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liim Jrink spirits; and let him that prefers maajîn, place till bed-lime prayers. Mall Mahnuud Khalilish Take maajuin; and let not the one party give any having arrived, we invited him to join us. Aidaila, idle or provoking language to the other.' Some sat who had got very drunk, made an observation down to spirits, some to maajûn. The party went which affecied Khalifeh. Without recoll cling that on for some time tolerably well. Bâba Jan Kabúzi Mūtia Mahmud was present, he repeated the verse, had not been in the boat; we had sent for him when we reached the royal jenis. He chose to drink
(Persian.) Examine whom you will, you will find spirits. Terdi Muhammed Kipchâk, too, was sent
him suffering from the same wound. for, and joined the spirit-drinkers. As the spirit. Mülly Mahmud, who did not drink, reproved Ab. drinkers and maajûn-lakers never can agree in one dalla for repeating this verse with levity.* Abdalla, pariy, the spirit-bibing party began to indulge in recovering his judgment, was in terrible perturba. foolish and idle conversation, and to make provok. rion, and conversed in a wonderfully smooth and ing remarks on maajûn and maajun-takers. Bâba sweet strain all the rest of the evening." Jân, too, getting drunk, talked very absurdly. The tipplers, filling up glass after glass for Terdi Mu. In a year or two after this, when he seems hammed, made him drink them off, so that in a
to be in a course of unusual indulgence, we very short time he was mad drunk. Whatever meet with the following edifying remark: exertio. I could make to preserve peace, were all" As I intend, when forty years old, to abstain unavailing; there was much uproar and wrangling. from wine; and as I now want somewhat less The party became quite burdensome and unplea than one year of being forty, I drink vine sant, and soon broke up."
most copiously!" When forty comes, howThe second day after, we find the royal ever, we hear nothing of this sage resolution oacchanal still more grievously overtaken : -but have a regular record of the wine and
** We continued drinking spirits in the boat till maajùn parties as before, up to the year 1527. bed-time prayers, when, being completely drunk, In that year, however, he is seized with rather we mounted, and taking torches in our hands came a sudden fit of penitence, and has the resolual full gallop back to the camp from the river-side, tion to begin a course of rigorous reform. falling sometimes on one side of the horse, and There is something rather picturesque in his and nex! morning, when they told me of our having very solemn and remarkable account of this galloped into the camp with lighted torches in our great revolution in his habits : hands, I had not the slightest recollection of the
“ On Monday the 23d of the first Jemadi, I had circumstance. After coming home, I vomited mounted to survey my posts, and, in the course of plentifully.''
my ride, was seriously struck with the reflection Even in the middle of a harassing and des- that I had always resolved, one time or another, to ultory campaign, there is no intermission of of a hankering after the renunciation of forbidden this excessive jollity, though it sometimes puts works had ever remained in my heart. Having the parties into jeopardy,--for example :- sent for the gold and silver gobleis and cups, with
all the other utensils used for drinking parties, I “We continued at this place drinking till the sun directed them to be broken, and renounced the use was on the decline, when we set out. Those who of wine-purifying my mind! The fragments of had been of the party were completely drunk. the goblets, and other utensils of gold and silver, I Syed Kasim was so drunk, that two of his servants directed to be divided among Derwîshes and the were obliged to put him on horseback, and brought him to the camp with great difficulty. Dost Mu- poor. The first person who followed me in my re. hammed Bakir was so far gone, that Amîn Mu: pentance was Asas, who also accompanied me in hammed Terkhân, Masti Chehreh, and those who allowing it to grow.t That night and the following,
my resolution of ceasing to cut the beard, and of were along with him, were unable, with all their numbers of Amîrs and courriers, soldiers and per. exertions, io get him on horseback. They poured sons not in the service, to the number of nearly a great quantily of water over him, but all to no ibree hundred men, made vows of reformation. purpose. At this moment a body of Afghans ap. The wine which we had with us we poured on the peared in sight. Amîn Muhammed Terkhân, ground! I ordered that the wine brought by Bâba being very drunk, gravely gave it as his opinion, Dost should have salt thrown into it, that it might ihat rather than leave him, in the condition in which be make into vinegar. On the spot where the wine he was, to fall into the hands of the enemy, it was had been poured out, I directed a wâ în to be sunk better at once to cut off his head, and carry, it and built of stone, and close by the wâîn an alms.
Making another exertion, however, with house to be erected." much difficulty, they contrived to throw him upon a horse, which they led along, and so brought He then issued a magnificent Firman, anhim off."
nouncing his reformation, and recommending On some occasions they contrive to be its example to all his subjects. But he still drunk four times in twenty-four hours. The persists, we find, in the use of a mild maajùn. gallant prince contents himself with a strong We are sorry to be obliged to add, that though maajún one day; but
he had the firmness to persevere to the last
in his abstinence from wine, the sacrifice “Next morning we had a drinking party in the
seems to have cost him very dear; and he We continued drinking till night. On continued to the very end of his life to hanker the following morning we again had an early cup. and, getting intoxicated, went to sleep. Aboui after his broken wine-cups, and to look back noon-day prayers, we left Istâlîf, and I took a with fond regret to the delights he had abmaajûn on the road. It was about afternoon prayers before I reached Behzâdi. The crops were ex- This verse, I presume, is from a religious tremely good. While I was riding round ihe har. poem, and has a mystical meaning. The profane vesi-fields, such of my companions as were fond application of it is the ground of offence." of wine began 10 conirive another drinking. bout. 7" This vow was sometimes made by persons Although I had taken a maajûn, yet, as the crops who set out on a war against the Infidels. They were uncommonly fine! we sat down under some did not trim the beard till they returned victorious. trees that had yielded a plentiful load of fruit, and Some vows of a similar nature may be found in began to drink. We kept up the party in the same | Scripture."
jured for ever. There is something abso- | tribution levied on her private fortune. The lutely pathetic, as well as amiable, in the following brief anecdote speaks volumes as to following candid avowal in a letter written the difference of European and Asiatic manthe very year before his death to one of his ners and tempers :old drinking companions :
“ Another of his wives was Katak Begum, who .: In a letter which I wrote to Abdalla, I men.
was the foster-sister of ihis same Terkhân Begum. tioned that I had much difficulty in reconciling my. Sultan Ahmed Mirza married her for love. He was self to the desert of penitence; but that I had prodigiously attached to her, and she governed him resolution enough to persevere, —
with absolute sway. She drank wine. During her
life, the Sultan durst not venture to frequent any (Turki verse)
other of his ladies. At last, however, he put her to I am distressed since I renounced wine ;
death, and delivered himself from this reproach." I am confounded and unfit for business, Regret leads me to penitence,
In several of the passages we have cited, Penitence leads me to regret.
there are indications of this ambitious wars Indeed, last year, my desire and longing for wine rior's ardent love for fine flowers,' beautiful and social parties were beyond measure excessive: gardens, and bright waters. But the work It even came to such a length that I have found abounds with traits of this amiable and, with ment. In the present year
, praise be 10 God, these reference to some of these anecdotes, appartroubles are over, and I ascribe them chiefly' to the ently ill-sorted propensity. In one place he occupation afforded to my mind by a poetical trans. sayslation, on which I have employed myself. Let me advise you too, to adopt a life of abstinence. Social chekin-taleh grass in a very beautiful manner, and
“ In the warm season they are covered with the parties and wine are pleasant, in company with our lihe Aimâks and Tûrks resort to them. In the jolly friends and old boon companions. But with skirts of these mountains the ground is richly di: whom can you enjoy the social cup? With whom versified by various kinds of tulips. I once directed can you indulge in ihe pleasures of wine? If you them to be counted, and they brought in thirty-two have only Shîr Ahmed, and Haîder Külli, for the
or thirty-three different soris of tulips. There is companions of your gay hours and jovial goblet, you can surely find no great difficulty in consenting the rose, and which I termed laleh-gul-bûi (the rose
one species which has a scent in some degree like to the sacrifice. I conclude with every good wish.
scented tulip). This species is found only in the We have mentioned already that Baber ap- of ground, and nowhere else. In the skirts of ihe
Desht-e-Sheikh (the Sheikh's plain), in a small spot pears to have been of a frank and generous same hills below Perwân, is produced the laleh-sed. character—and there are, throughout the Me-berg (or hundred-leaved tulip), which is likewise moirs, various traits of clemency and tender- found only in one narrow spot of ground, as we ness of heart, scarcely to have been expected emerge from the straits of Ghûrbend.” in an Eastern monarch and professional war- And a little afterrior. He weeps ten whole days for the loss of a friend who fell over a precipice after one
Few quarters possess a district that can rival of their drinking parties; and spares the lives, side of it are gardens, green, gay, and beautiful. Its
Istâlîf. A large river runs through it, and on either and even restores the domains of various water is so cold, that there is no need of icing it; chieftains, who had betrayed his confidence, and it is particularly pure. In this district is a garand afterwards fallen into his power. Yet den, called Bagh-e-Kilân (or the Great Garden), there are traces of Asiatic ferocity, and of a which Ulugh Beg Mirza seized upon. I paid the hard-hearted wastefulness of life, which re- price of the garden to the proprietors, and received mind us that we are beyond the pale of Eu- from them a grant of it. On he outside of the
garden are large and beautiful spreading plane ropean gallantry and Christian compassion. irees, under the shade of which there are agreeable In his wars in Afghan and India, the prisoners spots finely sheltered. A perennial stream, large are commonly butchered in cold blood after enough to turn a mill, runs through the garden; the action--and pretty uniformly a triumphal and on its banks are planted planes and other trees. pyramid is erected of their skulls. These Formerly this stream flowed in a winding and
crooked course, but I ordered its course to be al. horrible executions, too, are performed with tered according to a regular plan, which added much solemnity before the royal pavilion ; greatly to the beauty of the place. Lower down and on one occasion, it is incidentally record-lihan these villages, and about a koss or a koss and ed, that such was the number of prisoners a half above the level plain, on the lower skirts of brought forward for this infamous butchery, the hills, is a fountain, named Khwajeh-seh-yarán that the sovereign's tent had three times to ihree species of trees; above the fountain are moy be removed a different station, the ground beautiful plane-trees, which yield a pleasant shade. before it being so drenched with blood and on the two sides of the fountain, on small emiencumbered with quivering carcasses! On nences at the bottom of the hills, there are a num. one occasion, and on one only, an attempt ber of oak trees; except on these two spois, where was made to poison him—the mother of one there are groves of oak, there is not an oak to be of the sovereigns whom he had dethroned met with on the hills to the west of Kâbul. In front
of this fountain, towards the plain, there are many having bribed his cooks and tasters to mix spots covered with
the flowery Arghwân* tree, and death in his repast. Upon the detection of besides these Arghwân plots, there are none else the plot, the taster was cut to pieces, the cook in the whole country.” flayed alive, and the scullions trampled to We shall add but one other notice of this death by elephants. Such, however, was the respect paid to rank, or the indulgence to maternal resentment, that the prime mover
“ The name Arghwân is generally applied to the
anemone ; but in Afghanistan it is given to a beau. of the whole conspiracy, the queen dowager, tiful flowering shrub, which grows nearly to the is merely put under restraint, and has a con- size of a tree.
elegant taste—though on the occasion there, but of the native simplicity and amiableness mentioned, the flowers were aided by a less of this Eastern highlander. delicate sort of excitement.
· My solicitude to visit my western dominions is "This day I ate a maajûn. While under its in- boundless, and great beyond expression. The fluence, I visited some beautiful gardens. In dit affairs of Hindustan have at length, however, been ferent beds, the ground was covered with purple reduced into a certain degree of order; and I trust and yellow Arghwân flowers. On one hand were in Almighty God that the time is near at hand, beds of yellow fowers in bloom; on the other hand, when, through the grace of the Most High, every red flowers were in blossom. In many places they thing will be completely settled in this country: sprung up in the same bed, mingled iogether as if | As soon as matters are brought into that state, I they had been flung and scattered abroad. I took shall, God willing, set out for your quarter, with. my seat on a rising ground near the camp, to enjoy out losing a moment's time. How is it possible the view of all the flower-pots. On the six sides that the delights of those lands should ever be of this eminence ihey were formed as into regular erased from the heart? Above all, how is it possi. beds. On one side were yellow flowers; on another ble for one like me, who have made a vow of abthe purple, laid out in triangular beds. On two stinence from wine, and of puriiy of life, to forget other sides, there were fewer flowers; but, as far the delicious melons and grapes of that pleasant as the eye could reach, there were flower-gardens region? They very recently brought me a single of a similar kind. In the neighbourhood of Per musk-melon. While cutting it up, I felt myself shậwer, during the spring, the flower-plots are ex. affected with a strong feeling of loneliness, and a quisitely beautiful."
sense of my exile from my native country; and !
could not help shedding tears while I was eaving it!" We have, now enabled our readers, we think, to judge pretty fairly of the nature of On the whole, we cannot help having a this very curious volume; and shall only liking for “the Tiger”—and the romantic, present ihem with a few passages from two though somewhat apocryphal account that is letters written by the valiant author in the given of his death, has no tendency to diminish last year of his life. The first is addressed our partiality. It is recorded by Abulfazi, to his favourite son and successor Hûmâiùn, and other native historians, that in the year whom he had settled in the government of after these Memoirs cease, Húmâiûn, the beSamarcand, and who was at this time a sover- loved son of Baber, was brought to Agra in a eign of approved valour and prudence. There state of the most miserable health: is a very diverting mixture of sound political counsel and minute criticism on writing and while several men of skill were talking to the em.
" When all hopes from medicine were over, and composition, in this paternal effusion. We peror of the melancholy situation of his son, Abul can give but a small part of it.
Baka, a personage highly venerated for his know. " In many of your letters you complain of
ledge and piety, remarked to Baber, that in such a
separation from your friends. It is wrong for a prince receive the most valuable thing possessed by one
case the Almighty had sometimes vouchsafed to to indulge in such a complaint.
"There is certainly no greater bondage than that friend, as an offering in exchange for the life of in which a king is placed; but it ill becomes him to life was dearest to Hûmûiûn, as Humâiùn's was 10
another. Baber, exclaiming that, of all things, his complain of inevitable separa!ion.
“In compliance with my wishes, you have in. him, and that, next to the life of Humaiun, his own deed written me letters, but you certainly never
was what he most valued, devoted his life to Hearead them over; for had you attempted to read ven as a sacrifice for his son's! The noblemen them, you must have found it absolutely impossible, around him entreated him to retract the rash vow, and would then undoubtedly have put them by. i and, in place of his first offering, to give the dia. contrived indeed 10 decipher and comprehend the mond taken at Agra, and reckoned the most valu. meaning of your last letier, but with much diffi. able on earth: ihat the ancient sages had said, culty. It is excessively confused and crabbed. Who that it was the dearest of our worldly possessions ever saw a Moamma (a riddle or a charade) in alone that was to be offered to Heaven. But he prose? Your spelling is not bad, yet not quite persisted in his resolution, declaring that no stone, You have written iltafat with a toe (in his life. He three times walked round the dying
of whatever value, could be put in competition with stead of a te), and kuling with a be (instead of a kof). Your letter may indeed be read; but in prince, a solemnity similar to that used in sacrifices consequence of the far-fetched words you have and heave.offerings, and, retiring, prayed earnestly employed, the meaning is by no means very intel. I have borne it away! I have borne it away!
to God. After some time he was heard to exclaim, ligible. You certainly do not excel in letter-writing, The Mussulman historians assure us, that Humâiân and fail chiefly because you have too great a desire almost immediately began to recover, and that, in to show your acquirements. For the future, you proportion as he recovered, the health and strength should write unaffectedly, with clearness, using of Baber visibly decayed. Baber communicared plain words, which would cost less trouble both to his dying instructions to Khwajeh Khalieh, Kamber the writer and reader."
Ali Beg, Terdi Beg, and Hindu Beg, who were The other letter is to one of his old com- ihen at court commending Hûmûiûn to their propanions in arms;—and considering that it is recrion. With that unvarying affection for his written by an ardent and ambitious conqueror, family which he showed in all the circumstances from the capital of his new empire of Hind of his life, he strongly besought Humainn to be
kind and forgiving to his brothers. Humâiûn produstan, it seems to us a very striking proof, mised-and, what in such circumstances is rare, not only of the nothingness of high fortune, I kept his promise."
(March, 1819.) Specimens of the British Poets; with Biographical and Critical Notices, and an Essay on English
Poetry. By THOMAS CAMPBELL. 7 vols. 8vo. London: 1819.
We would rather see Mr. Campbell as a If he were like most authors, or even like poet, than as a commentator on poetry :-be- most critics, we could easily bave pardoned cause we would rather have a solid addition this; for we very seldom find any work too to the sum of our treasures, than the finest or short. It is the singular goodness of his critimost judicious account of their actual amount. cisms that makes us regret their fewness; for But we are very glad to see him in any way: nothing, we think, can be more fair, judicious -and think the work which he has now given and discriminating, and at the same time us very excellent and delightful. Still, how-more fine, delicate and original, than the ever, we think there is some little room for greater part of the discussions with which he complaint; and, feeling that we have not got has here presented us. It is very rare to find all we were led to expect, are unreasonable so much sensibility to the beauties of poetry, enough to think that the learned author still united with so much toleration for its faults; owes us an arrear: which we hope he will and so exact a perception of the merits of handsomely pay up in the next edition. every particular style, interfering so little
When a great poet and a man of distin- with a just estimate of all. Poets, to be sure, guished talents announces a large selection are on the whole, we think, very indulgent of English poetry, “with biographical and judges of poetry; and that not so much, we critical notices," we naturally expect such verily believe, from any partiality to their own notices of all, or almost all the authors, of vocation, or desire to exalt their fraternity, whose works he thinks it worth while to as from their being more constantly alive to favour us with specimens. The biography those impulses which it is the business of sometimes may be unattainable—and it may poetry to excite, and more quick to catch and still more frequently be uninteresting—but to follow out those associations on which its the criticism must always be valuable; and, efficacy chiefly depends. If it be true, as indeed, is obviously that which must be we have formerly endeavoured to show, with looked' to as constituting the chief value of reference to this very author, that poetry proany
such publication. There is no author so duces all its greater effects, and works its obscure, if at all entitled to a place in this more memorable enchantments, not so much register, of whom it would not be desirable to by the images it directly presents, as by those know the opinion of such a man as Mr. Camp- which it suggests to the fancy; and melts or bell--and none so mature and settled in fame, inflames us less by the fires which it applies upon whose beauties and defects, and poetical from without, than by those which it kindles character in general, the public would not within, and of which the fuel is in our own have much to learn from such an authority: bosoms,-it will be readily understood how Now, there are many authors, and some of these effects should be most powerful in the no mean note, of whom he has not conde- sensitive breast of a poet; and how a spark, scended to say one word, either in the Essay, which would have been instantly quenched or in the notices prefixed to the citations. Of in the duller atmosphere of an ordinary brain, Jonathan Swift, for example, all that is here may create a blaze in his combustible imagirecorded is “Born 1667-died 1744;" and nation, 10 warm and enlighten the world. Otway is despatched in the same summary The greater poets, accordingly, have almost manner—"Born 1651—died 1685.” Mar- always been the warmest admirers, and the lowe is commemorated in a single page, and most liberal patrons of poetry. The smaller Butler in half of one. All this is rather ca- only—your Laureates and Ballad-mongers pricious:-But this is not all. Sometimes the are envious and irritable-jealous even of the notices are entirely biographical, and some- dead, and less desirous of the praise of others times entirely critical. We humbly conceive than avaricions of their own. they ought always to have been of both des- But though a poet is thus likely to be a criptions. At all events, we ought in every gentler critic of poetry than another, and, case to have had some criticism, --since this by having a finer sense of its beauties, to be could always have been had, and could better qualified for the most pleasing and imscarcely have failed to be valuable. Mr. C., portant part of his office, there is another we think, has been a little lazy.
requisite in which we should be afraid he
would generally be found wanting, especially | bell was himself a Master in a distinct scnoo. in a work of the large and comprehensive of poetry, and distinguished by a very pecunature of that now before us—we mean, in liar and fastidious style of composition, withabsolute fairness and impartiality towards the out being apprehensive that the effects of this different schools or styles of poetry which he bias would be apparent in his work; and that, may have occasion to estimate and compare. with all his talent and discernment, he would Even the most common and miscellaneous now and then be guilty of great, though 1:'reader has a peculiar taste in this way—and intended injustice, to some of those whene has generally erected for himself some ob- manner was most opposite to his own. Vie scure but exclusive standard of excellence, are happy to say that those apprehensions by which he measures the pretensions of all have proved entirely groundless; and that that come under his view. One man admires nothing in the volumes before us is more ad. witty and satirical poetry, and sees no beauty mirable, or to us more surprising, than the in rural imagery or picturesque description; perfect candour and undeviating fairness with while another doats on Idyls and Pastorals
, which the learned author passes judgment on and will not allow the affairs of polite life to all the different authors who come before him; form a subject for verse. One is for simplic- -the quick and true perception he has of the ity and pathos; another for magnificence and most opposite and almost contradictory beausplendour. One is devoted to the Muse of ties--the good-natured and liberal allowance terror; another to that of love. Some are all he makes for the disadvantages of each age for blood and battles, and some for music and and individual—and the temperance and moonlight--some for emphatic sentiments, brevity and firmness with which he reproves and some for melodious verses. Even those the excessive severity of critics less entitled whose taste is the least exclusive, have a lean- to be severe. No one indeed, we will venture ing to one class of composition rather than to to affirm, ever placed himself in the seat of another; and overrate the beauties which fall judgment with more of a judicial temperin with their own propensities and associations ihough, to obviate invidious comparisons, we —while they are palpably unjust to those must beg leave just to add, that being called which wear a different complexion, or spring on to pass judgment only on the dead, whose from a different race.
faults were no longer corrigible, or had already But, if it be difficult or almost impossible been expiated by appropriate pains, his temto meet with an impartial judge for the whole per was less tried, and his severities less progreat family of genius, even among those voked, than in the case of living offendersquiet and studious readers who ought to find and that the very number and variety of the delight even in their variety, it is obvious that errors that called for animadversion, in the this bias and obliquity of judgment must be course of his wide survey, must have made still more incident to one who, by being him- each particular case appear comparatively self a Poet, must not only prefer one school insignificant, and mitigated the sentence of of poetry to all others, but must actually be- individual condemnation. long to it, and be disposed, as a pupil, or still It is to this last circumstance, of the large more as a Master, to advance its pretensions and comprehensive range which he was obabove those of all its competitors. Like the liged to take, and the great extent and variety votaries or leaders of other sects, successful of the society in which he was compelled to poets have been but too apt to establish ex- mingle, that we are inclined to ascribe, not clusive and arbitrary creeds; and to invent only the general mildness and indulgence of articles of faith, the slightest violation of his judgments, but his happy emancipation which effaces the merit of all other virtues. from those narrow and limitary maxims by Addicting themselves, as they are apt to do, which we have already said that poets are so to the exclusive cultivation of that style to peculiarly apt to be entangled. As a large which the bent of their own genius naturally and familiar intercourse with men of different inclines them, they leak ererywhere for those habits and dispositions never fails, in characbeauties of which it is peculiarly susceptible, ters of any force or generosity, to dispel the and are disgusted if they cannot be found. - prejudices with which we at first regard them, Like discoverers in science, or improvers in and to lower our estimate of our own superior art, they see nothing in the whole system but happiness and wisdom, so, a very ample and their own discoveries and improvements, and extensive course of reading in any departundervalue every thing that cannot be con- ment of letters, tends naturally to enlarge our nected with their own studies and glory. As narrow principles of judgment; and not only the Chinese mapmakers allot all the lodgeable to cast down the idols before which we had area of the earth to their own nation, and formerly abased ourselves, but to disclose 10 thrust the other countries of the world into us the might and the majesty of much that little outskirts and by-corners—so poets are we had mistaken and contemned. disposed to represent their own little field of In this point of view, we think such a work exertion as occupying all the sunny part of as is now before us, likely to be of great use Parnassus, and to exhibit the adjoining regions to ordinary readers of poetry-not only as under terrible shadows and most unmerciful unlocking to them innumerable new springs foreshortenings.
of enjoyment and admiration, but as having With those impressions of the almost in- a tendency to correct and liberalize their evitable partiality of poetical judgments in judgments of their old favourites, and to general, we could not recollect that Mr. Camp-strengthen and enliven all those faculties by