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periment with unabated diligence and hu- | very wild speculation upon magnetism; and, mility. As an instance of this disposition, we notwithstanding the additional temptation of may quote part of a letter to the Abbé Sou- this new piece of ingenuity, he abandons it in laive, upon a new Theory of the Earth, which the end with as much unconcem, as if he he proposes and dismisses, without concern or had had no share in the making of it. We anxiety, in the course of a few sentences; shall add the whole passage. though, if the idea had fallen upon the brain
“ It has long been a supposition of mine, that the of an European philosopher, it might have ger- iron contained in the surface of the globe has made minated into a volume of eloquence, like it capable of becoming, as it is, a great magnet; Buffon's, or an infinite array of paragraphs and that the fluid of magnetism perhaps exists in all observations, like those of Parkinson and Dr. space; so that there is a magnetical north and
south of the Universe, as well as of this globe, so Hutton,
that if it were possible for a man to fly from star 10 After remarking, that there are manifold
star, he mighi govern his course by ihe compass ; indications of some of the highest parts of the that it was by the power of this general magnetism land having been formerly covered by sea, this globe became a particular niagnet. In soft or Dr. Franklin observes
hot iron the fluid of magnetism is naturally diffused
equally: But when within the influence of he "Such changes in the superficial parts of the magnet, it is drawn to one end of the iron; made globe, seemed to me unlikely to happen, if the denser there, and rarer at the other. While the earth were solid in the centre. I therefore imagined, iron continues soft and hot, it is only a temporary that the internal parts might be a fluid more dense, magnet: if it cools or grows hard in that situation, and of greater specific gravity than any of the solids it becomes a permanent one, the magnetic fluid not we are acquainted with, which therefore might easily resuming its equilibrium. Perhaps it may swim in or upon that Auid. Thus the surface of be owing to the permanent magnetism of this globe, the globe would be a shell, capable of being broken which it had not at first, that its axis is at present and disordered by the violent movements of tbe kept parallel to itself and not liable to the changes Auid on which it rested. And as air has been com- it formerly suffered, which occasioned the rupture pressed by art so as to be twice as dense as water, of its shell, the submersions and emersions of its and as we know not yet the degree of density to lands, and the confusion of its seasons. The present which air may be compressed, and M. Amontons polar and equatorial diameters differing from each calculated that its density increasing as it approached other near ten leagues, it is easy to conceive, in case the centre in the same proportion as above the sur.
some power should shift the axis gradually, and face, it would, at the depth of leagues, be heavier place it in the present equator, and make the new than gold, and possibly the dense fuid occupying equator pass through the present poles, what a the internal parts of the globe might therefore be sinking of the waters would happen in the present air compressed. And as the force of expansion in equatorial regions, and what a rising in the present dense air, when heated, is in proportion to its polar regions ; so that vast tracts would be dis. density, this central air might afford another agent covered, that now are under water, and others to move the surface, as well as be of use in keeping covered, that are now dry, the water rising and alive the subterraneous fires; though, as you observe, sinking in the different extremes near five leagues. the sudden rarefaction of water coming into contact Such an operation as this possibly occasioned much with those fires, may also be an agent sufficiently of Europe, and among the rest this Mountain of strong for that purpose, when acting between the Passy on which I live, and which is composed of incumbent earth and the fluid on which it rests. limestone rock and sea-shells, to be abandoned by
"If one might indulge imagination in supposing the sea, and to change its ancient climate, which how such a globe was formed, I should conceive, seems to have been a hot one. The globe being that all the elements in separate particles being now become a perfect magnet, we are, perhaps, originally rised in confusion, and occupying a great safe from any change of its axis. But we are still space, they would (as soon as the Almighty fiat or subject to the accidents on the surface, which are dained gravity, or the mutual attraction of certain occasioned by a wave in the internal ponderous parts, and the mutual repulsion of others to exist) i fluid ; and such a wave is producible by the sudden all move to their common centre : that the air being violent explosion you mention, happening from the a fluid whose parts repel each other, though drawn junction of water and fire under the earth, which to the common centre by their gravity, would be not only lifts the incumbent earth that is over the densest towards the centre, and rarer as more re- explosion, but impressing with the same force the mote; consequently, all matters lighter than the fluid under it, creates a wave, that may run a central parts of that air, and immersed in it, would thousand leagues, lifting, and thereby shaking, suc recede from the centre, and rise till they arrived at cessively, all the countries under which it passes. I that region of the air which was of the same specific know not whether I have expressed myself so gravity with themselves, where they would rest; clearly, as not to get out of your sight in these while other matter, mixed with the lighter air, reveries. If they occasion any new inquiries, and would descend, and the two, meeting, would form produce a better hypothesis, they will not be quite the shell of the first earth, leaving the upper atmos. useless. You see I have given a loose to imagination; phere nearly clear. The original movement of the but I approve much more your method of philoso. parts towards their common centre, would natu- phizing, which proceeds upon actual observation, rally form a whirl there ; which would continue, makes a collection of facts, and concludes no furiher upon the turning of the new-formed globe upon its than those facts will warrant. In my present cir. axis : and the greatest diameter of the shell would cumstances, that mode of studying the nature of be in its equator. If, by any accident afterwards, the globe is out of my power, and therefore I have the axis should be changed, the dense internal fluid, permited myself to wander a little in the wilds of by altering its form, must burst the shell, and throw fancy."-vol. ii. p. 119-121. all its substance into the confusion in which we find it . I will not trouble you at present with my fan.
Our limits will not permit us to make any cies concerning the manner of forming the rest of analysis of the other physical papers contained our system. Superior beings smile at our theories, in this collection. They are all admirable for and at our presumption in making them.”-vol. ii. the clearness of the description, the felicity pp. 117-119.
and familiarity of the illustrations, and the He afterwards makes his theory much finer singular sagacity of the remarks with which and more extravagant, by combining with it a they are interspersed. The theory of whirl
winds and waterspouts, as well as the obser- | increase our regret, that the talents of the vations on the course of the winds and on cold, author should have been wasted on such seem to be excellent. The paper called Mari- perishable materials. time Observations is full of ingenuity and There is not much written on the subject of practical good sense; and the remarks on the dispute with the colonies; and most of Dr. Evaporation, and on the Tides, most of which Franklin's papers on that subject are already are contained in a series of letters to a young well known to the public. His examination belady, are admirable, not merely for their per- fore ihe House of Commons in 1766 afiords a spicuity, but for the interest and amusement striking proof of the extent of his information, th'y are calculated to communicate to every the clearness and force of his extempore comdescription of readers. The remarks on Fire- position, and the steadiness and self-possession places and Smoky chimnies are infinitely more which enabled him to display these qualities original, concise, and scientific, than those of with so much effect upon such an occasion. Count Rumford, and the observations on the His letters before the commencement of hosGuiph-stream afford, we believe, the first tilities are full of grief and anxiety; but, no example of just theory, and accurate investi- sooner did matters come to extremities, than gation, applied to that phenomenon.
he appears to have assumed a certain'keen Dr. Franklin, we think, has never made use and confident cheerfulness, not unmixed with of the mathematics, in his investigation of the a seasoning of asperity, and more vindictivephenomena of nature; and though this may ness of spirit than perhaps became a philosore er it surprising that he has fallen into so pher. In a letter written in October 1775, he few errors of importance, we conceive that it expresses himself in this manner:helps in some measure to explain the unequalled perspicuity and vivacity of his expo- has his doubts and despondencies about our firm
" Tell our dear good friend ***, who sometimes sitions. An algebraist, who can work wonders ness, that America is determined and unanimous; with letters, seldom condescends to be much a very few Tories and placemen excepted, who indebted to words; and thinks himself enti- will probably soon export themselves. Britain, at tled to make his sentences obscure, provided the expense of three millions, has killed one hun. his calculations be distinct. A writer who 20,0001. a head ; and, at Bunker's Hill, she gained has nothing but words to make use of, must a mile of ground, half of which she lost again by make all the use he can of them: he cannot our taking post on Ploughed Hill. During the afford to neglect the only chance he has of same time, sixty thousand children have been born being understood.
in America. From these data, his mathematical We should now say something of the politi- head will easily calculate the time and expense nec. cal writings of Dr. Franklin,—the productions essary to bil us all, and conquer our whole terri
tory"'vol. iii, p. which first raised him into public office and eminence, and which will be least read or
The following letters, which passed between attended to by posterity. They may be di- Dr. Franklin and Lord Howe, when his Lordvided into two parts; those which relate to ship arrived off the American coast with what the internal affairs and provincial differences were called the pacificatory proposals in 1776, of the American colonies, before their quarrel show not only the consideration in which the with the mother country: and those which former was held by the Noble Commissioner, relate to that quarrel and its consequences.
but contain a very striking and prophetic stateThe former are no longer in any degree in- ment of the consequences to be apprehended teresting: and the editor has done wisely, we from the perseverance of Great Britain in her think, in presenting his readers with an ab- schemes of compulsion. His Lordship writes, stract only of the longest of them. This was
in June 1776,published in 1759, under the title of an His- "I cannot, my worthy friend, permit the letters torical Review of the Constitution of Pennsyl- and parcels, which I have sent (in the sale I revania, and consisted of upwards of 500 pages, ceived them.) to be landed, without adding a word composed for the purpose of showing that the upon the subject of the injurious extremities in
which our unhappy disputes have engaged us. political privileges reserved to the founder of
“ You will learn the nature of my mission, from the colony had been illegally and oppressively the official despatches which I have recommended used. The Canada pamphlet, written in 1760, to be forwarded by the same conveyance. Retain. for the purpose of pointing out the importance ing all the earnesiness I ever expressed, to see our of retaining that colony at the peace, is given meet with the disposition in the colonies which I entire; and appears to be coinposed with great was once taught to expect, the most flattering hopes force of reason, and in a style of extraordinary of proving serviceable in the objects of the King's perspicuity. The same may be said of what paternal solicitude, by promoting the establishment are called the Albany Papers, or the plan for of lasting peace and union with the Colonies. But, a general political union of the colonies in if the deep-rooted prejudices of America, and the 1754; and a variety of other tracts on the necessity of preventing her trade from passing into provincial politics of that day. All these are I shall
, from every private as well as public motive,
foreign channels, must keep is still a divided people, worth preserving, both as monuments of Dr. most heartily lament, that this is not the moment, Franklin's talents and activity, and as afford- wherein those great objects of my ambition are 10 ing, in many places, very excellent models of be attained, and that I am to be longer deprived of strong reasoning and popular eloquence: but an opportunity to assure you, personally, of the re. the interest of the subjects is now completely gard with which I am, &c."-vol. iii. p. 365–367. gone by; and the few specimens of general Dr. Franklin answered, reasoning which we meet with, serve only to "I received safe the letters your Lordship so kindly forwarded to me, and beg you to accept my tations that a reconciliation might soon take place. thanks,
I had the misfortune to find these expectations dis" The official despatches to which you refer me, appointed, and to be treated as the cause of the contain nothing more than what we had seen in the mischief I was labouring to prevent. My consola. act of Parliament, viz. Offers of pardon upon sub- tion under that groundless and malevoleni treatment mission ;' which I was sorry to find; as it must was, that I retained the friendship of many wise give your Lordship pain to be sent so far on so and good men in that country; and, among the hopeless a business.
rest, some share in the regard of Lord Howe. * Directing pardons to be offered to the colonies, • The well-founded esteem, and, permit me to who are the very parties injured, expresses indeed say, affection, which I shall always have for your that opinion of our ignorance, baseness, and insen. Lordship, make it painful to me to see you engaged sibility, which your uninformed and proud nation in conducting a war, the great ground of which (as bas long been pleased 10 entertain of us ; but it can described in your letter) is the necessity of prehave no other effect than that of increasing our re- venting the American trade from passing into sentments. It is impossible we should think of foreign channels.' To me it seems, that neither submission to a government that has, with the most the obtaining or retaining any trade, how valuable wanton barbarity and cruelty, burned our defence. soever, is an object for which men may justly spill less towns in ihe midst of winter; excited the each other's blood; that ihe true and sure means savages to massacre our (peaceful) farmers, and our of extending and securing commerce, are the good. slaves to murder their masters; and is even now ness and cheapness of commodities; and that the bringing foreign mercenaries to deluge our settle- profits of no trade can ever be equal to the ex. ments with blood. These atrocious injuries have pense of compelling it, and holding it by fleets and extinguished every spark of affection for that parent armies. I consider this war against us, therefore, country we once held so dear: but, were it possible as both unjust and unwise; and I am persuaded that for us to forget and forgive them, it is not possible cool and dispassionate posterity will condemn to for you (I mean the British nation) to forgive the infamy those who advised it; and that even success people you have so heavily injured.
will not save from some degree of dishonour, ihose never confide again in those as fellow.subjects, and who have voluntarily engaged to conduct it. permit them to enjoy equal freedom, to whom you “I know your great molive in coming hither was know you have given such just caiises of lasting the hope of being instrumental in a reconciliation; enmily: and this must impel you, were we again and I believe, when you find that to be impossible, under your government, to endeavour the breaking on any terms given you to propose, you will then our spirit by the severest tyranny, and obstructing. relinquish so odious a command, and return to a by every means in your power, our growing strength more honourable private station. and prosperity.
" With the greatest and most sincere respect, I " But your Lordship mentions the King's pa. have the honour to be, &c."-vol. iii. p. 367—371. ternal solicitude for promoting the establishment of lasting peace and union with the Colonies.' If by
None of Dr. Franklin's political writings, peace is here meant, a peace to be entered into by during the nine years when he resided as distinct states, now at war; and his Majesty has Ambassador at the Court of France, have yet given your Lordship powers to treat with us of such been made public. Some of them, we should a peace; I may venture to say, though without au: imagine, must be highly interesting. thority, ihat I hink a treaty for that purpose not Of the merit of this author as a political quite impracticable, before we enter into foreign alliances. But I am persuaded you have no such
onomist, we have already had occasion to powers. Your nation, though, by punishing those say something, in the general remarks which American governors who have fomented the discord, we made on the character of his genius; and rebuilding our burnt towns, and repairing as far as we cannot now spare time to go much into possible the mischiefs done us, she might recover a particulars. He is perfectly sound upon many of our growing commerce, with all the advantages important and practical points ;-upon the of that additional strength, to be derived from a
corn-trade, and the theory of money, for infriendship with us; yet I know 100 well her abound stance; and also upon the more general docing pride and deficient wisdom, to believe she will trines, as to the freedom of commerce, and ever take such salutary measures. Her fondness for the principle of population. In the more ele. conquest as a warlike nation; her lust of dominion mentary and abstract parts of the science, as an ambitious one ; and her thirst for a gainful however, his views seem to have been less imate causes of war,) will join to hide from her just and luminous. He is not very consistent eves every view of her true interest, and con- or profound in what he says of the effects of tinually goad her on in those ruinous distant expe- luxury; and seems to have gone headlong ditions, so destructive both of lives and of treasure, into the radical error of the Economistes, when that they must prove as pernicious to her in the end, he maintains, that all that is done by manuas the Croisades formerly were to most of the nations of Europe.
facture, is to embody the value of the manu. "I have not the vanity, my Lord, to think of in. facturer's subsistence in his work, and that timidating, by thus predicting the effects of this agriculture is the only source from which a war; for I know it will in England have the fate real increase of wealth can be derived. An of all my former predictions—not to be believed other favourite position is, that all commerce till the event shal! verify ir. **Long did I endeavour, with unfeigned and un
is cheating, where a commodity, produced by wearied zeal, to preserve from breaking that fine a certain quantity of labour, is exchanged for and no' le porcelain vase-ihe British empire ; for I another, on which more labour has been exkew that, being once broken, the separate parts pended; and that the only fair price of any Ouid not retain even their share of the strength and thing, is some other thing requiring the same value that existed in the whole; and that a perfect exertion to bring it to market. This is exireunion of those parts could scarce ever be boped dently a very narrow and erroneous view of for, Your Lordship may possibly remember the lears of joy that wetted my cheek, when, at your
the nature of commerce. The fair price to good sister's in London, you once gave me expec- the purchaser is, whatever he deliberately
• About this time the Hessiang, &c. had just arrived chooses to give, rather than go without the frota Europe at Siaten Island and New York. commodity ;-it is no matter to him, whether
the seller bestowed much or little labour upon ders of Boston and Philadelphia, auch warfi. it, or whether it came into his possession ings were altogether unnecessary; and ne without any labour at all;-whether it be a endeavoured, therefore, with •more appropri. diamond, which he picked up, or a picture, at ate eloquence, to impress upon them the imwhich he had been working for years. The portance of industry, sobriety, and economy, commodity is not valued by the purchaser, and to direct their wise and humble ambition on account of the labour which is supposed to to the attainment of useful knowledge and be embodied in it, but solely on account of honourable independence. That morality, certain qualities, which he finds convenient after all, is certainly the most valuable, which or agreeable: he compares the convenience is adapted to the circumstances of the greater and delight which he expects to derive from part of mankind; and that eloquence the most this object, with the convenience and delight meritorious, that is calculated to convince and which is afforded by the things asked in ex- persuade the multitude to virtue. Nothing change for it; and if he find the former pre- can be more perfectly and beautifully adapted ponderate, he consents to the exchange, and to its objeci, than most of Dr. Franklin's makes a beneficial bargain.
compositions of this sort. The tone of famili. We have stated the case in the name of a arity, of good-will, and homely jocularitypurchaser, because, in barter, both parties the plain and pointed illustrations-the short are truly purchasers, and act upon the same sentences, made up of short words and the principles; and it is easy to show, that all strong sense, clear information, and obvious commerce resolves itself, ultimately, into bar- conviction of the author himself, make most
There can be no unfairness in trade, of his moral exhortations perfect models of except where there is concealment on the popular eloquence; and afford the finest specpart of the seller, either of the defects of the imens of a style which has been but too little commodity, or of the fact that the purchaser cultivated in a country which numbers permay be supplied with it at a cheaper rate by haps more than half a million of readers another. It is a matter of fact, but not of among its tradesmen and artificers. morality, that the price of most commodities In writings which possess such solid and will be influenced by the labour employed in unusual merit, it is of no great consequence producing them. If they are capable of being that the fastidious eye of a critic can discover produced in unlimited quantities, the compe- many blemishes. There is a good deal of tition of the producers will sink the price very vulgarity in the practical writings of Dr. nearly to what is necessary to maintain this Franklin; and more vulgarity than was any labour; and the impossibility of continuing way necessary for the object he had in view. the production, without repaying that labour, There is something childish, too, in some of will prevent it from sinking lower. The doc- his attempts at pleasantry; his story of the trine does not apply at all, to cases where the Whistle, and his Parisian letter, announcing materials, or the skill necessary to work them the discovery that the sun gives light as soon up, are scarce in proportion to the demand. as he rises, are instances of this. The soliloThe author's speculations on the effects of quy of an Ephemeris, however, is much betpaper-money, seem also to be superficial and ter; and both it, and the Dialogue with the inaccurate. Statistics had not been carefully Gout, are executed with the lightness and studied in the days of his activity; and, ac- spirit of genuine French compositions. The cordingly, we meet with a good deal of loose Speech in the Divan of Algiers, composed as assumption, and sweeping calculation in his a parody on those of the defenders of the writings. Yet he had a genius for exact ob- slave trade, and the scriptural parable against servation, and complicated detail; and proba- persecution are inimitable;—they have all bly wanted nothing but leisure, to have made ihe point and facility of the fine pleasantries very great advances in this branch of economy. of Swift and Arbuthnot, with something more
As a writer on morality and general litera- of directness and apparent sincerity. ture, the merits of Dr. Franklin cannot be The style of his letters, in general, is exestimated properly, without taking into con- cellent. They are chiefly remarkable, for sideration the peculiarities that have been great simplicity of language, admirable good already alluded to in his early history and sense and ingenuity, and an amiable and situation. He never had the benefit of any inoffensive cheerfulness, that is never overacademical instruction, nor of the society of clouded or eclipsed. Among the most valuamen of letters;—his style was formed entirely ble of the writings that are published for the by his own judgment and occasional reading; first time, in the present edition, are four letand most of his moral pieces were written ters from Dr. Franklin to Mr. Whatley; writ. while he was a tradesman, addressing him- ten within a few years of his death, and self to the tradesmen of his native city. We expressive of all that unbroken gaiety, phicannot expect, therefore, either that he should lanthropy, and activity, which distinguish the write with extraordinary elegance or grace; compositions of his earlier years. We give or that he should treat of the accomplish- with pleasure the following extracts. ments, follies, and occupations of polite life. He had no great occasion, as a moralist, to “I am not acquainted with the saying of Alphon. expose the guilt and the folly of gaming or
sus, which you allude to as a sanctification of your seduction ; or to point a poignant and playful rigidity, in refusing
to allow me the plea of old age ridicule against the lighter immoralities of spondence. What was that saying ?-You do not, it fashionable life. To the mechanics and tra- I seems, feel any occasion for such an excuse, though
you are, as you say, rising seventy-five, but I am their way home) whether, now they had seen how rising (perhaps more properly falling) eighty-and much more commodiously the white people lived I leave the excuse wiih you till you arrive at that by the help of the arts, they would not choose to age; perhaps you may then be more sensible of i18 remain among us—their answer was, that they were validity, and see fit to use it for yourself.
pleased with having had an opportunity of seeing “ I must agree with you that the goue is bad, and many fine things, but they chose lo live in their own that the stone is worse. I am happy in not having country: which country, by the way, consisted of them both together; and I join in your prayer, ihal rock only : for the Moravians were obliged 10 car. you may live till you die without either. But I doubt ry earth in their ship from New York, for the purThe author of ihe epitaph you sent me is a little mis. pose of making there a cabbage garden!"-Vol. ii. taken, when, speaking of the world, he says, that pp. 550, 551. -- he ne'er car'd a pin
“You are now seventy-eight, and I am eighty. What they said or inay say of the mortal within.'
You tread fast upon my heels; but, though “It is so natural to wish to be well spoken of, you have more strength and spirit, you cannot whether alive or dead, that I imagine he could not
come up with me till I stop, which must now be be quite exempt from that desire; and that at least soon ; for I am grown so old as to have buried most he wished to be thought a wit, or he would not
of the friends of my youth; and I now often hear have given himself the trouble of writing so good persons, whom I knew when children, called old an epitaph to leave behind him.”_" You see i Mr. such a one, to distinguish them from their sons, have some reason to wish that in a future state i pow men grown, and in business; so that, by liv. may not only be as well as I was, but a little better. Iing twelve years beyond David's period, I seem to And I hope it: for I, 100, with your poet, trust in when I ought to have been abed and asleep. Yet
have intruded myself into the company of posterity, gality as well as wisdom in his works, since he has had I gone at seventy, it would have cut off twelve been evidently sparing both of labour and materials; of the most active years of my life, employed, too, for, by the various wonderful inventions of propa. I have been doing good or mischief, is for time to
in matters of the greatest importance: but whether gation, he has provided for the continual peopling discover. I only know that I intended well, and his world with plants and animals, without being I hope all will end well. at the trouble of repeated new creations : and by the natural reduction of compound substances to
“ Be so good as to present my affectionate retheir original elements, capable of being employed spects to Dr. Rowley. I am under great obliga. in new compositions, he has prevented the neces will be a pleasure to him to hear that my malady
tions to him, and shall write to him shortly. It sity of creating new matter; for that the earth, | does not grow sensibly worse, and that is a great water, air, and perhaps fire, which being compound. ed, form wood, do, when the wood is dissolved, re- point; for it has always been so tolerable, as not turn, and again become air, earth, fire and water;—
to prevent my enjoying the pleasures of society, I say, that when I see nothing annihilated, and not and, being cheerful in conversation. I owe this in even a drop of water wasted, I cannot suspect the a great measure to his good counsels."-Vol. iii. annihilation of souls; or believe that he will suffer pp. 555, 556. the daily waste of millions of minds ready made
“Your eyes must continue very good, since you that now exist, and put himself to the continual are able to write so small a hand without speciatrouble of making new ones. Thus finding my.
cles. I cannot distinguish a letter even of large self to exist in the world, I believe I shall in some print; but am happy in the invention of double shape or other always exist. And with all the in spectacles, which, serving for distant objects as well conveniences human life is liable to, I shall not
as near ones, make my eyes as useful to me as object to a new edition of mine; hoping, however, ever they were. If all the other defects and in. that the errata of the last may be correcied."-Volfirmities of old age could be as easily
and cheaply iii. pp. 546–548.
remedied, it would be worth while, my friend, to live ** Our constitution seems not to be well under. a good deal longer. But I look upon death io be as stond with you. If the congress were a permanent necessary to our constitutions as sleep. We shall body, there would be more reason in being jealous rise refreshed in the morning, Adieu, and believe of giving it powers. But its members are chosen me ever, &c."-Vol. iii. pp. 544, 545. annually, and cannot be chosen more than three years successively, nor more than three years in
There is something extremely amiable in seven, and any of ihem may be recalled at any time, old age, when thus exhibited without queruwhenever their constituents shall be dissatisfied lousness, discontent, or impatience, and free, with their conduct. They are of the people, and at the same time, from any affected or unbereturn again to mix with the people, having no coming levity. We think there must be more durable preeminence than the different grains of sand in an hour-glass. Such an assembly can many more of Dr. Franklin's letters in existnot easily become dangerous to liberty. They are ence, than have yet been given to the public; the servants of the people, sent together to do the and from the tone and tenor of those which people's business, and promote the public welfare; we have seen, we are satisfied that they their powers must be sufficient, or their duties can would be read with general avidity and imnot be performed. They have no profitable ap. pointments, but a mere payment of daily wages,
provement. such as are scarcely equivalent to their
His account of his own life, down to the
expenses ; so ihai, having no chance of great places and enor? year 1730, has been in the hands of the pubmous salaries or pensions, as in some countries, lic since 1790. It is written with great siminere is no intriguing or bribing for elections. I plicity and liveliness, though it contains too wish Old England were as happy in, its govern many trifling details and anecdotes of obscure meni, but I do not see it. Your people, however, individuals. It affords however a striking think their constitution the best in the world, and affect to despise ours. It is comfortable to have a example of the irresistible force with which gond opinion of one's self, and of every thing that talents and industry bear upwards in society; belongs to us; to think one's own religion, king, as well as an impressive illustration of the and wise, the best of all possible wives, kings, and substantial wisdom and good policy of invariareligions. I remember three Greenlanders, who ble integrity and candour. We should think had travelled two years in Europe, under the care it a very useful reading for all young persons of some Moravian missionaries, and had visited Germany. Denmark, Holland, and England : when of unconfirmed principles, who have their I asked them at Philadelphia (when they were in fortunes to make or to mend in the world.