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again into shade, until the door at the bottom of the Addison. Of the exotic Tales which serve to gallery finally closed after her. I felt a sadness of fill up the volumes, that of “ Dolph Heyliger” heart at the idea, that this was an emblem of her is incomparably the best—and is more charlot; a few more years of sunshine and shade, and all this life, and loveliness, and enjoyment, will acteristic, perhaps, both of the author's turn have ceased, and nothing be left to commemorate of imagination and cast of humour, than any this beautiful being but one more perishable por- thing else in the work. “The Student of irail : 10 awaken, perhaps, the trite speculations of Salamanca" is too long; and deals rather some future loiterer, like myself, when I also and largely in the commonplaces of romantic ad. my scribblings shall have lived ihrough our brief existence and been forgotten."-Vol. 1. pp. 64, 65. venture :-- while “ Annette de la Barbe,"
though pretty and pathetic in some passages, We can scarcely afford room even to al- is, on the whole, rather fade and finical-and lude to the rest of this elegant miscellany. too much in the style of the sentimental after" Ready-money Jack” is admirable through- pieces which we have lately borrowed from out-and the old General very good. The the Parisian theatres. lovers are, as usual, the most insipid. The On the whole, we are very sorry to receive Gypsies are sketched with great elegance as Mr. Crayon's farewell--and we return it with well as spirit and Master Simon is quite de- the utmost cordiality. We thank him most lightful, in all the varieties of his ever versa- sincerely, for the pleasure he has given ustile character. Perhaps the most pleasing for the kindness he has shown to our country thing about all these personages, is the perfect --and for the lessons he has taught, both innocence and singleness of purpose which here and in his native land, of good taste, seems to belong to them-and which, even good nature, and national liberality. We hope when it raises a gentle smile at their expense, he will come back among us soon—and rebreathes over the whole scene they inhabit member us while he is away; and can assure an air of attraction and respect-like that him, that he is in no danger of being speedily which reigns in the De Coverley pictures of ! forgotten.
(April, 1807.) A Portraiture of Quakerism, as taken from a View of the Moral Education, Discipline, Peculiar
Customs, Religious Principles, Political and Civil Economy, and Character of the Society of Friends. By THOMAS CLARKSON, M. A. Author of several Essays on the Subject of the Slave Trade. 8vo. 3 vols. London : 1806.
This, we think, is a book peculiarly fitted i might evidently have been told, either under for reviewing: For it contains many things the head of their Doctrinal tenets, or of their which most people will have some curiosity peculiar Practices; but Mr. Clarkson, with a to hear about ; and is at the same time so in- certain elaborate infelicity of method, chooses tolerably dull and tedious, that no voluntary to discuss the merits of this society under the reader could possibly get through with it. several titles, of their moral education—their
The author, whose meritorious exertions for discipline—their peculiar customs-their rethe abolition of the slave trade brought him ligion—their great tenets—and their characinto public notice a great many years ago, ter; and not finding even this ample distribuwas recommended by this circumstance to tion sufficient to include all he had to say on the favour and the confidence of the Quakers, the subject, he fills a supplemental half-vowho had long been unanimous in that good lume, with repetitions and trifles, under the cause; and was led 10 such an extensive and humiliating name of miscellaneous particulars. cordial intercourse with them in all parts of Quakerism had certainly undergone a conthe kingdom, that he came at last to have a siderable change in the quality and spirit of more thorough knowledge of their tenets and its votaries, from the time when George Fox living manners than any other person out of went about pronouncing woes against cities, the society could easily obtain. The effect attacking priests in their pulpits, and exhortof this knowledge has evidently been to ex- ing justices of the peace to do justice, to the cite in him such an affection and esteem time when such men as Penn and Barclay for those worthy sectaries, as we think can came into the society "by convincement, scarcely fail to issue in his public conversion; and published such vindications of its docand, in the mean time, has produced a more trine, as few of its opponents have found it minute exposition, and a more elaborate de convenient to answer. The change since fence of their doctrines and practices, than their time appears to have been much less has recently been drawn from any of their considerable. The greater part of these vnown body.
lumes may be considered, indeed, as a wilful The book, which is full of repetitions and deterioration of Barclay's Apology: and it 18 plagiarisms, is distributed into a number of only where he treats of the private manners needless sections, arranged in a most unna- and actual opinions of the modern Quakers, tural and inconvenient order. All that any that Mr. Clarkson communicates any thing body can want to know about the Quakers, which a curious reader might not have learnt from that celebrated production. The lauda-, other purpose, but to mortify himself into a tory and argumentative tone which he main proper condition for the next;—that all our tains throughout, gives an air of partiality to feelings of ridicule and sociality, and all the his statements which naturally diminishes spring and gaiety of the animal spirits of our reliance on their accuracy: and as the youth, were given us only for our temptation; argument is often extremely bad, and the and that, considering the shortness of this life, praise apparently unmerited, we are rather and the risk he runs of damnation after is, inclined to think that his work will make a man ought evidently to pass his days in deless powerful impression in favour of the jection and terror, and to shut his heart to “ friends,” than might have been effected by every pleasurable emotion which this transia more moderate advocate. With many praise- tory scene might hold out to the unthinking. worthy maxims and principles for their moral The fundamental folly of these ascetic maxconduct, the Quakers, we think, have but little ims has prevented the Quakers from adoptto say for most of their peculiar practices; and ing them in their full extent; but all the make a much better figure when defending peculiarities of their manners may evidently their theological mysteries, than when vindi- be referred to this source; and the qualificacating the usages by which they are separated tions and exceptions under which they mainfrom the rest of the people in the ordinary in- tain the duty of abstaining from enjoyment, tercourse of life. It will be more convenient, serve only, in most instances, to bring upon however, to state our observations on their their reasonings the additional charge of inreasonings, as we attend Mr. Clarkson through consistency. his account of their principles and practice. Their objection to cards, dice, wagers, horse
He enters upon his task with such a wretch- races, &c. is said to be, first, that they may ed display of false eloquence, that we were lead to a spirit of gaming, which leads, again, very near throwing away the book. Our to obvious unhappiness and immorality; but readers will scarcely accuse us of impatience, chiefly, that they are sources of amusement when we inform them that the dissertation unworthy of a sober Christian, and tend, by on the moral education of the Quakers begins producing an unreasonable excitement, to diswith the following sentence :
turb that tranquillity and equanimity which
they look upon as essential to moral virtue “When the blooming spring sheds abroad its benign influence, man feels it equally with the rest They believe," says Mr. Clarkson, " that s1 ll. of created nature. The blood circulates more freely, ness and quietness both of spirit and of body, are and a new current of life seems to be diffused in his necessary, as far as they can be obtained. Hence, veins. The aged man is enlivened, and the sick Quaker children are rebuked for all expressions of man feels himself refreshed. Good spirits and anger, as tending to raise those feelings which cheerful countenances succeed. But as the year ought to be suppressed: a raising even of the voice changes in its seasons, and rolls round to its end, beyond due bounds, is discouraged as leading to the tide seenis to slacken, and the current of feeling the disturbance of their minds. They are taught to return to its former level."--Vol. i. p. 13. to rise in the morning in quietness; to go about
their ordinary occupation with quietness; and 10 This may serve, once for all, as a specimen retire in quieiness to their beds." of Mr. Clarkson's' taste and powers in fine writing, and as an apology for our abstaining,
Now this, we think, is a very miserable in our charity, for making any further ob- picture. The great curse of life, we believe,
in all conditions above the lowest, is its ex. servations on his style. Under the head of moral education, we are informed that the cessive stillness and quietness, and the want Quakers discourage, and strictly prohibit in and though we certainly do not approve of
of interest and excitement which it affords: their youth, all games of chance, music, dancing, novel reading, field sports of
cards and wagers as the best exhilarators of every
de scription, and, in general, the use of idle
the spirits, we cannot possibly concur in the words and unprofitable conversation. The principle upon which they are rejected with motives of these several prohibitions are dis
such abhorrence by this rigid society. A re.
mark which Mr. Clarkson himself makes af. cussed in separate chapters of extreme dulness and prolixity. It is necessary, however, soundness of their petrifying principles.
terwards, might have led him to doubt of the in order to come to a right understanding with those austere persons and their apologist,
“ It has often been observed," he says, "that a to enter a little into the discussion.
Quoker Boy has an unnatural appearance. The The basis of the Quaker morality seems which, taken together, have produced an appear;
idea has arisen from his dress and his sedateness, evidently to be, that gaiety and merriment ance of age above the youth in his countenance. ! ought, upon all'occasions, to be discouraged; have often been surprised to hear young Quakers that everything which tends merely to ex- talk of the folly and vanity of pursuits in which per. hilaration or enjoyment, has in it a taint of sons, older than themselves, were then embarking criminality; and that one of the chief duties in pursuit of pleasure." &c. of man is to be always serious and solemn, We feel no admiration, we will confess, foi and constantly, occupied, either with his prodigies of this description; and think that worldly prosperity, or his eternal welfare. If the world is but little indebted to those moralit were not for the attention which is thus ists, who, in their efforts to ameliorate our permitted to the accumulation of wealth, the condition, begin with constraining the volatilo Quakers would scarcely be distinguishable spirit of childhood into sedateness, and extin. from the other gloomy sectaries, who main- guishing the happy carelessness and animatain, that man was put into this world for notion of youth, by lessons of eternal quietness
The next chapter is against music; and is, recommendation which must operate in its faas might be expected, one of the most absurd vour, in the first instance at least, even with and extravagant of the whole. This is Mr. the most rigid moralist. The only sound or Clarkson's statement of the Quaker reasoning consistent form of the argument, in short, is against this delightful art.
that which was manfully adopted by the morProvidence gave originally 10 man a beautiful tified hermits of the early ages; but is ex. and a perfect world. He filled it with things neces. pressly disclaimed for the Quakers by their sary, and things delightful: and yet man has often present apologist, viz. that our well-being in turned these from their true and original design. This world is a matter of so very little conThe very wood on the surface of the earth he has cern, that it is altogether unworthy of a reacut down, and the very stone and metal in its bowels sonable being to bestow any care upon it; and he has hewn and cast, and converted into a graven that our chance of well-being in another world image, and worshipped in the place of his beneficeni Creator. The food which he has given him depends so much upon our anxious endeavours for his nourishment, he has frequently converted after piety upon earth, that it is our duty to by his intemperance into the means of injuring his employ every moment of our fleeting and health. The wine, that was designed to make his uncertain lives in meditation and prayer; and heart glad, on reasonable and necessary occasions, consequently altogether sinful and imprudent he has used often to the stupefaction of his senses, and the degradation of his moral character. The to indulge any propensities which inter
may very raiment, which has been afforded him for his rupt those holy exercises, or beget in us any body, he has abused also, so that it has frequently interest in sublunary things. become a source for the excitement of his pride. There is evidently a tacit aspiration after
Just so it has been, and so it is, with Music, at this sublime absurdity in almost all the Quathe present day.”
ker prohibitions; and we strongly, suspect, We do not think we ever before met with that honest George Fox, when he inhabited á an argument so unskilfully, or rather so pre- hollow tree in the vale of Beevor, laught nothposterously put: Since, if it follows, from these ing less to his disciples. The condemnation premises, that music ought to be entirely re- of music and dancing, and all idle speaking, jected and avoided, it must follow also, that was therefore quite consistent in him; but we should go naked, and neither eat nor drink! since the permission of gainful arts, and of and as to the arguments that follow against most of the luxuries which wealth can prothe cultivation of music, because there are cure, to his disciples, it is no longer so easy to some obscene and some bacchanalian songs, reconcile these condemnations, either to reawhich it would be improper for young persons son, or to the rest of their practice. A Quaker to learn, they are obviously capable of being may suspend all apparent care of his salvaused, with exactly the same force, against tion, and occupy himself entirely with his their learning to read, because there are im- worldly business
, for six days in the week, moral and heretical books, which may possi- like any other Christian. It is even thought bly fall into their hands. The most authentic laudable in him to set an example of diligence and sincere reason, however, we believe, is and industry to those around him; and the one which rests immediately upon the gene- fruits of this industry he is by no means reral ascetic principle to which we have already quired to bestow in relieving the poor, or for made reference, viz. that "music tends to the promotion of piety. He is ailowed to emself-gralification, which is not allowable in the ploy it for self-gratification, iri almost every Christian system.” Now, as this same self-way--but the most social and agreeable! He denying principle is really at the bottom of may keep an excellent table and garden, and most of the Quaker prohibitions, it may be be driven about in an easy chariot by a pious worth while to consider, in a few words, how coachman and two, or even four, plump horses; far it can be reconciled to reason or morality. but his plate must be without carving, and his
All men, we humbly conceive, are under carriage and horses (perhaps his flowers also) the necessity of pursuing their own happiness; of a dusky colour. His guests may talk of and cannot even be conceived as ever pursu- oxen and broadcloth as long as they think fit, ing any thing else. The only difference be- but wit and gaiety are entirely proscribed, tween the sensualist and the ascetic is, that and topics of literature but rarely allowed. the former pursues an immediate, and the His boys and girls are bred up to a prematura other a remote happiness; or, that the one knowledge of bargaining and housekeeping; prirsues an intellectual, and the other a bodily but when their bounding spirits are struggling gratification. The penitent who passes his in every limb, they must not violate their sedays in mortification, does so unquestionably dateness by a single skip ;--their stillness must from the love of enjoyment; either because not be disturbed by raising their voices be. he thinks this the surest way to attain eternal yond their common pitch ;-and they would happiness in a future world, or because he be disowned, if they were to tune their innofinds the admiration of mankind a sufficient cent voices in a hymn to their great Benefaccompensation, even in this life, for the hard- tor! We cannot help saying, that all this is ships by which he extorts it. It appears, absurd and indefensible. Either let the Quatherefore, that self-gratification, so far from kers renounce all the enjoyments of this life, being an unlawful object of pursuit, is neces- or take all that are innocent. The pursuit of sarily the only object which a rational being wealth surely holds out a greater temptation can be conceived to pursue; and consequently, to immorality, than the study of music. Let that to argue against any practice, merely that them, then, either disown those who accumu. it is attended with enjoyment, is to give it a l late more than is necessary for their subsisience, or permit those who have leisure, to not so much, Mr. Clarkson assures us, on ar employ it in something better than money- count of their fietitious nature, though that in getting. To allow a man to have a house and ground enough for the abhorrence of many retinue, from the expenses of which fifty poor Quakers, but on account of their general im. families might be supported, and at the same morality, and their tendency to produce an time to interdict a fold in his coat, or a ruffle undue excitement of mind, and to alienate to his shirt, on account of their costliness and the attention from objects of serious imporivanity, is as ridiculous, and as superstitious, ance. These are good reasons against the as it is for the Church of Rome to permit one reading of immoral novels, and against mak. of her cardinals to sit down, on a meagre day, ing them oŅr sole or our principal study. to fifty costly and delicious dishes of fish and Other moralists are contented with selecting pastry, while it excommunicates a peasant for and limiting the novels they allow to be read. breaking through the holy abstinence with a The Quakers alone make it an abomination to morsel of rusty bacon. With those general read any; which is like prohibiting all use of impressions, we shall easily dispose of their wine or animal food, instead of restricting our other peculiarities.
censures to the excess or abuse of them. The amusements of the theatre are strictly Last of all, the sports of the field are proforbidden to Quakers of every description; hibited, partly on account of the animal sufand this, partly because many plays are im- fering they produce, and partly from the habmoral, but chiefly because, on the stage, its of idleness and ferocity which they are
men personate characters that are not their supposed to generate. This is Mr. Clarkson's own; and thus become altogether sophisti- account of the matter; but we shall probably cated in their looks, words, and actions, which form a more correct idea of the true Quaker is contrary to the simplicity and truth requir- principle, from being told that George Fox ed by Christianity!" We scarcely think the considered that man in the fall, or the apos Quakers will be much obliged to Mr. Clarkson tate man, had a vision so indistinct and vitiafor imputing this kind of reasoning to them: ted, that he could not see the animals of the And, for our own parts, we would much rather creation as he ought; but that the man who hearatonce that the play-house was the Devil's was restored, or the spiritual Christian, had a drawing-room, and that the actors painted new and clear discernment concerning them, their faces, and therefore deserved the fate of which would oblige him to consider and treat Jezebel. As to the sin of personating charac- them in a proper manner." The Quakers, ters not their own, and sophisticating their however, allow the netting of animals for looks and words, it is necessarily committed food; and cannot well object therefore to by every man who reads aloud a Dialogue shooting them, provided it be done about for from the New Testament, or who adopts, the same economical purpose, and not for from the highest authority, a dramatic form self-gratification,—at least in the act of killing. in his preaching. As to the other objection, Mr. Clarkson proceeds next to discuss the that theatrical amusements produce too high discipline, as he calls it, or interior govern. a degree of excitement for the necessary se- ment of the Quaker society; but we think it dateness of a good Christian, we answer, in more natural to proceed to the consideration the first place, that we do not see why a good of what he announces as their peculiar cusChristian should be more sedate than his inno- toms, which, for any thing we see, might all cence and natural gaiety may dispose him to have been classed among the prohibitions be; and, in the second place, that the objection which constitute their moral education. proves Mr. Clarkson to be laudably ignorant of The first, is the peculiarity of their dress. the state of the modern drama,--which, we The original rule, he says, was only that it are credibly informed, is by no means so ex- should be plain and cheap. He vindicates tremely interesting, as to make men neglect George Fox, we think very successfully, from their business and their duties to run after it. the charge of having gone about in a leathern
Next comes dancing:—The Quakers pro- doublet; and maintains, that the present dress hibit this strictly; 1st, because it implies the of the Quakers is neither more nor less than accompaniment of music, which has been the common dress of grave and sober persons already interdicted; 2dly, because it is use of the middling ralik at the first institution of less, and below the dignity of the Christian the society; and that they have retained it
, character;": 3dly, because it implies assem- not out of any superstitious opinion of its blies of idle persons, which lead to thought- sanctity, but because they thought it would lessness as to the important duties of life; indicate a frivolous vanity to change it, unless 4thly, because it gives rise to silly vanity, and for some reason of convenience. We should envying, and malevolence. The lovers of have thought it convenience enough to aroid dancing, we think, will be able to answer singularity and misconstruction of motives those objections without our farther assist. Except that the men now wear loops to their ance; such of them as have not been already hats, and that the women have in a great obviated, are applicable, and are in fact ap- measure given up their black hoods and green plied by the Quakers, to every species of ac- aprons, their costume is believed to be almost complishment. They are applicable also, exactly the same as it was two hundred years though the Quakers do not so apply them, to ago. They have a similar rule as to their all money-getting occupations in which there furniture ; which, though sometimes elegant is room for rivaliy and competition.
and costly, is uniformly plain, and free from The reading of novels is next prohibited, I glare or ostentation. In conformity with thie
principle, they do not decorate their houses with The same observations apply to the other pictures or prints, and in general discourage Quaker principle of refusing to call any man the practice of taking portraits; for which Mr. or Sir, or to subscribe themselves in their piece of abstinence Mr. Clarkson gives the fol. letters, as any man's humble servant. Their lowing simple reason. “The first Quakers con- reasons for this refusal, are, first, that the sidering themselves as poor helpless creatures, common phrases import a falsehood; and, and as little better than dust and ashes, had secondly, that they puff up vain man with but a mean idea of their own images !" conceit. Now, as to the falsehood, we have
One the most prominent peculiarities in to observe, that the words objected to, really the Quaker customs, relates to their language. do not mean any thing about bondage or do They insist, in the first place, upon saying minion when used on those occasions; and thou instead of you; and this was an innova- neither are so understood, nor are in danger tion upon which their founder seems to have of being so understood, by any one who hears valued himself at least as much as upon any them. Words are significant sounds; and, other part of his system. “The use of thou,” beyond question, it is solely in consequence says honest George Fox, with visible com- of ihe meaning they convey, that men can be placency, was a sore cut to proud flesh !" responsible for using them. Now the only and many beatings, and revilings, and hours meaning which can be inquired after in this of Xurance in the stocks, did he triumphantly respect, is the meaning of the person who endure for his intrepid adherence to this gram- speaks, and of the person who hears; but matical propriety. Except that it is (or rather neither the speaker nor the hearer, with us, was) grammatically correct, we really can see understand the appellation of Mr., prefixed to no merit in this form of speech. The chief a man's name, to import any mastership or Quaker reason for it, however, is, that the use dominion in him relatively to the other. It is of " you” to a single person is a heinous piece merely a customary addition, which means of flattery, and an instance of the grossest nothing but that you wish to speak of the inand meanest adulation. It is obvious, how dividual with civility. That the word emever, that what is applied to all men without ployed to signify this, is the same word, or exception, cannot well be adulation. If princes very near the same word, with one which, on and patrons alone were called "you," while other occasions, signifies “thou” was still used to iuferiors or equals, vants, does not at all affect its meaning upon we could understand why the levelling prin- this occasion. It does not, in fact, signify any ciple of the Quakers should set itself against such thing when prefixed to a man's proper the distinction ; but if "you" be invariably name; and though it might have been used and indiscriminately used to the very lowest at first out of servility, with a view to that reof mankind,—to negroes, felons, and toad-lation, it is long since that connection has been eaters,—it is perfectly obvious, that no per- lost; and it now signifies nothing but what is son's vanity can possibly be puffed up by re- perfectly true and correct. ceiving it; and that the most contemptuous Etymology can point out a multitude of misanthropist may employ it without any words which, with the same sound and orthoscruple. Comparing the said pronouns to-graphy, have thus come to acquire a variety gether, indeed, in this respect, it is notorious, of significations, and which even the Quakers that "thou" is, with us, by far the most flat- think it sufficiently lawful to use in them all. tering compellation of the two. It is the form A stage, for example, signifies a certain disin which men address the Deity; and in which tance on the road—or a raised platform-or a all tragical love letters, and verses of solemn carriage that travels periodically--or a certain adulation, are conceived. "You” belongs point in the progress of any affair. It could unquestionably to familiar and equal conver- easily be shown, too, that all these different sation. In truth, it is altogether absurd to meanings spring from each other, and were consider "you” as exclusively a plural pro- gradually attributed to what was originally noun in the modern English language. It may one and the same word. The words, howbe a matter of history that it was originally ever, are now substantially multiplied, to corused as a plural only; and it may be a matter respond with the meanings; and though they of theory that it was first applied to individu- have the same sound and orthography, are als on a principle of Mattery; but the fact is, never confounded by any one who is acthat it is now our second person singular. quainted with the language. But there is, in When applied to an individual, it never ex- fact, the same difference between the word cites any idea either of plurality or of adula- master, implying power and authority over tion; but excites precisely and exactly the servants, and the word Master or Mister pre. idea that was excited by the use of "thou” | fixed to a proper name, and implying merely in an earlier stage of the language. There is a certain degree of respect and civility. That no more impropriety in the use of it, there there is no deception either intended or effectfore, than in the use of any modern term ed, must be admitted by the Quakers themwhich has superseded an obsolete one; nor selves; and it is not easy to conceive how the any more virtue in reviving the use of "thou," guilt of falsehood can be incurred without than there would be in reviving any other an- some such intention. Upon the very same tiquated word. It would be just as reasonable principle, they would themselves be guilty to talk always of our doublets and hose, and of falsehood, if they called a friend by his eschew all mention of coats or stockings, as a name of Walker, when he was mounted in fearful abomination.
master over ser
his one-horse chaise, or by his name of