, before ten thousand pounds in London, or

such like place, in a way of trade." and more pathetic sweetness than the epigrams and apothegms of modern times. The letter He next addresses himself to his children. begins in this manner

“Be obedient to your dear mother, a woman My dear Wife and Children,

whose virtue and good name is an honour to you; "My love, which neither sea, nor land, nor death for she hath been exceeded by none in her time for itself, can extinguish or lessen toward you, most 'her integrity, humanity, virtue, and good understanding ; qualities not usual among women of her tion, and solemnly to pledge his faith, and worldly condition and quality. Therefore honour to ratify and confirm the treaty, in sight both and obey her, my dear children, as your mother, of the Indians and Planters. For this purand your father's love and delight; nay, love her too, for she loved your father with a deep and pose a grand convocation of the tribes had upright love, choosing him before all her many been appointed near the spot where Philadelsuitors: and though she be of a delicate constitu- phia now stands; and it was agreed that he tion and noble spirit, yet she descended to the ut. and the presiding Sachems should meet and most tenderness and care for you, performing the exchange faith, under the spreading branches painfullest acts of service to you in your infancy, of a prodigious elm-tree that grew on the bank as a mother and a nurse too. the Lord, honour and obey, love and cherish your of the river. On the day appointed, accorddear mother."

ingly, an innumerable multitude of the InAfter a great number of other affectionate were seen, with their dark visages and brand

dians assembled in that neighbourhood; and counsels

, he turns particularly to his elder ished arms, moving, in vast swarms, in the boys.

depth of the woods which then overshadowed "And as for you, who are likely to be concerned the whole of that now cultivated region. On in the government of Pennsylvania, I do charge the other hand, William Penn, with a modeyou before the Lord God and his holy angels, that rate attendance of Friends, advanced to meet you be lowly, diligent, and tender; searing God, them. He came of course unarmed—in his loving the people, and bating covelousness.

Let justice have its impartial course, and the law free

usual plain dress-without banners, or mace, passage. Though to your loss, protect no man or guards, or carriages; and only distinguished against it; for you are not above the law, but the from his companions by wearing a blue sash law above you.' Live therefore the lives yourselves of silk network (which it seems is still preyou would have the people live, and then shall you served by Mr. Kett of Seething-hall, near have right and boldness to punish the transgressor. Norwich), and by having in his hand a roll do your duty, and be sure you see with your own of parchment, on which was engrossed the eyes, and hear with your own ears. Eniertain no confirmation of the treaty of purchase and lurchers ; cherish no informers for gain or revenge ; amity. As soon as he drew near the spot use no tricks; fly to no devices to support or cover where the Sachems were assembled, the injustice; but let your hearts be upright before the whole multitude of Indians threw down their Lord, trusting in him above the contrivances of men, weapons, and seated themselves on the ground and none shall be able to hurt or supplant you."

in groups, each under his own chieftain ; and We should like to see any private letter of the presiding chief intimated to William Penn, instructions from a sovereign to his heir-appa- that the nations were ready to hear him. Mr. rent, that will bear a comparison with the Clarkson regrets, and we cordially join in the injunctions of this honest Sectary. He con- sentiment, that there is no written, contempocludes as follows:

rary account of the particulars attending this “ Finally, my children, love one another with a

interesting and truly novel transaction. He true endeared love, and your dear relations on both assures us, however, that they are still in a sides, and take care to preserve tender affection in great measure preserved in oral tradition, and your children to each other, often marrying within that both what we have just stated, and what ihemselves, so as it be without the bounds forbidden follows, may be relied on as perfectly accuin God's law, that so they may not, like the forget: rate. The sequel we give in his own words. ting unnatural world, grow out of kindred, and as cold as strangers; but, as becomes a truly natural 'Having been thus called upon, he began. The and Christian stock, you and yours after you, may Great Spirit, he said, who made him and them, who live in the pure and fervent love of God towards ruled the Heaven and the Earth, and who knew one another, as becoming brethren in the spiritual the innermost thoughts of man, knew that he and and natural relation.

his friends had a hearty desire to live in peace and "So farewell to my thrice dearly beloved wife friendship with them, and to serve them to the and children!

utmost of their power. It was not their custom 10 “ Yours, as God pleaseth, in that which no use hostile weapons against their fellow.creatures,

waters can quench, no time forget, nor distance for which reason they had come unarmed. Their wear away, but remains for ever,

object was not to do injury, and thus provoke the

" William Penn." Great Spirit, but to do good. They were then met “ Worminghurst, fourth of

on the broad pathway of good faith and good will, sixth month, 1682."

so that no advantage was to be taken on either Immediately after writing this letter, he side, but all was to be openness, brotherhood, and embarked, and arrived safely in the Dela- the parchment, and by means of the same interware with all his companions. The country preter conveyed to them, article by article, the con. assigned to him by the royal charter was yet ditions of the Purchase, and the Words of the Comfull of its original inhabitants; and the prin- pact then made for their eternal Union. Among ciples of William Penn did not allow him other things, they were not to be molested in their to look upon that gift as a warrant to dis- lawful pursuits, even in the territory they had alien

ated, for it was to be common to them and the possess the first proprietors of the land. He English. They were to have the same liberty to had accordingly appointed his commissioners, do all things therein relating to the improvement the preceding year, to treat with them for of their grounds, and providing sustenance for their the fair purchase of a part of their lands, and families, which the English had. If any disputes for their joint possession of the remainder; iled by twelve persons, half of whom should be and the terms of the settlement being now English, and halt Indians. He then paid them for nearly agreed upon, he proceeded, very soon the land ; and made them many presents besides, after his arrival, to conclude the transac- from the merchandize which had been spread beforo

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