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back-which show a government more base else of it than that such events took place in and tyrannical, or a people more helpless and its course. Few men, in short, are historical miserable: And though all pictures of the characters and scarcely any man is always, greater passions are full of interest, and a or most usually, performing a public part. lively representation of strong and enthusiastic The actual happiness of every life depends emotions never fails to be deeply attractive, far more on things that regard it exclusively, the piece would have been too full of distress than on those political occurrences which are and humiliation, if it had been chiefly engaged the common concern of society; and though with the course of public events, or the record nothing lends such an air, both of reality and of public feelings. So sad a subject would importance, to a fictitious narrative, as to connot have suited many readers—and the author, nect its persons with events in real history, we suspect, less than any of them. Accord still it is the imaginary individual himself that ingly, in this, as in his other works, he has excites our chief interest throughout, and we made use of the historical events which came care for the national affairs only in so far as in his way, rather to develope the characters, they affect him. In one sense, indeed, this and bring out the peculiarities of the individu- is the true end and the best use of history; als whose adventures he relates, than for any for as all public events are important only as purpose of political information; and makes they ultimately concern individuals, if the inus present to the times in which he has placed dividual selected belong to a large and comthem, less by his direct notices of the great prehensive class, and the events, and their transactions by which they were distinguished, natural operation on him, be justly representthan by his casual intimations of their effects ed, we shall be enabled, in following out his on private persons, and by the very contrast adventures, to form no bad estimate of their which their temper and occupations often ap- true character and value for all the rest of the pear to furnish to the colour of the national community. story. Nothing, indeed, in this respect is more The author before us has done all this, we delusive, or at least more woefully imperfect, think; and with admirable talent and effect: than the suggestions of authentic history, as and if he has not been quite impartial in the it is generally—or rather universally written management of his historical persons, has con

-and nothing more exaggerated than the im- trived, at any rate, to make them contribute pressions it conveys of the actual state and largely to the interest of his acknowledged condition of those who live in its most agitated inventions. His view of the effects of great periods. The great public events of which political contentioris on private happiness, is alone it takes cognisance, have but little direct however, we have no doubt, substantially influence upon the body of the people; and true; and that chiefly because it is not exagdo not, in general, form ihe principal business, gerated-because he does not confine himself or happiness or misery even of those who are to show how gentle natures may be roused in some measure concerned in them. Even into heroism, or rougher tempers exasperated in the worst and most disastrous times—in into rancour, by public oppression,--but turns periods of civil war and revolution, and public still more willingly to show with what ludidiscord and oppression, a great part of the crous absurdity genuine enthusiasm may

be time of a great part of the people is still spent debased, how little the gaiety of the lightin making love and money—in social amuse- hearted and thoughtless may be impaired by ment or professional industry—in schemes for the spectacle of public calamity, and how, in worldly advancement or personal distinction, the midst of national distraction, selfishness just as in periods of general peace and pros- will pursue its little game of quiet and cunperity. Men court and marry very nearly as ning speculation-and gentler affections find much in the one season as in the other; and time to multiply and to meet! are as merry at weddings and christenings- It is this, we think, that constitutes the great as gallant at balls and races—as busy in their and peculiar merit of the work before us. It studies and counting houses-eat as heartily, contains an admirable picture of manners and in short, and sleep as sound-prattle with of characters, and exhibits, we think, with their children as pleasantly—and thin their great truth and discrimination, the extent and plantations and scold their servants as zeal- the variety of the shades which the stormy ously, as if their contemporaries were not fur- aspect of ihe political horizon would be likely nishing materials thus abundantly for the to throw on such objects. And yet, though Tragic muse of history. The quiet under- exhibiting beyond all doubt the greatest poscurrent of life, in short, keeps its deep and sible talent and originality, we cannot help steady course in its eternal channels, unaf- fancying that we can trace the rudiments of fected, or but slightly disturbed, by the storms almost all its characters in the very first of the that agitate its surface; and while long tracts author's publications.-Morton is but another of time, in the history of every country, seem, edition of Waverley ;-taking a bloody part in to the distant student of its annals, to be dark- political contention, without caring much about ened over with one thick and oppressive cloud ihe cause, and interchanging high offices of of unbroken misery, the greater part of those generosity with his political opponents. who have lived through ihe whole acts of the Claverhouse has many of the features of the tragedy will be found to have enjoyed a fair gallant Fergus.-Cuddie Headrigg, of whose average share of felicity, and to have been merits, by the way, we have given no fair much less impressed by the shocking events specimen in our extracts, is a Dandie Dinmont of their day ihan those who know nothing of a considerably lower species ;-and even the Covenanters and their leaders were sha- On the other point, also, we rather lear, to dowed out, though afar off, in the gifted Gil- the side of the author. He is a Tory, we fillan, and mine host of the Candlestick. It is think, pretty plainly in principle, and scarcely in the picture of these hapless enthusiasts, disguises his preference for a Cavalier over a undoubtedly, that the great merit and the Puritan: But, with these propensities, we great interest of the work consists. That in- think he has dealt pretty fairly with both terest, indeed, is so great, that we perceive it sides---especially when it is considered that, has even given rise to a sort of controversy though he lays his scene in a known crisis of among the admirers and contemners of those his national history, his work is professedly a ancient worthies. It is a singular honour, no work of fiction, and cannot well be accused doubt, to a work of fiction and amusement, to of misleading any one as to matters of fact. be thus made the theme of serious attack and He might have made Claverhouse victorious defence upon points of historical and theologi- at Drumclog, if he had thought fit-and nocal discussion; and to have grave dissertations body could have found fault with him. The written by learned contemporaries upon the insurgent Presbyterians of 1666 and the subaccuracy of its representations of public events sequent years, were, beyond all question, a and characters, or the moral effects of the style pious, brave, and conscientious race of menof ridicule in which it indulges. It is difficult to whom, and to whose efforts and sufferings, for us, we confess, to view the matter in so their descendants are deeply indebted for the serious a light; nor do we feel much disposed, liberty both civil and religious which they even if we had leisure for the task, to venture still enjoy, as well as for the spirit of resisiourselves into the array of the disputants. ance to tyranny, which, we trust, they have One word or two, however, we shall say, be inherited along with it. Considered generally fore concluding, upon the two great points as a party, it is impossible that they should of difference. First, as to the author's pro- ever be remembered, at least in Scotland, but fanity, in making scriptural expressions ridicu- with gratitude and veneration—that their suflous by the misuse of them he has ascribed to ferings should ever be mentioned but with the fanatics; and, secondly, as to the fairness deep resentment and horror-or their heroism, of his general representation of the conduct both active and passive, but with pride and and character of the insurgent party and their exultation. At the same time, it is imposopponents.

sible to deny, that there were among them As to the first, we do not know very well many absurd and ridiculous persons and what to say. Undoubtedly, all light or jocu- some of a savage and ferocious characterlar use of Scripture phraseology is in some old women, in short, like Mause Headriggmeasure indecent and profane: Yet we do not preachers like Ketiledrummle—or desperaknow in what other way those hypocritical does like Balfour or Burley: That a Tory pretences to extraordinary sanctity which novelist should bring such characters promigenerally disguise themselves in such a garb, nently forward, in a tale of the times, appears can be so effectually exposed. And even where to us not only to be quite natural, but really the ludicrous misapplication of holy writ arises to be less blameable than almost any other from mere ignorance, or the foolish mimicry way in which party feelings could be shown. of more learned discoursers, as it is impossible But, even he, has not represented the bulk of to avoid smiling at the folly when it actually the party as falling under this description, or occurs, it is difficult for witty and humorous as fairly represented by such personages. 'He writers, in whose way it lies, to resist fabri- has made his hero-who, of course, possesses cating it for the purpose of exciting smiles. all possible virtues of that persuasion; and In so far as practice can afford any justification has allowed them, in general, the courage of of such a proceeding, we conceive that its martyrs, the self-denial of hermits, and the justification would be easy. In all our jest- zeal and sincerity of apostles. His representabooks, and plays and works of humour for two tion is almost avowedly that of one who is centuries back, the characters of Quakers and not of their communion; and yet we think it Puritans and Methodists, have been constantly impossible to peruse it, without feeling the introduced as fit objects of ridicule, on this greatest respect and pity for those to whom it very account. The Reverend Jonathan Swift is applied." A zealous Presbyterian might, is full of jokes of this description; and the no doubt, have said more in their favour, with pious and correct Addison himself is not a little out violating, or even concealing the truth;fond of a sly and witty application of a text but, while zealous Presbyterians will not from the sacred writings. When an author, write entertaining novels themselves, they therefore, whose aim was amusement, had to cannot expect to be treated in them with exdo with a set of people, all of whom dealt in actly the same favour as if that had been the familiar applications of Bible phrases and Old character of their authors. Testament adventures, and who, undoubtedly, With regard to the author's picture of their very often made absurd and ridiculous appli- opponents, we must say that, with the excepcations of them, it would be rather hard, wetion of Claverhouse himself

, whom he has think, to interdict him entirely from the repre- invested gratuitously with many graces and sentation of these absurdities; or to put in liberalities to which we are persuaded he nas force, for him alone, those statutes against no title, and for wbom, indeed, he has a foolprofaneness which so many other people have ish fondness, with which it would be absurd been allowed to transgress, in their hours of to deal seriously-he has shown no signs of a gaiety, without censure or punishment. partiality that can be blamed, nor exhibited many traits in them with which their enemies ' palliation : and the bloodthirstiness of Dalzell, have reason to quarrel. If any person can and the brutality of Lauderdale, are reprereal his strong and lively pictures of military sented in their true colours. In short, if this insolence and oppression, without feeling his author has been somewhat severe upon the blood boil within him, we must conclude the Covenanters, neither has he spared their opfault to be in his own apathy, and not in any pressors; and the truth probably is, that never softenings of the partial author ;-nor do we dreaming of being made responsible for hisknow any Whig writer who has exhibited the torical accuracy or fairness in a composition baseness and cruelty of that wretched gov- of this description, he has exaggerated a little ernment, in more naked and revolting de- on both sides, for the sake of effect-and been formity, than in his scene of the torture at carried, by the bent of his humour, most frethe Privy Council. The military executions quently to exaggerate on that which afforded of Claverhouse himself are admitted without the greatest scope for ridicule.

(February, 1818.) Rob Roy. By the author of Waverley, Guy Mannering, and The Antiquary. 12mo. 3 vols.

pp. 930. Edinburgh: 1818. This is not so good, perhaps, as some others | ed—the same dramatic vivacity—the same of the family ;—but it is better than any thing deep and large insight into human natureelse; and has a charm and a spirit about it and the same charming facility which distinthat draws us irresistibly away from our graver guish all the other works of this great master; works of politics and science, to expatiate and make the time in which he flourished an upon that which every body understands and era never to be forgotten in the literary history agrees in; and after setting us diligently to of our country. read over again what we had scarce finished One novelty in the present work is, that it reading, leaves us no choice but to tell our is thrown into the form of a continued and readers what they all know already, and to unbroken narrative, by one of the persons persuade them of that of which they are most principally concerned in the story—and who intimately convinced.

is represented in his declining age, as detailSuch, we are perfectly aware, is the task ing to an intimate friend the most interesting which we must seem to perform to the greater particulars of his early life, and all the recolpart of those who may take the trouble of ac- lections with which they were associated. companying us through this article. But there We prefer, upon the whole, the communicamay still be some of our readers to whom the tions of an avowed author; who, of course, work of which we treat is unknown ;-and has no character to sustain but that of a we know there are many who are far from pleasing writer—and can praise and blame, being duly sensible of its merits. The public, and wonder and moralise, in all tones and indeed, is apt now and then to behave rather directions, without subjecting himself to any unhandsomely to its greatest benefactors; and charge of vanity, ingratitude, or inconsistency. to deserve the malison which Milton has so The thing, however, is very tolerably manemphatically bestowed on those impious per- aged on the present occasion; and the hero sons, who,

contrives to let us into all his exploits and " with senseless base ingratitude,

perplexities, without much violation either of Cram, and blaspheme their feeder.'

heroic modesty or general probability ;-to

which ends, indeed, it conduces not a little, --nothing, we fear, being more common, than that, like most of the other heroes of this ingeto see the bounty of its too lavish providers nious author, his own character does not rise repaid by increased captiousness at the quality very notably above the plain level of mediof the banquet, and complaints of imaginary ocrity-being, like the rest of his brethren, a fallings off-which should be imputed entirely well-conditioned, reasonable, agreeable young to the distempered state of their own pam- gentleman—not particularly likely to do any pered appetites. We suspect, indeed, that we thing which it would be very boastful to speak were ourselves under the influence of this of, and much better fitted to be a spectator and illaudable feeling when he wrote the first historian of strange doings, than a partaker in line of this paper: For, except that the sub- them. ject seems to us somewhat less happily This discreet hero, then, our readers will chosen, and the variety of characters rather probably have anticipated, 'is not Rob Roy~ less than in some of the author's former pub- though his name stands alone in the title-but lications, we do not know what right we had a Mr. Francis Osbaldistone, the only son of to say that it was in any respect inferior to a great London Merchant or Banker, and ihem. Sure we are, at all events, that it has nephew of a Sir Hildebrand Osbaldistone, a the same brilliancy and truth of colouring, worthy Catholic Baronet, who spent his time the same gaiety of tone, rising every now in hunting, and drinking Jacobite toasts in and then into feelings both kindly and exalt- Northumberland, some time about the year 1714. The young gentleman having been played the extraordinary taient of being true educated among ihe muses abroad, testifies to nature, even in the representation of ima decided aversion to the gainful vocations in possible persons, which his father had determined that he The serious interest of the work rests on should assist aud succeed him ;-and as a Diana Vernon and on Rob Koy; the comic punishment for this contumacy, he banishes effect is left chiefly to the ministrations of him for a season to the Siberia of Osbaldistone Baillie Nicol Jarvie and Andrew Fairservice, Hall, from which he himself had been es- with the occasional assistance of less regular tranged ever since his infancy. The young performers. Diana is, in our apprehension, a exile jogs down on horseback rather merrily, very bright and felicitous creation—though it riding part of the way with a stout man, who is certain that there never could have been was scandalously afraid of being robbed, and any such person. A girl of eighteen, not meeting once with a sturdy Scotchman, whose only with more wit and learning than any resolute air and energetic discourses make a man of forty, but with more sound sense, deep impression on him.-As he approaches and firmness of character, than any man the home of his fathers, he is surrounded by whatever- and with perfect frankness and a party of fox hunters, and at the same mo- elegance of manners, though bred among ment electrified by the sudden apparition of boors and bigots—is rather a more violent a beautiful young woman, galloping lightly fiction, we think, than a king with marble at the head of the field, and managing her legs, or a youth with an ivory shoulder. In sable palfrey with all the grace of an Angelica. spite of all this, however, this particular fic

Making up to this etherial personage, he tion is extremely elegant and impressive; soon discovers that he is in the heart of his and so many features of truth are blended kinsfolks—that the tall youths about him are with it, that we soon forget the impossibility, the five sons of Sir Hildebrand; and the virgin and are at least as much interested as by a huntress herself, a cousin and inmate of the more conceivable personage. The combina. family, by the name of Diana Vernon. She tion of fearlessness with perfect purity and is a very remarkable person this same Diana. delicacy, as well as that of the inextinguishThough only eighteen years of age, and ex-able gaiety of youth with sad anticipations quisitely lovely, she knows all arts and sci- and present suffering, are all strictly natural, ences, elegant and inelegantand has, more- and are among the traits that are wrought out over, a more

han masculine resolution, and this portrait with the greatest talent and more than feminine kindness and generosity effect. In the deep tone of feeling, and the of character-wearing over all this a playful, capacity of heroic purposes, this heroine bears free, and reckless manner, more characteristic a family likeness to the Flora of Waverley; of her age than her various and inconsistent but her greater youth, and her unprotected accomplishments. The rest of the household situation, add prodigiously to the interest of are comely savages; who hunt all day, and these qualities. Andrew Fairservice is a new, drink all night, without one idea beyond those and a less interesting incarnation of Cuddie heroic occupations—all

, at least, except Rash- Headrigg; with a double allowance of selfishleigh, the youngest son of this hopeful family ness, and a top-dressing of pedantry and con-who, having been designed for the church, ceit-constituting a very admirable and just and educated among the Jesuits beyond seas, representation of the least amiable of our had there acquired all the knowledge and the Scottish vulgar. The Baillie, we think, is an knavery which that pious brotherhood was so original. It once occurred' to us, that he long supposed to impart to their disciples. - might be described as a mercantile and town. Although very plain in his person, and very ish Dandie Dinmont; but the points of resemdepraved in his character, he has great talents blance are really fewer than those of contrast. and accomplishments, and a very insinuating He is an inimitable picture of an acute, sagaaddress. He had been, in a good degree, the cious, upright, and kind man, thoroughly low instructor of Diana, who, we should have bred, and beset with all sorts of vulgarities. mentioned, was also a Catholic, and having Both he and Andrew are rich mines of the lost her parents, was destined to take the veil true Scottish language; and afford, in the in a foreign land, if she did not consent to hands of this singular writer, not only an admarry one of the sons of Sir Hildebrand, for ditional proof of his perfect familiarity with all of whom she cherished the greatest aver- all its dialects, but also of its extraordinary sion and contempt.

copiousness, and capacity of adaptation to all Mr. Obaldistone, of course, can do nothing tones and subjects. The reader may take a but fall in love with this wonderful infant; brief specimen of Andrew's elocution in the for which, and some other transgressions, he following characteristic account of the purincurs the deadly, though concealed, haté of gation of the Cathedral Church of Glasgow, Rashleigh, and meets with several unpleasant and its consequent preservation from the adventures through his means. But we will hands of our Gothic reformers. not be tempted even lo abridge the details of 11. Ah! it's a brave kirk-nane o' yere whigo a story with which we cannot allow ourselves maleeries and curlie-wurlies and open-steek hens to doubt that all our readers have long been about it,a' solid, weel-jointed mason-wark, that familiar: and indeed it is not in his story that will stand as long as the warld, keep bands and this author's strength ever lies; and here he gunpowther aff it. It had amaist a doun-come lang has lost sight of probability even in the con- kirks of St. Andrews and Perth, and thereawa,

syne at the Reformation, when they pu'd doun the ception of some of his characters; and dis. I to cleanse them o' Papery, and idolatry, and image worship, and gurplices, and sic like rags o' the as they had done elsewhere. It was na for luve muckle hoor that silleth on seven hills, as if ane o' Paparie-na, na!-nane could ever say that o' was na braid aneugh for her auld hinder end. Sae the trades o' Glasgow-Sae they sune cam to an the commons o' Renfrew, and o' the Barony, and agreement to take a' the idolatrous statutes of sants the Gorbals, and a' about, they behooved to come (sorrow be on them) out o' their neuks — And into Glasgow ae fair morning io try their hand on sae the bits o'siane idols were broken in pieces by purging the High Kirk o' Popish nick-nackers. Scripture warrant, and flung into the Molendinar But the townsmen o' Glasgow, they were feared Burn, and the auld kirk stood as cronse as a cal their auld edifice might slip the girths in gaun when the fleas are caimed aff her, and a body was through siccan rough physic, sae they rang the alike pleased. And I hae heard wise folk say, common bell, and assembled the train bands wi' that if the same had been done in ilka kirk in Scola took o' drum-By good luck, the worthy, James !and, the Reform wad just hae been as pure as it Rabat was Dean o' Guild that year-(and a gude is e'en now, and we wad had mair Christian-like mason he was himsell, made him the keener to kirks; for I hae been sae lang in England, that keep up the auld bigging), and the trades assem. naething will drive it out o' my head, that the dng. bled, and offered downright battle to the com-kennell at Osbaldistone-Hall is beiter than mony mons, rather than their kirk should coup the crans, I a house o' God in Scotland.''

( I annary, 1820.) 1. Ivanhoe. A Romance. By the Author of Waverley, &c. 3 vols. Edinburgh, Constable & Co. 2. The Novels and Tales of the Author of Waverley; comprising Waverley, Guy Mannering,

Antiquary, Rob Roy, Tales of My Landlord, First, Second, and Third Series, New Edition, with a copious Glossary. Edinburgh, Constable & Co.: 1820.

Since the time when Shakespeare wrote his own satisfaction, that heaven knows how thirty-eight plays in the brief space of his many of these busy bodies have been beforeearly manhood—besides acting in them, and hand with us, both in the genus and the species drinking and living idly with the other actors of our invention! -and then went carelessly to the country, The author before us is certainly in less and lived out his days, a little more idly, and danger from such detections, than


other apparently unconscious of having done any we have ever met with ; but, even in him, the thing at all extraordinary—there has been no traces of imitation are obvious and abundant; such prodigy of fertility as the anonymous and it is impossible, therefore, to give him thé author before us. In the period of little more same credit for absolute originality as those than five years, he has founded a new school earlier writers, who, having no successful of invention; and established and endowed it author to imitate, were obliged to copy directwith nearly thirty volumes of the most ani- ly from nature. In naming him along with mated and original compositions that have Shakespeare, we meant still less to say that enriched English literature for a century, he was to be put on a level with Him, as 10 volumes that have cast sensibly into the shade the richness and sweetness of his fancy, or all contemporary prose, and even all recent that living vein of pure and lofty poetry which poetry-(except perhaps that inspired by the flows with such abundance through every part Genius-or the Demon, of Byron)--and, by of his compositions. On that level no other their force of colouring and depth of feelingwriter has ever stood—or will ever standby their variety, vivacity, magical facility, though we do think that there is fancy and and living presentment of character, have poetry enough in these contemporary pages, rendered conceivable to this later age the if not to justify the comparison we have renmiracles of the Mighty Dramatist.

tured to suggest, at least to save it, for the Shakespeare, to be sure, is more purely first time for two hundred years, from being original; but it should not be forgotten, that, altogether ridiculous. In saying even this, in his time, there was much less to borrow- however, we wish to observe, that we have in and that he too has drawn freely and largely view the prodigious variety and facility of the from the sources that were open to him, at modern writer-at least as much as the qualleast for his fable and graver sentiment;-for ity of his several productions. The variety his wit and humour, as well as his poetry, are stands out on the face of each of them; and always his own. In our times, all the higher the facility is attested, as in the case of walks of literature have been so long and so Shakespeare himself, both by the inimitable often trodden, that it is scarcely possible to freedom and happy carelessness of the style keep out of the footsteps of some of our pre-in which they are executed, and by the matchcursors; and the ancients, it is well known, less rapidity with which they have been lavhave stolen most of our bright thoughts-and ished on the public. not only visibly beset all the patent ap- Such an author would really require a reproaches to glory—but swarm in such am- view to himself—and one too of swifter than bushed multitudes behind, that when we quarterly recurrence; and accordingly we have think we have gone fairly beyond their pla- long since acknowledged our inability to keep giarisms, and honestly worked out an original up with him, and fairly renounced the task excellence of our own, up starts some deep- of keeping a regular account of his successive read antiquary, and makes it out, much to his publications; contenting ourselves with greet

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