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their brethren at home any taste for the splen-, unknown to the earlier ages of the worlddours which might have excited their own exalted the arts of peace to a dignity with admiration. By the time that our intercourse which they were never before invested; and, with those regions was enlarged, our own by the abolition of domestic servitude, for the career of improvement had been prosperously first time extended to the bulk of the popula. begun; and our superiority in the art, or at tion those higher capacities and enjoyments least the discipline of war, having given us a which were formerly engrossed by a few. By signal advantage in the conflicts to which the invention of printing, they have made all that extending intercourse immediately led, knowledge, not only accessible, but imperishnaturally increased the aversion and disdain able; and by their improvements in the art with which almost all races of men are apt to of war, have effectually secured themselves regard strangers to their blood and dissenters against the overwhelming calamity of barfrom their creed. Since that time the genius barous invasion—the risk of subjugation by of Europe has been steadily progressive, whilst mere numerical or animal force : 'Whilst the that of Asia has been at least stationary, and alternations of conquest and defeat amongst most probably retrograde; and the descendants civilised communities, who alone can now be of the feudal and predatory warriors of the formidable to each other, though productive West have at last attained a decided pre- of great local and temporary evils, may be dominancy over those of their elder brothers regarded on the whole as one of the means in the East; to whom, at that period, they of promoting and equalising the general civiliwere unquestionably inferior in elegance and sation. Rome polished and enlightened all ingenuity, and whose hostilities were then the barbarous nations she subdued—and was conducted on the same system with our own. herself polished and enlightened by her conThey, in short, have remained nearly where quest of elegant Greece. If the European they were; while we, beginning with the im- parts of Russia had been subjected to the doprovement of our governments and military minion of France, there can be no doubt that discipline, have gradually outstripped them the loss of national independence would have in all the lesser and more ornamental attain- been compensated by rapid advances both in ments in which they originally excelled. liberality and refinement; and if, by a still
This extraordinary fact of the stationary or more disastrous, though less improbable condegenerate condition of the two oldest and tingency, the Moscovite hordes were ever to greatest families of mankind—those of Asia overrun the fair countries to the south-west and Africa, has always appeared to us a sad of them, it is equally certain that the invaders obstacle in the way of those who believe in would speedily be softened and informed by the general progress of the race, and its con- the union; and be infected more certainly stant advancement towards a state of perfec- than by any other sort of contact, with the tion. Two or three thousand years ago, those arts and the knowledge of the vanquished. vast communities were certainly in a happier All these great advantages. however-this and more prosperous state than they are now; apparently irrepressible impulse to improveand in many of them we know that their most ment—this security against backsliding and powerful and flourishing societies have been decay, seems peculiar to Europe, * and not corrupted and dissolved, not by any accidental capable of being communicated, even by her, or extrinsic disaster, like foreign conquest, to the most docile races of the other quarters pestilence, or elemental devastation, but by of the world: and it is really extremely diffiwhat appeared to be the natural consequences cult to explain, upon what are called philoof that very greatness and refinement which sophical principles, the causes of this superihad marked and rewarded their earlier exer- ority. We should be very glad to ascribe it tions. In Europe, hitherto, the case has cer- to our greater political Freedom :—and no tainly been different: For though darkness doubt, as a secondary cause, this is among the did fall upon its nations also, after the lights most powerful; as it is to the maintenance of of Roman civilisation were extinguished, it is that freedom that we are indebted for the selfto be remembered that they did not burn out estimation, the feeling of honour, the general of themselves, but were trampled down by equity of the laws, and the substantial sehosts of invading barbarians, and that they curity both from sudden revolution and from blazed out anew, with increased splendour capricious oppression, which distinguish our and power, when the dulness of that superin- portion of the globe. But we cannot bring cumbent mass was at length vivified by their ourselves to regard this freedom as a mere contact
, and animated by the fermentation | accident in our history, that is not itself to be of that leaven which had all along been se- | accounted for, as well as its consequences : cretly working in its recesses. In Europe And when it is said that our greater stability certainly there has been a progress: And the more polished of its present inhabitants have
* When we speak of Europe, it will be under. not only regained the place which was held stood that we speak, not of the land, but of the of old by their illustrious masters of Greece people—and include, therefore, all the settlements and Rome, but have plainly outgone them in and colonies of that favoured race, in whatever the most substantial and exalted of their im- quarter of the globe they may now be established. provements. Far more humane and refined Some situations seem more, and some less, favour. than the Romans-far less giddy and turbulent | The Spaniards certainly degenerated in Peru-and
able to the preservation of the original character. and treacherous than the Greeks, they have the Dutch perhaps in Batavia ;-but the English given a security to life and property that was remain, we trust, unimpaired in America.
and prosperity is owing to our greater freedom, of its authors—the substantial advantages of we are immediately tempted to ask, by what honesty and fair dealing over the most ingethat freedom has itself been produced ? In nious systems of trickery and fraud ;-and the same way we might ascribe the superior even—though this is the last and hardest, as mildness and humanity of our manners, the well as the most precious, of all the lessons abated ferocity of our wars, and generally our of reason and experience--that the toleratior. respect for human life, to the influence of a even of religious errors is not only prudent Religion which teaches that all men are equal and merciful in itself, and most becoming a in the sight of God, and inculcates peace and fallible and erring being, but is the surest charity as the first of our duties. But, besides and speediest way to compose religious differthe startling contrast between the profligacy, ences, and to extinguish that most formidable treachery, and cruelty of the Eastern Empire bigotry, and those most pernicious errors, after its conversion to the true faith, and the which are fed and nourished by persecution. simple and heroic virtues of the heathen re- It is the want of this knowledge, or rather of public, it would still occur to inquire, how it the capacity for attaining it, that constitutes has happened that the nations of European the palpable inferiority of the Eastern races; descent have alone embraced the sublime and, in spite of their fancy, ingenuity, and truths, and adopted into their practice the restless activity, condemns them, it would mild precepts, of Christianity, while the peo- appear irretrievably, to vices and sufferings, ple of the East have uniformly rejected and from which nations in a far ruder condition disclaimed them, as alien to their character are comparatively free. But we are wanderand habits--in spite of all the efforts of the ing too far from the magnificent Baber and apostles, fathers, and martyrs, in the primitive his commentators,--and must now leave these and most effective periods of their preaching? vague and general speculations for the facts How, in short, it has happened that the sensual and details that lie before us. and sanguinary creed of Mahomet has super- Zehir-ed-din Muhammed, surnamed Baber, seded the pure and pacific doctrines of Chris- or the Tiger, was one of the descendants of tianity in most of those very regions where it Zengiskhan and of Tamerlane; and though was first revealed to mankind, and first es inheriting only the small kingdom of Fergtablished by the greatest of existing govern- hana in Bucharia, ultimately extended his ments? The Christian revelation is no doubt dominions by conquest to Delhi and the the most precious of all Heaven's gifts to the greater part of Hindostan; and transmitted to benighted world. But it is plain, that there his famous descendants, Akber and Aurengwas a greater aptitude to embrace and to zebe, the magnificent empire of the Moguls. profit by it in the European than in the Asiatic He was born in 1482, and died in 1530.
A free government, in like manner, is Though passing the greater part of his time unquestionably the most valuable of all human in desperate military expeditions, he was an inventions—the great safeguard of all other educated and accomplished man; an elegant temporal blessings, and the mainspring of all poet; a minute and fastidious critic in all the intellectual and moral improvement :-But niceties and elegances of diction; a curious such a government is not the result of a lucky and exact observer of the statistical phenothought or happy casualty; and could only be mena of every region he entered; a great adestablished among men who had previously mirer of beautiful prospects and fine flowers; learned both to relish the benefits it secures, and, though a devoted Mahometan in his and to understand the connection between the way, a very resolute and jovial drinker of means it employsand the ends at which it aims. wine. Good-humoured, brave, munificent,
We come then, though a little reluctantly, sagacious, and frank in his character, he to the conclusion, that there is a natural and in- might have been a Henry IV. if his training herent difference in the character and temper- had been in Europe ;-and even as he is, is ament of the European and the Asiatic races less stained, perhaps, by the Asiatic vices of -consisting, perhaps, chiefly in a superior cruelty and perfidy than any other in the list capacity of patient and persevering thought in of her conquerors. The work before us is 3 the former-and displaying itself, for the most faithful translation of his own account of his part, in a more sober and robust understanding, life and transactions; written, with some conand a more reasonable, principled, and inflexi- siderable blanks, up to the year 1508, in the ble morality. It is this which has led us, at form of a narrative—and contivued afteronce to temper our political institutions with wards, as a journal, till 1529. It is here prospective checks and suspicious provisions illustrated by the most intelligent, learned, against abuses, and, in our different orders and least pedantic notes we have ever seen and degrees, to submit without impatience to annexed to such a performance; and by two those checks and restrictions ;—to extend our or three introductory dissertations, more clear, reasonings by repeated observation and ex- masterly, and full of instruction than any it periment, to larger and larger conclusions, has ever been our lot to peruse on the history and thus gradually to discover the paramount or geography of the East. The translation importance of discipline and unity of purpose was begun by the late very learned and enin war, and of absolute security to person and terprising Dr. Leyden. It has been com. property in all peaceful pursuits—the folly of pleted, and the whole of the valuable comall passionate and vindictive assertion of sup- mentary added by Mr. W. Erskine, on the posed rights and pretensions, and the certain solicitation of the Hon. Mountstewart'Elphinrecoil of long-continued injustice on the heads stone and Sir John Malcolm, the two inti
of last year.
viduals in the world best qualified to judgeThe whole of Asia may be considered as diviof the value or execution of such a work. The ded into two parts by the great chain of mountains greater part of the translation was finished which runs from China and the Birman Empire on
the east, to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean and transmitted to this country in 1817; but
on iho west. From the eastward, where it is of was only committed to the press in the course great breadth, it keeps a north-westerly course,
rising in height as it advances, and forming the hill The preface contains a learned account of countries of Assâm, Boorân, Nepal, Sirinagar, the Turki language, (in which these memoirs Tibet, and Ladak. It encloses the valley of Kashwere written,) the prevailing tongue of Cen- mîr, near which it seems to have gained its greatest tral Asia, and of which the Constantinopolitan the north of Peshầwer and Kâbul, after which it Turkish is one of the most corrupted dialects, appears to break into a variety of smaller ranges -some valuable corrections of Sir William of hills that proceed in a westerly and south-westJones' notices of the Institutes of Taimur, -erly direction, generally terminating in the province and a very clear explanation of the method of Khorasân. Near Herât, in that province, the employed in the translation, and the various mountains sink away; but the range appears to helps by which the great difficulties of the ered as resuming its course, running to the south
rise again near Meshhed, and is by some considtask were relieved. The first Introduction, of the Caspian and bounding Mazenderân, whence however, contains much more valuable mat- it proceeds on through Armenia, and thence into ters: It is devoted to an account of the great Asia Minor, finding 118 termination in the moun. Tartar tribes, who, under the denomination tains of ancient Lycia. This immense range, which of the Turki, the Moghul, and the Mandshur some consider as terminating at Herât, while it di
vides Bengal, Hindustân, the Penjab, Afghanistan, races, may be said to occupy the whole vast Persia, and part of the Turkish territory, from the extent of Asia, north of Hindostan and part country of the Moghul and Turki tribes, which, of Persia, and westward from China." Of with few exceptions, occupy the whole extent of these, the Mandshurs, who have long been country from the borders of China to the sea of the sovereigns of China, possess the countries Azof, may also be considered as separating in its immediately to the north and east of that from uncivilised tribes. To the south of this range,
whole course, nations of comparative civilisation, ancient empire—the Turki, the regions imme- if we perhaps except some part of the Afghân ter: diately to the north and westward of India ritory, which, indeed, may rather be held as part and Persia Proper, stretching round the Cas- of the range itself than as south of it, there is no pian, and advancing, by the Constantinopoli- nation which, at some period or other of its history, tan tribes, considerably to the southeast of has not been the seat of a powerful empire, and of
all those arts and refinements of life which attend Europe. The Moghuls lie principally be
a numerous and wealthy population, when protween the other two. These three tribes tected by a government that permits the fancies and speak, it would appear, totally different lan- energies of the human mind to follow their natural guages-the name of Tartar or Tatar, by bias. The degrees of civilisation and of happiness which they are generally designated in Eu- possessed in these various regions may have been rope, not being acknowledged by any of them, wealth and abundance, and no small share of the
extremely different ; but many of the comforts of and appearing to have been appropriated only higher treasures of cultivated judgment and imagito a small clan of Moghuls. The Huns, who nation, must have been enjoyed by nations that desolated the declining empire under Attila*, could produce the various systems of Indian phiare thought by Mr. Erskine to have been losophy and science, a drama so polished as the of the Moghul race; and Zengiskhan, the Sakoniala, a poet, like Ferdousi, or a moralist like
Sadi. While to the south of this range we every mighty conqueror of the thirteenth century, where see flourishing cities, cultivated fields, and was certainly of that family. Their princes, all the forms of a regular government and policy, however, were afterwards blended, by family to the north of it, if we except China and the counalliances, with those of the Turki; and sev- tries to the south of the Sirr or Jaxartes, and along eral of them, reigning exclusively over con- day, wander over their extensive regions as their quered tribes of that descent, came gradually forefathers did, little if at all more refined than they though of proper Moghul ancestry, to reckon appear to have been at the very dawn of history. themselves as Turki sovereigns. Of this de- Their flocks are still their wealth, their camp their scription was Taimur Beg, or Tamerlane, city, and the same government exists of separate whose family, though descended from Zengis, chiefs, who are not much exalted in luxury or had long been settled in the Turki kingdom information above the commonest of their subjects
around them." of Samarkand; and from him the illustrious Baber, the hero of the work before us, a These general remarks are followed up by decided Turki in language, character, and an exact and most luminous geographical prejudices, was lineally sprung. The relative enumeration of all the branches of this great condition of these enterprising nations, and northern family,—accompanied with historitheir more peaceful brethren in the south, cal notices, and very interesting elucidations cannot be more clearly or accurately described of various passages both in ancient and ihan in the words of Mr. Erskine :
modern writers. The following observations
are of more extensive application :The learned translator conceives that the supposed name of this famous barbarian was truly only " The general state of society which prevailed ihe denomination of his office. It is known that he in the age of Baber, within the countries ihat have succeeded his uncle in the government, though been described, will be much better understood there were children of his alive. It is probable, from a perusal of the following Memoirs than from therefore, that he originally assumed auihority in any prefatory observations that could be offered. the character of their guardian ; and the word Ata- It is evident that, in consequence of the protection lik, in Tartar, signifies guardian, or quasi parens. which had been afforded to ihe people of Mâweral.
naher by their regular governments, a considerable The Yasi, or institutions of Chengiz, are
a collection of the old usages of the Moghul tribes,
The present Moghul tribes, it is added, his portion of the spoil. In the course of the Me. punish most offences by fines of cattle. The moirs, we shall find that the grandees of the courr, art of war in the days of Baber had not been while they take their place by the side of the candi. very greatly matured ; and though matchlocks date of their choice, do not appear to believe that and unwieldy cannon had been recently in. fidelity to him is any very necessary virtue. The troduced from the West, the arms chiefly nobility, unable to predict ihe events of one twelve relied on were still the bow and the spear, month, 'degenerate into a set of selfish, calculating the sabre and the battle-axe. Mining was though perhaps brave partizans. Rank, and wealth, and present enjoyment, become their idols. The practised in sieges, and cavalry seems to have prince feels the influence of the general want of formed the least considerable part of the stability, and is himself educated in the loose princi- army. ples of an adventurer. In all about him he sees There is a second Introduction, containing merely the instruments of his power. The subject, a clear and brief abstract of the history of seeing the prince consult only his pleasures, learns on his part to consult only his private convenience. those regions from the time of Tamerlane to In such societies, the steadiness of principle that that of Baber,—together with an excellent flows from the love of right and of our country Memoir on the annexed map, and an account can have no place. It may be questioned whether of the hills and rivers of Bokara, of which it the prevalence of the Mahommedan religion, by would be idle to attempt any abstract. swallowing up civil in religious distinctions, has not a tendency to increase this indifference to country, already said that we think it in vain to re:
As to the Memoirs themselves, we have wherever it is established."
". That the fashions of the East are unchanged, commend them as a portion of History with is, in general, certainly true; because the climate which our readers should be acquainted, and the despotism, from the one or other of which or consequently to aim at presenting them a very large proportion of them arises, have con with any thing in the nature of an abstract, in which a Mussulman of rank spends his day, will or connected account of the events they só be led to suspect that the maxim has sometimes minutely detail. All that we propose to do, been adopted with too little limitation. Take the therefore, is, to extract a few of the traits example of his pipe and his coffee. The Kalliûn, which appear to us the most striking and or Hukkâ, is seldom out of his hand; while the characteristic, and to endeavour, in a very coffee-cup makes its appearance every hour, as if short compass, to give an idea of whatever no enjoyments the loss of which he would feel curiosity or interest the work possesses. The more severely; or which, were we to judge only most remarkable thing about it, or at least by the frequency of the call for them, we should that which first strikes us, is the simplicity suppose to have entered from a more remote pe of the style, and the good sense, varied knowriod into the system of Asiatic life. Yet we know ledge, and extraordinary industry of the royal that the one which has indeed become a necessary author. It is difficult
, indeed, to believe that of life to every class of Mussulmans) could not have been enjoyed before the discovery of America ;
it is the work of an Asiatic, and a sovereign. and there is every reason to believe that the other Though copiously, and rather diffusely writ. was not introduced into Arabia from Africa, where ten, it is perfectly free from the ornamental coffee is indigenous, previously to the sixteenth verbosity, the eternal metaphor, and puerile century;* and what marks the circumstance more strongly, both of these habits have forced their and though savouring so far of royalty as to
exaggerations of most Oriental compositions ; in religion. Perhaps it would have been foriunaie abound in descriptions of dresses and cere. for Baber had they prevailed in his age, as they monies, is yet occupied in the main with conmight have diverted him from the immoderate use first of wine, and afterwards of deleterious drugs, much in favour with monarchs. As a speci
cerns greatly too rational and humble to be which ruined his constitution, and hastened on his ond."
men of the adventurous life of the chieftains
* D'Herbelot, Biblioth. Orient. art. Turk. * La Roque, Traité Historique de i'Origine et du + Hist. de Timur Bec, vol. üi. pp. 227. 263. 326, Progrés du Café, &c. Paris, 1716, 12mo.
of those days, and of Baber's manner of de provision within the fort. I looked for aid and asscribing it, we may pass at once to his account sistance from the princes my neighbours; but each of his being besieged in Samarkand, and the of them had his attention fixed on some other obparticulars of his flight after he was obliged doubtedly a brave and experienced monarch, yet
ject. For example, Sultan Hussain Mirza was un. to abandon it:
neither did he give me assistance, nor even sund During the continuance of the siege, the rounds an ambassador io encourage me. of the rampart were regularly gone, once every nighi, sometimes by Kasim Beg, and sometimes by
He is obliged, in consequence, to evacuate other Begs and captains. Froin the Firozeh gate the city, and moves off privately in the night. to the Sheikh-Zadeh gale, we were able to go along The following account of his flight, we think, the ramparis on horseback; everywhere else we is extremely picturesque and interesting. were obliged to go on foot. Seiring out in the beginning of the night, it was morning before we “ Having entangled ourselves among the great had completed our rounds.
branches of the canals of the Soghd, during the **One day Sheibâni Khan made an attack be. darkness of the night, we lost our way, and after tween the Iron gate and that of the Sheikh-Zâdeh. encountering many difficulties we passed Khwajeh As I was with the reverse, I immediately led them Dîdar about dawn. By the time of early morning to the quarter that was attacked, without attending prayers, we arrived at the hillock of Karbogh, and 10 the Washing.green gate or the Needlemakers' passing it on the north below the village of Kherdek, gate. That same day, from the top of the Sheikh. we made for Iân-ûtî. On the road, I had a race Zadeh's gateway, I struck a palish white coloured with Kamber Ali and Kâsim Beg. My horse got horse an excellent shot with my cross-bow : it fell the lead. As I turned round on my seat to see dead the moment my arrow touched it; but in the how far I had left them behind, my saddle.girth meanwhile they had made such a vigorous attack, being slack, the saddle turned round, and I came near the Camel's Neck, that they effected a lodg: to the ground right on my head. Although I im. ment close under the rampart. Being hotly engaged mediately sprang up and mounted, yet I did not in repelling the enemy where I was, I had enter- recover the full possession of my faculties till the tained no Ipprehensions of danger on the other side, evening, and the world, and all that occurred at the where they had prepared and brought with them time, passed before my eyes and apprehension like twenty-five or twenty-six scaling-ladders, each of a dream, or a phantasy, and disappeared. The them so broad that two and three men could mount time of afternoon prayers was past ere we reached a-breast. He had placed in ambush, opposite to Ilàn-ûtî, where we alighted, and having killed a the city-wall, seven or eight hundred chosen men horse, cut him up, and dressed slices of his flesh; with these ladders, between the Ironsmiths' and we stayed a little time to rest our horses, then Needlemakers' gates, while he himself moved to mounting again, before day-break we alighied at the other side, and made a false attack. Our atten. the village of Khalileh. From Khalileh we protion was entirely drawn off to this attack; and the ceeded 10 Dizak. At that time Tâher Dûldai, the men in ambush no sooner saw the works opposite son of Hâfez Muhammed Beg Dũldai, was governor to them empty of defenders, by the watch having of Dizak. Here we found nice fat flesh, bread of left them, than they rose from the place where they fine flour well baked, sweet melons, and excellent had lain in ambush, advanced with extreme speed, grapes in great abundance; thus passing from the and applied their scaling-ladders all at once between extreme of famine to plenty, and from an eslate of the iwo gales that have been mentioned, exactly danger and calamity to peace and ease. opposite to Muhammed Mazîd Terkhan's house. In my whole life. I never enjoyed myself so The Begs who were on guard had only two or much, nor at any period of it feli so sensibly the three of their servants and attendants about them. pleasures of peace and plenty. Enjoyment after Neverı heless Kuch Beg, Muhammed Küli Kochin, suffering, abundance after want, come with in. Shah Sufi, and another brave cavalier, boldly assail. creased relish, and afford more exquisite delight. I ed them, and displayed signal heroism. Some of have four or five times, in the course of my life, the enemy had already mounted the all, and passed in a similar manner from distress to ease, several others were in the act of scaling it, when and from a state of suffering to enjoyment: but this the four persons who have been mentioned arrived was the first time that I had ever been delivered at on the spot, fell upon them sword in hand, with the once from the injuries of my enemy, and the pres. greatest bravery, and dealing out furious blows sure of hunger, and passed to the ease of security; around them, drove the assailants back over the and the pleasures of plenty. Having rested and wall, and put them to flight. Kuch Beg distin- enjoyed ourselves iwo or three days in Dizak, we guished himself above all the rest; and This was proceeded on to Uratippa. an exploit for ever 10 be cited to his honour. He * Dekhat is one of the hill-districts of Uratippa. twice during this siege performed excellent service It lies on the skirts of a very high mountain, immeby his valour.
diately on passing which you come on the country It was now the season of the ripening of the of Masîk ha. The inhabitants, though Sarts, have grain, and nobody had brought in any new corn. I large flocks of sheep, and herds of mares, like the As tlie siege bad drawn out to great length, the in- | Túrks. The sheep belonging to Dekhat may habitants were reduced to extreme distress, and amount to forty Thousand. We took up our lodg. things came to such a pass, that the poor and meaner ings in the peasants' houses. I lived at the house sort were forced to feed on dogs' and asses' flesh. of one of the head men of the place. He was an Grain for the horses becoming scarce, they were aged man, seventy or eighty years old. His mother obliged to be fed on the leaves of trees; and it was was still alive, and had aitained an extreme old ascertained from experience, that the leaves of the age, being at this time a hundred and eleven years mulberry and blackwood answered best. Many old. One of this lady's relations had accompanied used the shavings and raspings of wood, which the army of Taimur Beg, when it invaded Hinthey soaked in water, and gave to their horses. dustân. The circumstances remained fresh in her For three or four months Sheibâni Khan did not memory, and she often told us stories on that sub. approach ihe fortress, but blockaded it at some dis-ject. In the district of Dekhat alone, there still tance on all sides, changing his ground from time were of this lady's children, grandchildren. great. to time.
grandchildren, and grcal-greal-grandchildren, to • The ancients have said, that in order to main. The number of ninety-six persons; and including tain a fortress, a head, two hands, and iwo feet are those deceased. the whole amounted to two hunnecessary. The head is a captain, the two hands dred. One of her great-grandchildren was at this are two friendly forces that must advance from op; time a young man of twenty-five or twenty-six posite sides; the two feet are water and stores of years of age, with a fine black beard. While I