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ly domestic, and did not extend to what, in repressed in a good degree by the remains of modern times, is denominated society. With their national austerity, there is also a great all the severity of their character, the Romans deal more tenderness of affection. In spite nad much more real tenderness than the of the pathos of some scenes in Euripides, Greeks,—though they repressed its external and the melancholy passion of some fragindications, as among those marks of weak- ments of Simonides and Sappho, there is noness which were unbecoming men intrusted thing at all like the fourth book of Virgil, the with the interests and the honour of their Alcmene, and Baucis and Philemon of Ovid, country. Madame de Staël has drawn a and some of the elegies of Tibulluis, in the pretty picture of the parting of Brutus and whole range of Greek literature. The memory Portia ; and contrasted it, as a specimen of of their departed freedom, too, conspired to national character, with the Grecian group of give an air of sadness to much of the Roman Pericles pleading for Aspasia. The general poetry, and their feeling of the lateness of the observation, we are persuaded, is just; but age in which they were born. The Greeks the examples are not quite fairly chosen. thought only of the present and the future; Brutus is a little too good for an average of but the Romans had begun already to live in Roman virtue. If she had chosen Mark An- the past, and to make pensive reflections on tony, or Lepidus, the contrast would have the faded glory of mankind. The historians been less brilliant. The self-control which of this classic age, though they have more of their principles required of them—the law a moral character than those of Greece, are still which they had imposed on themselves, to but superficial teachers of wisdom. Their have no indulgence for suffering in them- narration is more animated, and more pleasselves or in others, excluded tragedy from ingly dramatised, by the orations with which the range of their literature. Pity was never it is interspersed ;—but
they have neither the to be recognized by a Roman, but when it profound reflection of Tacitus, nor the power came in the shape of a noble clemency to a of explaining great events by general causes, vanquished foe; -and wailings and complaints which distinguishes the writers of modemi were never to disgust the ears of men, who times. knew how to act and to suffer in tranquillity. The atrocious tyranny that darkened the The very frequency of suicide in Rome, be- earlier ages of the empire, gave rise to the longed to this characteristic. There was no third school of Roman literature. The sufferother alternative, but to endure firmly, or to ings to which men were subjected, tumed die;—nor were importunate lamentations to their thoughts inward on their own hearts; be endured from one who was free to quit and that philosophy which had first been life whenever he could not bear it without courted as the handmaid of a generous ambimurmuring.
tion, was now sought as a shelter and conWhat has been said relates to the literature solation in misery. The maxims of the Stoics of republican Rome. The usurpation of Au- were again revived,-not, indeed, to stimulate gustus gave a new character to her genius; to noble exertion, but to harden against misand brought it back to those poetical studies fortune. Their lofty lessons of virtue were with which most other nations have begun. again repeated—but with a bitter accent of The cause of this, too, is obvious. While despair and reproach; and that indulgence, or liberty survived, the study of philosophy and indifference towards vice, which had charac. oratory and history was but as an instrument terised the first philosophers, was now conin the hands of a liberal and patriotic ambi- verted, by the terrible experience of its evils, tion, and naturally attracted the attention of into vehement and gloomy invective. Seneca, al whose talents entitled them to aspire to Tacitus, Epictetus, all fall under this descripthe first dignities of the state. After an ab- tion; and the same spirit is discernible in solute government was established, those Juvenal and Lucan. Much more profound high prizes were taken out of the lottery of views of human nature, and a far greater molite; and the primitive uses of those noble ral sensibility characterise this age, and show instruments expired. There was no longer that even the unspeakable degradation to any safe or worthy end to be gained, by in which the abuse of power had then sunk the fluencing the conduct, or fixing the principles mistress of the world, could not arrest altoof men. But it was still permitted to seek gether that intellectual progress which gathers their applause by ministering to their delight; its treasures from all the varieties of human and talent and ambition, when excluded from fortune. Quintilian and the two Plinys afford the nobler career of political activity, naturally further evidence of this progress ;-for they sought for a humbler harvest of glory in the are, in point of thought and accuracy, and cultivation of poetry, and the arts of imagina- profound sense, conspicuously superior to any tion. The poetry of the Romans, however, writers upon similar subjects in the days of derived this advantage from the lateness of Augustus. Poetry and the fine arts languish. its origin, that it was enriched by all that ed, indeed, under the rigours of this blasting knowledge of the human heart, and those despotism and it is honourable, on the babits of reflection, which had been generated whole, to the memory of their former greatby the previous study of philosophy. There is ness, that so few Roman poets should have unifomly more thought, therefore, and more sullied their pens by any traces of adulation development, both of reason and of moral towards the monsters who then sat in the feeling in the poets of the Augustan age, than place of power. in any of their Greek predecessors; and though I' We pass over Madame de Staël's view of the middle ages, and of the manner in which la fin de l'existence, et laisser voir encore le même che mixture of the northern and southern races tableau sous le crêpe funebre du temps.
· Une sensibilité rêveuse et profonde est un des ameliorated the intellect and the morality of both. One great cause of their mutual im-dernes ; et ce sont les femmes qui, ne connoissant
plus grands charmes de quelques ouvrages moprovement, however, she truly states to have de la vie que la faculté d'aimer, ont fait passer la been the general prevalence of Christianity ; douceur de leurs impressions dans le s:yle de quel. which, by the abolition of domestic slavery, ques écrivains. En lisant les livres composés de. removed the chief cause, both of the corrup- puis la renaissance des lettres, l'on pourroit mar. tion and the ferocity of ancient manners. By quer à chaque page, qu'elles sont les idées qu'on
n'avoit pas, avant qu'on eut accordé aux temmes investing the conjugal union, too, with a sacred
une sorte d'égalité civile. La générosité, la valeur, character of equality, it at once redressed the l'humanité, ont pris à quelques égards une acceplong injustice to which the female sex had tion ditierente. Toutes les vertus des anciens been subjected, and blessed and gladdened étoient fondées sur l'amour de la patrie ; les femmes private life with a new progeny of joys, and a
exercent leurs qualités d'une manière indépendante. new fund of knowledge of the most interest- heur, une élévation d'ame, sans autre but que la
La pitié pour la foiblesse, la sympathie pour le maling description. Upon a subject of this kind, jouissance niême de cette élévation, sont beaucoup we naturally expect a woman to express her- plus dans leur nature que les verius politiques. Les self with peculiar animation; and Madame inodernes, influencés par les femmes, ont facile. de Staël has done it ample justice in the fol- ment cédé aux liens de la philanthropie; et l'esprit lowing, and in other passages.
est devenne plus philosophiquement libre, en se
livrant moins à l'empire des associations exclusives." “C'est donc alors que les femmes commencèrent -pp. 212–215. à être de moitié dans l'association humaine. C'est alors aussi que l'on connut véritablement le bonheur It is principally to this cause that she domestique. Trop de puissance déprave la bonté, ascribes the improved morality of modern altore toutes les jouissances de la délicatesse; les times. The improvement of their intellect verius et les sentimens ne peuvent résister d'une she refers more generally to the accumulapart à l'exercice du pouvoir, de l'autre à l'habitude tion of knowledge, and the experience of de la crainte. La félicité de l'homme s'acerut de which they have had the benefit. Instead toute l'indépendance qu'obtint l'objet de sa ten. dresse; il put se croire aimé; un être libre le of the eager spirit of emulation, and the unchoisit ; un ĉire libre obéit à ses desirs. Les ap- weighed and rash enthusiasm which kindled perçus de l'esprit, les nuances senties par le cæur the genius of antiquity into a sort of youthful se multiplièrent avec les idées et les impressions de or instinctive animation, we have a spirit of ces ames nouvelles, qui s'essayoient à l'existence deep reflection, and a feeling of mingled Les femmes n'ont point composé d'ouvrages vérit: melancholy and philanthropy, inspired by a ablement supérieurs; mais elles n'en ont pas moins more intimate knowledge of the sufferings, éminemment servi les progres de la littérature, the affections, and the frailties of human par la foule de pensées qu'ont inspirées aux hommes nature. There is a certain touching and pales relations entretenues avec ces êtres mobiles et thetic tone, therefore, diffused over almost delicats. Tous les rapports se sont doublés, pour all modern writings of the higher order; and ainsi dire, depuis que les objets ont été considérés sous un point de vue tout-à-fait nouveau. La con in the art of agitating the soul, and moving fiance d'un lien intime en a plus appris sur la nature the gentler affections of the heart, there is inorale, que tous les traités et tous les systèmes qui nothing in all antiquity that can be considered peignoient l'homme tel qu'il se montre à l'homme, as belonging to the same class with the wri. et non tel qu'il est réellement."-pp. 197, 198. " Les femmes ont découvert dans les caractères in the English poets—and some few in those
tings of Bossuet or Rousseau-many passages une foule de nuances, que le besoin de dominer ou la crainte d'êire asservies leur a fait appercevoir:
of Germany. The sciences, of course, have elles ont fourni au talent dramatique de nouveaux made prodigious advances; for in these nothsecrets pour émonvoir. Tous les sentimens aux ing once gained can be lost, -and the mere quels il leur est permis de se livrer, la crainte de la elapse of ages supposes a vast accumulation. mort, le regret de la vie, le dévouement sans In morals, ihe progress has been greatest in bornes, l'indignation sans mesure, enrichissen! la the private virtues—in the sacred regard for que les moralisies modernes ont en général beau. life-in compassion, sympathy, and beneficoup plus de finesse et de sagacité dans la connois. cence. Nothing, indeed, can illustrate the sance des hommes, que les moralistes de l'antiquité. difference of the two systems more strikingly, Quiconque, chez les anciens, ne pouvoit atteindre à than the opposite views they take of the rela renommée, n'avoit aucun motif de développe. lation of parent and child. Filial obedience ment. Depuis qu'on est deux dans la vie domes and submission was enjoined by the ancient de la morale existent toujours, au moins dans un code with a rigour from which reason and petit cercle; les enfans sont devenus plus chers à justice equally revolt. According to our preleur parens, par la tendresse réciproque qui forme le sent notions, parental love is a duty of at least lien conjugal; et toutes les affections ont pris l'em- mutual obligation; and as nature has placed preinte de cette divine alliance de l'amour et de the power of showing kindness almost exclul'amitié, de l'estime et de l'attrait, de la confiance méritée et de la séduction involontaire.
sively in the hands of the father, it seems “ Un âge aride, que la gloire et la vertu ponvoient but reasonable that the exercise of it should honorer, mais qui ne devoit plus être ranimé par at last be enjoined as a duty. les émotions du cour, la vieillesse s'est enrichie de
Madame de Staël begins her review of toutes les pensées de la mélancolie; il lui a été modern literature with that of Italy. It was donné de se ressouvenir, de regretter, d'aimer en. core ce qu'elle avoit aimé. Les affections morales,
there that the manuscripts—the monuments unies, dès la jeunesse, aux passions brulantes, |--the works of art of the imperial nation, peuvent se prolonger par de nobles traces jusqu'à were lost;-and it was there, of course, that
Iney were ultimately recovered. The re- ried form than those of the northern roman. searches necessary for this, required authority cers. The two styles however were brought and money; and they were begun, accord- together, partly by the efiect of the crusades, ingly, under the patronage of princes and and partly by the Moorish settlement in academies:-circumstances favourable to the Spain; and Ariosto had the merit of first accumulation of knowledge, and the forma- combining them into one, in that miraculous tion of mere scholars—but adverse to the poem, which contains more painting, more development of original genius. The Italians, variety, and more imagination, than any other accordingly, have been scholars, and have poem in existence. The fictions of Boyardo furuished the rest of Europe with the im- are more purely in the taste of the Orientals; plements of liberal study; but they have and Tasso is imbued far more deeply with the achieved little for themselves in the high spirit and manner of the Augustan classics. philosophy of politics and morals—though The false refinements, the concetti, the inthey have to boast of Galileo, Cassini, and a genious turns and misplaced subtlety, which long list of celebrated names in the physical have so long been the reproach of the Italian sciences. In treating of subjects of a large literature, Madame de Staël ascribes to their and commanding interest, they are almost early study of the Greek Theologians, and always bombastic and shallow. Nothing, in- later Platonists, who were so much in favour deed, can be more just or acute than the at the first revival of learning. The nice following delineation of this part of their distinctions and sparkling sophistries which character.
these gentlemen applied, with considerable “Les Italiens, accoutumés souvent à ne rien success, in argument, were unluckily transcroire et à tout professer, se sont bien plus exerces ferred, by Petrarch, io subjects of love and dans la plaisanterie que dans le raisonnement. Ils se gallantry; and the fashion was set of a most moquerit de leur propre maniére d'être. Quand ils unnatural alliance between wit and passionveulent renoncer à leur talent naturel, à l'esprit ingenuity and profound emotion,—which has comique, pour essayer de l'éloquence oratoire, ils ont presque toujours de l'affectation. Les souvenirs turned out, as might have been expected, to d'une grandeur passée, sans aucun sentiment de the discredit of both the contracting parties. grandeur présente, produisent le gigantesque. Les We admit the fact, and its consequences: but Italiens auroient de la dignité, si la plus sombre we do not agree as to the causes which are tristesse formoit leur caractère; mais quand les here supposed to have produced it. We really successeurs des Romains, privés de tout éclat na- do not think that the polemics of Constantitional, de toute liberté politique, sont encore un des nople are answerable for this extravagance; peuples les plus gais de la terre, ils ne peuvent and have little doubt that it originated in that avoir aucun élévation naturelle.
• Les Italiens se moquent dans leur contes, et desire to impress upon their productions the souvent même sur le théâtre, des prêtres, auxquels visible marks of labour and art, which is felt ils sont d'ailleurs entièrement asservis. Mais ce by almost all artists in the infancy of the n'est point sous un point de vue philosophique qu'ils study. As all men can speak, and set words comme quelques-uns de nos écrivains, le but de re together in a natural order, it was likely to former les défauts dont ils plaisantent ; ce qu'ils occur to those who first made an art of comveulent seulement, c'est s'amuser d'autant plus position, and challenged general admiration
le sujet est plus sérieux. Leurs opinions sont, for an arrangement of words, that it was dans le fond, assez. opposées à tous les genres necessary to make a very strong and cond'autorité auxquels ils sont soumis; mais cet esprit spicuous distinction between their composi, pouvoir mépriser ceux qui les commandent. C'est tions and ordinary and casual discourse; and la ruse des enfans envers leurs pédagogues; ils leur to proclaim to the most careless reader or obéissent, à condition qu'il leur soit permis de s'en hearer, that a great difficulty had been surmoquer.''-p. 248.
mounted, and something effected which every In poetry, however, the brilliant imagina- one was not in a condition to accomplish. tion of the South was sure to re-assert its This feeling, we have no doubt, first gave claims to admiration; and the first great occasion to versification in all languages; and poets of modern Italy had the advantage of will serve to account, in a good degree, for opening up a new career for their talents. the priority of metrical to prose compositions: Poetical fiction, as it is now known in Europe, but where versification was remarkably easy, seems to have had two distinct sources. or already familiar, some visible badge of Among the fierce and illiterate nations of artifice would also be required in the thought; the North, nothing had any chance of being and, accordingly, there seems to have been a listened to, that did not relate to the feats of certain stage in the progress of almost all war in which it was their sole ambition to literature, in which this excess has been comexcel; and poetical invention was forced to mitted. In Italy, it occurred so early as the display itself in those legends of chivalry, time of Petrarch. In France, it became con. which contain merely an exaggerated picture spicuous in the writings of Voiture, Balsac, of scenes that were familiar to all their audio and all that coterie; and in England, in Cowtors.
In Asia, again, the terrors of a san- ley, Donne, and the whole tribe of metaguinary despotism had driven men to express physical poets. Simplicity; in short, is the their emotions, and to insinuate their moral last attainment of progressive literature; and admonitions, in the form of apologues and men are very long afraid of being natural, sables; and as these necessarily took a very from the dread of being taken for ordinary. wild and improbable course, iheir fictions There is a simplicity, indeed, that is anteceassumed a much more extravagant and va- Ident to the existence of ar ything like literary
ambition or critical taste in a nation,—the sim- | right in saying, that there is a radical differ. plicity of the primitive ballads and legends ence in the taste and genius of the two reof all rude nations, but after a certain degree gions; and that there is more melancholy, of taste has been created, and composition more tenderness, more deep feeling and tixed has become an object of pretty general atten- and lofty, passion, engendered among the tion, simplicity is sure to be despised for a clouds and mountains of the North, than upon considerable period; and indeed, to be pretty the summer seas or beneath the perfumed uniformly violated in practice, even after it is groves of the South. The causes of the ditrestored to nominal honour and veneration. ference are not perhaps so satisfactorily sta
We do not, however, agree the less cordial. ted. Madame de Staël gives the first place ly with Madame de Stael in her remarks upon to the climate. the irreparable injury which affectation does Another characteristic is the hereditary to taste and to character. The following is independence of the northern tribes-arising marked with all her spirit and sagacity. partly from their scattered population and in
“L'affectation est de tous les défauts des carac. accessible retreats, and partly from the physitères et des écrits, celui qui tarit de la manière la cal force and hardihood which their way of plus irréparable la source de tout bien; car elle life, and the exertions requisite to procure hlase sur la vérité même, dont elle imite l'accent. subsistence in those regions, necessarily proDans quelque genre que ce soit, tous les mots qui duced. Their religious creed, too, even be ont servi à des idées fausses, à de froides exagéra. fore their conversion to Christianity, was less tions, sont pendant long-temps frappés d'aridité; fantastic, and more capable of leading to puissance d'émouvoir sur tel sujet, si elle a été trop heroic emotions than that of the southern souvent prodignée à ce sujet même. Ainsi peut-éire nations. The respect and tenderness with l'Italien est-il de toutes les langues de l'Europe la which they always regarded their women, is moins propre à l'éloquence passionnée de l'amour, another cause (or effect) of the peculiarity of comme la nôtre est maintenant usée pour l'élo- their national character; and, in later times, quence de la liberté."'--pp. 241, 242.
their general adoption of the Protestant faith Their superstition and tyranny—their in- has tended to confirm that character. For quisition and arbitrary governments have ar- our own part, we are inclined to ascribe more rested the progress of the Italians as they weight to the last circumstance, than to all have in a great degree prevented that of the the others that have been mentioned; and Spaniards in the career of letters and philoso- that not merely from the better education phy. But for this, the Spanish genius would which it is the genius of Protestantism to probably have gone far. Their early roman- bestow on the lower orders, but from the necces show a grandeur of conception, and a gen- essary effect of the universal study of the uine enthusiasm; and their dramas, though Scriptures which it enjoins. A very great irregular, are full of spirit and invention. proportion of the Protestant population of Though bombastic and unnatural in most of Europe is familiarly acquainted with the Bitheir serious compositions, their extravagance ble; and there are many who are acquainted is not so cold and artificial as that of the Ital- with scarcely any other book.
Now, the ians; but seems rather to proceed from a Bible is not only full of lessons of patience natural exaggeration of the fancy, and an in- and humility and compassion, but abounds considerate straining after a magnificence with a gloomy and awful poetry, which canwhich they had not skill or patience to attain. not fail to make a powerful impression on
We come now to the literature of the North, minds that are not exposed to any other, and -by which name Madame de Staël desig- receive this under the persuasion of its divine nates the literature of England and Germany, origin. The peculiar character, therefore, and on which she passes an encomium which which Madame de Staël has ascribed to the we scarcely expected from a native of the people of the North in general, will now be South. She startles us a little, indeed, when found, we believe, to belong only to such of she sets off with a dashing parallel between them as profess the reformed religion ; and Homer and Ossian; and proceeds to say, that to be discernible in all the communities that the peculiar character of the northern litera- maintain that profession, without much reture has all been derived from that Patriarch gard to the degree of latitude which they inof the Celts, in the same way as that of the habit—though at the same time it is undesouth of Europe may be ultimately traced niable, that its general adoption in the North back to the genius of Homer. It is certainly must be explained by some of the more gene. rather against this hypothesis, that the said ral causes which we have shortly indicated Ossian has only been known to the readers above. and writers of the North for about forty years The great fault which the French impute from the present day, and has not been held to the writers of the North, is want of iaste in especial reverence by those who have most and politeness. They generally admit that distinguished themselves in that short period. they have genius; but contend that they do However, we shall suppose that Madame de not know how to use it; while their partisans Staël means only, that the style of Ossian re- maintain, that what is called want of taste is unites the peculiarities thai distinguish the merely excess of genius, and independence northern school of letters, and may be sup- of pedantic rules and authorities. Madame posed to exhibit them such as they were de Staël, though admitting the transcendent before the introduction of the classical and merits of some of the English writers, takes southern models. We rather think she is part, upon the whole, against then in this
controversy; and, after professing her unquali-| is that which enables him to receive the fied preference of a piece compounded of great greatest quantity of pleasure from the greatest blemishes and great beauties, compared with number of things. With regard to the author one free of faults, but distinguished by little again, or artist of any other description, who excellence, proceeds very wisely to remark, pretends to bestow the pleasure, his object of that it would be still better if the great faults course should be, to give as much, and to as were corrected and that it is but a bad spe- many persons as possible; and especially to cies of independence which manifests itself those who, from their rank and education, are by being occasionally offensive: and then she likely to regulate the judgment of the reattacks Shakespeare, as usual, for interspers mainder. It is his business therefore to asing so many puerilities and absurdities and certain what does please the greater part of grossiéretés with his sublime and pathetic such persons; and to fashion his productions passages.
according to the rules of taste which may be Now, there is no denying, that a poem deduced from that discovery. Now, we humwould be better without faults; and that ju- bly conceive it to be a complete and final jusdicious painters use shades only to set off tification for the whole body of the English their pictures, and not blots. But there are nation, who understand French as well as two little remarks to be made. In the first English and yet prefer Shakespeare to Racine, place, if it be true that an extreme horror at just to state, modestly and firmly, the fact of faults is usually found to exclude a variety that preference; and to declare, that their of beauties, and that a poet can scarcely ever habits and tempers, and studies and occupaattain the higher excellencies of his art, with- tions, have been such as to make them receive out some degree of that rash and headlong far greater pleasure from the more varied confidence which naturally gives rise to blem- imagery—the more flexible tone—the closer ishes and excesses, it may not be quite so imitation of nature—the more rapid succesabsurd to hold, that this temperament and sion of incident, and vehement bursts of pasdisposition, with all its hazards, deserves en-sion of the English author, than from the couragement, and to speak with indulgence unvarying majesty—the elaborate argument of faults that are symptomatic of great beau- -and epigrammatic poetry of the French draties. There is a primitive fertility of soil that matist. · For the taste of the nation at large, naturally throws out weeds along with the we really cannot conceive that any other apolmatchless crops which it alone can bear; and ogy can be necessary; and though it might we might reasonably grudge to reduce its be very desirable that they should agree with rigour for the sake of purifying its produce. their neighbours upon this point, as well as Chere are certain savage virtues ihat can upon many others, we can scarcely imagine carcely exist in perfection in a state of com- any upon which their disagreement could be plete civilization; and, as specimens at least, attended with less inconvenience. For the we may wish to preserve, and be allowed to authors, again, that have the misfortune not admire them, with all their exceptionable to be so much admired by the adjoining naaccompaniments. It is easy to say, that tions as by their own countrymen, we can there is no necessary connection between the only suggest
, that this is a very common misfaults and the beauties of our great dramat- fortune; and that, as they wrote in the lanist; but the fact is, that since men have be- guage of their country, and will probably be come afraid of falling into his faults, no one always most read within its limits, it was not has approached to his beauties; and we have perhaps altogether unwise or unpardonable in already endeavoured, on more than one oc- them to accommodate themselves to the taste casion, to explain the grounds of this con- which was there established. nection.
Madame de Staël has a separate chapter But our second remark is, hat it is not quite upon Shakespeare; in which she gives him fair to represent the controversy as arising full credit for originality, and for having been altogether from the excessive and undue in the first, and perhaps the only considerable dulgence of the English for the admitted author, who did not copy from preceding faults of their favourite authors, and their per- models, but drew all his greater conceptions sisting to idolize Shakespeare in spite of his directly from his own feelings and observabuffooneries, extravagancies, and bombast. tions. His representations of human passions, We admit that he has those faults; and, as therefore, are incomparably more true and they are faults, that he would be better with touching, than those of any other writer; and out them: but there are many more things are presented, moreover, in a far more elemen. which the French call faults, but which we tary and simple state, and without any of deliberately consider as beauties. And here, those circumstances of dignity or contrast we suspect, the dispute does not admit of any with which feebler artists seem to have held settlement: Because both parties, if they are it indispensable that they should be set off. really sincere in their opinion, and understand She considers him as the first writer who has the subject of discussion, may very well be ventured upon the picture of overwhelming right, and for that very reason incapable of sorrow and hopeless wretchedness; that de coming to any agreement. We consider taste solation of the heart, which arises from the to mean merely the faculty of receiving plea- long contemplation of ruined hopes and irre sure from beauty; d, so far as relates to the parable privation ;-that inward anguish and person receiving that pleasure, we apprehend bitterness of soul which the public life of the it to admit of little doubt, that the best taste ancients prevented them from feeling, and