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hats curiously wrought of green feathers, held with the most profound respect, and offered trumpets of a fine black wood, ingeniously carved ; instantly to release him from his fetters. and there were six others, in large hats and white feathers, who appeared to be guests to the cacique.
“ But to this he would not consent. • No,' said This gallant litle armada having arrived alongside he proudly, their majesties commanded me by of the admiral's ship, the cacique entered on board letter to submit to whatever Bodadilla should order with all his train. He appeared in his full regalia. in their name; by their authority he has put upon Around his head was a band of small stones of me these chains--I will wear them until they shall various colours, but principally green, symmetri. order them to be taken off
, and I will preserve them cally arranged, with large white stones at intervals, afterwards as relics and memorials of the reward and connected in front by a large jewel of gold. of my services.'." Two plates of gold were suspended to his ears by “He did so,' adds his son Fernando ; 'I saw rings of small green stones. To a necklace of white them always hanging in his cabinet, and he rebeads, of a kind deemed precious by them, was quested that when he died they might be buried suspended a large plate, in the form of a fleur-de- with him!'" lys, of guanin, an inferior species of gold; and a girdle of variegated stones, similar to ihose round
If there is something in this memorable his head, completed his regal decorations. His brutality which stirs the blood with intense wife was adorned in a similar manner, having also indignation, there is something soothing and a very small apron of cotton, and bands of the same still more touching in the instant retribution. round her arms and legs. The daughters were without ornaments, excepting the eldest and hand
“ The arrival,” says Mr. Irving, “ of Columbus somest, who had a girdle of small stones, from at Cadiz, a prisoner and in chains, produced almost which was suspended a tablet, the size of an ivy as great a sensation as his triumphant return from leaf, composed of various-coloured stones, em his first yoyage. It was one of those striking and broided on net-work of cotton.
obvious facis, which speak to the feelings of the When the cacique entered on board the ship, multitude, and preclude the necessity of reflection. he distributed presents of the productions of his No one stopped to inquire into the case. It was island among the officers and men. The admiral sufficient to be told thai Columbus was brought was at this time in his cabin, engaged in his morn
home in irons from the world he had discovered! ing devotions. When he appeared on deck, the A general burst of indignation arose in Cadiz, and chieftain hastened to meet him with an animated in the powerful and opulent Seville, which was imcountenance. My friend,' said he, 'I have de mediately echoed throughout all Spain." termined to leave my country, and to accompany
“Ferdinand joined with his generous queen in thee. I have heard from these Indians who are with her reprobation of the treatment of the admiral, and thee, of the irresistible power of thy sovereigns, both sovereigns hastened to give evidence to the and of the many nations thou hast subdued in their world that his imprisonment had been without their Whoever refuses obedience to thee is sure
authority, and contrary to their wishes. Without to suffer. Thou hast destroyed the canoes and waiting to receive any documents that might arrive dwellings of the Caribs, slaying their warriors, and from Bobadilla, they sent orders to Cadiz that the carrying into captivity their wives and children. prisoners should be instantly set at liberty, and Allihe islands are in dread of thee; for who can
ireated with all distinction. They wrote a letter to withstand thee now, that thou knowest the secrets Columbus couched in terms of gratitude and affecof the land, and the weakness of the people ? tion, expressing their grief at all he had suffered, Rather, therefore, than thou shouldst take away and inviting him to court. They ordered, at the my dominions, I will embark wiih all my house. same time, that two thousand ducals should be ad. hold in thy ships, and will go to do homage to thy vanced to defray his expenses. king and queen, and to behold their marvellous
“ The loyal heart of Columbus was again cheered country, of which the Indians relate such wonders.' by this declaration of his sovereigns. He felt conWhen this speech was explained to Columbus, and scious of his integrity, and anticipated an immediate he beheld the wife, the sons and daughters of the restitution of all his rights and dignities. He apcacique, and thought upon the snares to which peared at court in Granada on the 17ih of Decem. their ignorance and simplicity would be exposed, ber, not as a man ruined and disgraced, but richly he was touched with compassion, and determined dressed, and attended by an honourable retinue. not to take them from their native land. He replied He was received by their majesties with unqualified to the cacique, therefore, that he received him favour and distinction. When the queen beheld under his protection as a vassal of his sovereigns; had deserved and all that he had sufiered, she was
this venerable man approach, and thought on all he but having many lands yet to visit before he returned to his country, he would at some future moved to tears. Columbus had borne up firmly time fulfil his desire. Then, taking leave with against the stern conflicts of the world, -he had many expressions of amity, the cacique, with his endured with lofty scorn the injuries and insults of wife and daughters, and all his retinue, re-embarked ignoble men, bui he possessed strong and quick in the canoes, returning reluctantly 10 their island, sensibility. When he found himself ihus kindly and the ships continued on their course."
received by his sovereigns, and beheld tears in the
benign eyes of Isabella, his long-suppressed feel. But we must turn from these bright le- ings burst forth; he threw himself upon his knees, gends; and hurry onward to the end of our and for some time could not utier a word for the extracts. It is impossible to give any abstract violence of his tears and sobbinge!" of the rapid succession of plots, tumults, and In the year 1502, and in the sixty-sixth desertions, which blighted the infancy of this year of his age, the indefatigable discoverer great settlement; or of the disgraceful calum- set out on his fourth and last voyage. In this nies, jealousies, and intrigues, which gradu- he reached the coast of Honduras; and fell ally undermined the credit of Columbus with in with a race somewhat more advanced in his sovereign, and ended at last in the mission civilization than any he had yet encountered of Bobadilla, with power to supersede him in in these romote regions. They had mantles command—and in the incredible catastrophe of woven cotton and some small utensils of of his being sent home in chains by this arro- native copper. He then ran down the shore gant and precipitate adventurer! When he of Veragua, and came through tremendous arrived on board the caravel which was to tempests to Portobello, in search, it appears carry him to Spain, the master treated him of a strait or inlet, by which he had per. suaded himself he should find a ready way | asperation of them might be fatal to the Spaniards to the shores of the Ganges: The extreme in their present forlorn situation. A firebrand severity of the season, and the miserable con- thrown into their wooden fortress might wrap it in
flames, and leave them defenceless amidst hostile dition of his ships, compelled him, however,
Thousands." to abandon this great enterprise ; the account “ The envy," says Mr. Irving," which had once of which Mr. Irving winds up with the fol- sickened at the glory and prosperity of Columbus, lowing quaint and not very felicitous observa- could scarcely have devised for him a more forloru tion: “If he was disappointed in his expec- heritage in the world he had discovered; the tenant tation of finding a strait through the Isthmus of a wreck on a savage coast, in an untraversed of Darien, it was because nature herself had ocean, at the mercy of barbarous hordes, who, in a
moment, from precarious friends, might be trans been disappointed—for she appears to have formed into ferocious enemies; afflicted, too, by attempted to make one, but to have attempted excruciating maladies which confined him to his it in vain."
bed, and by the pains and infirmities which hard. After this he returned to the coast of Vera- ship and anxiety had heaped upon his advancing gua, where he landed, and formed a tempo- of bitterness. He had yet to experience an evil
age. But Columbus had not yet exhausted his cup rary settlement, with a view of searching for worse than storm, or shipwreck, or bodily anguish, certain gold mines which he had been told or the violence of savage hordes, in the perfidy of were in the neighbourhood. This, however, those in whom he confided.”' was but the source of new disasters. The
The account of his sufferings during the natives, who were of a fierce and warlike twelve long months he was allowed to remain character, attacked and betrayed him--and in this miserable condition, is full of the deephis vessels were prevented from getting to est interest, and the strangest variety of adsea, by the formation of a formidable bar at venture. But we can now only refer to it.the mouth of the river.
Two of his brave and devoted adherents unAt last, by prodigious exertions, and the dertook to cross to Hispaniola in a slender heroic spirit of some of his officers, he was Indian canoe, and after incredible miseries, at enabled to get away. But his altered fortune length accomplished this desperate understill prissued him. He was harassed by per- taking—but from the cold-hearted indecision, petual storms, and after having beat up nearly or paltry jealousy, of the new Governor to Hispaniola, was assailed by
Ovando, it was not till the late period we have “ A sudden tempest, of such violence, that, ac
mentioned, that a vessel was at length descording to the strong expression of Columbus, it patched to the relief of the illustrious sufferer. seemed as if the world would dissolve. They lost
But he was not the only, or even the most three of their anchors almost immediately, and the memorable sufferer. From the time he was caravel Bermuda was driven with such violence superseded in command, the misery and opupon the ship of the admiral, that the bow of the pression of the natives of Hispaniola had intered. The sea running high, and the wind being creased beyond all proportion or belief. By boisterous, the vessels chafed and injured each other the miserable policy of the new governor, dreadfully, and it was with great difficulty that they their services were allotted to the Spanish were separated. One anchor only remained to the settlers, who compelled them to work by the admiral's ship, and this saved him from being driven cruel infliction of the scourge; and, withupon the rocks; but al daylight the cable was found holding from them the nourishment necessary nearly worn asunder. Had the darkness continued for health, exacted a degree of labour which an hour longer, he could scarcely have escaped could not have been sustained by the most shipwreck.
At the end of six days, the weather having vigorous men. moderated, he resumed his course, standing east. ward for Hispaniola: his people,' as he says, 'dis.
“ If they fled from this incessant toil and barba. mayed and down-hearted, almost all his anchors they were hunted out like wild beasts, scourged in
rous coercion, and took refuge in the mountains, lost, and his vessels bored as full of holes as a the most inhuman manner, and laden with chains honeycomb."
to prevent a second escape. Many perished long His proud career seemed now to be hasten- before their term of labour had expired. Those ing to a miserable end. Incapable of strug- who survived their term of six or eight months, gling longer with the elements, he was obliged
were permiited 10 return to their homes, until the
next term commenced. But their homes were to run before the wind to Jamaica, where he often forty, sixty, and eighty leagues distant. They was not even in a condition to attempt to had nothing to sustain them through the journey make any harbour.
but a few roots or agi peppers, or a little cassava.
bread. Worn down by long toil and cruel hard. “ His ships, reduced to mere wrecks, could no ships, which their feeble constitutions were incapalonger keep the sea, and were ready to sink even ble of sustaining, many had not strength to perform in port. He ordered them, therefore, to be run he journey, but sunk down and died by the way; aground, within a bow-shot of the shore, and fast. some by the side of a brook, others under the shade ened together, side by side. They soon filled with of a free, where they had crawled for shelter from water to the decks.' Thatched cabins were then the sun. I have found many dead in the rood,' crected at the prow and stern for the accommoda- says Las Casas, others gasping under the trees, tion of the crews, and the wreck was placed in the and others in the pangs of death, faintly crying, best possible state of defence. Thus castled in the Hunger; hunger!' Those who reached their sea, Columbus trusted to be able to repel any sud- homes most commonly found them desolate. Du. den attack of the natives, and at the same time to ring the eight months that they had been absent keep his men from roving about the neighbourhood their wives and children had either perished or and indulging in their usual es sses. No one was wandered away; the fields on which they depended allowed to go on shore without especial licence, and for food were overrun with weeds, and nothing was the utmost precaution was taken to prevent any left them but to lie down, exhausted and despairing, nonce from being given to the Indians. Any ex and die at the threshold of their habitations.
It is impossible to pursue any farther the picture "Sometimes," says Mr. Irving, they wouia drawn by the venerable Las Casas, not of what he hunt down a straggling Indian, and compel him, by had heard, but of what he had seen-nature and torments, to betray the hiding-place of his comhumanity revolt at the details. Suffice it 10 say panions, binding him and driving him before them that, so intolerable were the toils and sufferings in as a guide. Wherever they discovered one of flicted upon this weak and moflending race, that these places of refuge, filled with the aged'and i he they sunk under them, dissolving as it were from infirm, with feeble women and helpless children, the face of the earth. Many killed themselves in they inassacred them without mercy! They jespair, and even mothers overcame the powerful wished to inspire terror throughout the land, and in instinct of nature, and destroyed the infants at their frighten the whole tribe into submission. They cut breasts, 10 spare them a lite of wretchedness. off the hands of those whom they took roving at Twelve years ha:l not elapsed since the discovery large, and sent them, as they said, to deliver them of the island, and several hundred thousands of its as letters to their friends, demanding their surrender. native inhabitants had perished. miserable victims Nimberless were those, says Las Casas, whose to the grasping avarice of the white men."
hands were amputated in this manner, and many These pictures are sufficiently shocking; anguish and loss of blood.
of them suink down and died by the way, through but they do not exhaust the horrors that cover
*. The conquerors delighted in exercising strange the brief history of this ill-fated people. The and ingenious cruelties. They mingled horrible province or district of Xaragua, which was levity with their bloodthirstiness. They erecied ruled over by a princess, called Anacaona, gibbers long and low, so that the feet of the sutcelebrated in all ihe contemporary accounts terers might reach the ground, and their death be for the grace and dignity of her manners, and lingering. They hanged thirteen together, in reve.
rence, says the indignant Las Casas, of our blessed her contiding attachment to the strangers, had | Saviour and the iwelve apostles! While their hitherto enjoyed a happy exemption from the victims were suspended, and still living, they hack. troubles which distracted the other parts of ed them with their swords, to prove the strength the island, and when visited about ten years of their arm and the edge of their weapons. They before by the brother of Columbus, had im- wrapped them in dry straw, and selling fire to it,
terminated their exisience by the fiercest agony. pressed all the Spaniards with the idea of an
“ These are horrible details; yet a veil is drawn earthly paradise: both from the fertility and over others still more detestable. They are related sweetness of the country, the gentleness of by the venerable Las Casas, who was an eye-witsess its people, and the beauty and grace of the of the scenes he describes. He was young at the women. Upon some rumours that the neigh- time, but records them in his advanced years. All bouring caciques were assembling for hostile these things,' says he, “and others revolting to purposes, Ovando now marched into this de- almost fear to repeat them, scarce believing myself,
human nature, my own eyes beheld! and now I voted region with a well-appointed force of or whether I have not dreamt them.' near four hundred men. He was hospitably “The system of Columbus may have borne hard and joyfully received by the princess: and upon the Indians, born and brought up in uniasked affected to encourage and join in the festivity freedom; but it was never cruel nor sanguinary. which his presence had excited. He was even punishments ; his desire was to cherish and civilise
He inflicted no wanton massacres nor vindictive himself engaged in a sportful game with his the Indians, and to render them useful subjects, not officers, when the signal for massacre was to oppress, and persecute, and destroy them. When given—and the place was instantly covered he beheld the desolation that had swept them from with blood! Eighty of the caciques were the land during his suspension from authority, he burnt over slow fires! and thousands of the could not restrain the strong expression of his feel.
ings. In a letter written to the king after his return unarmed and unresisting people butchered,
to Spain, he thus expresses himself on the subject : without regard to sex or age. “Humanity, • The Indians of Hispaniola were and are the riches Mr. Irving very justly observes, “turns with of the island; for it is they who cultivate and make horror from such atrocities, and would fain the bread and the provisions for the Christians, who discredit them: But they are circumstantially dig the gold from the mines, and perform all the and still more minutely recorded by the offices and labours both of men and beasts. I am venerable Las Casas-who was resident in the than three years,) sir parts out of seven of the nctives
informed that, since I left this island, (that is, in less island at the time, and conversant with the are dead, all through ill treatment and inhumanity! principal actors in the tragedy."
some by the sword, others by blows and cruel Still worse enormities signalised the final usage, and others through hunger. The greater subjugation of the province of Higuey—the part have perished in the mountains and glens, last scene of any attempt to resist the tyran- whither they had fled, from not being able to supnical power of the invaders. It would be port the labour imposed upon them." iille to detail here the progress of that savage
The story now draws to a close. Columbus and most unequal warfare: but it is right that returned to Spain, broken down with age the butcheries perpetrated by the victors and affliction—and after two years spent in should not be forgotten—that men may see unavailing solicitations at the court of the to what incredible excesses civilised beings cold blooded and ungrateful Ferdinand (his may be tempted by the possession of absolute generous patroness, Isabella, having died in. and unquestioned power- and may learn, mediately on his' return), 'terminated with from indisputable memorials, how far the characteristic magnanimity a life of singular abuse of delegated and provincial authority energy, splendour, and endurance. Indepen may be actually carried. If it be true, as dent of his actual achievements, he was un Homer has alleged, that the day which makes doubtedly a great and remarkable man; and a man a slave, takes away half his worth—it Mr Irving has summed up his general charseems to be still more infallibly and fatally acter in a very eloquent and judicious way. true, that the master generally suffers a yet "His ambition," he observes," was losty and larger privation.
noble. He was full of high thoughts, and anxious
to distinguish himself by great achievements. It of glory would have broke upon his mind could he has been said that a mercenary feeling mingled have known that he had indeed discovered a new with his views, and that his stipulations with the continent, equal to the whole of the old world in mag. Spanish Court were selfish and avaricious. The nitude, and separated by two vast oceans from all the charge is inconsiderate and unjust. He aimed at earth hitherto known by civilised man! And how dignity and wealth in the same lofty spirit in which would his magnanimous spirit have been consoled, he sought renown; and the gains that promised to amidst the afflictions of age and the cares of penury, arise from his discoveries, he iniended to appropriate the neglect of a fickle public, and the injustice of an in the same princely and pious spirit in which they ungrateful king, could he have anticipated the were demanded. He contemplated works and splendid empires which were to spread over the achievements of benevolence and religion: vast con beautiful world he had discovered; and the nations, tributions for the relief of the poor of his native and tongues, and languages which were to fill its city; the foundation of churches, where masses lands with his renown, and to revere and bless his should be said for the souls of the departed; and name to the latest poste-ity!" armies for the recovery of the holy sepulchre in Palestine.
The appendix to Mr. Irving's work, which ** In his testament, he enjoined on his son Diego, occupies the greater part of the last volume, and whoever after him should inherit his
contains most of the original matter which whatever dignities and titles might afterwards be his learning and research have enabled him granted by the king, always to sign himself simply to bring to bear on the principal subject, and
the Admiral,' by way of perpetuating in the family constitutes indeed a miscellany of a singularly its real source of greatness."
“He was devoutly pious; religion mingled with curious and interesting description. It conthe whole course of his thoughts and actions, and sists, besides very copious and elaborate acshines forth in all his most private and unstudied counts of the family and descendants of Cowritings. Whenever he made any great discovery, lumbus, principally of extracts and critiques he celebrated it by solemn thanks to God. The of the discoveries of earlier or contemporary voice of prayer and melody of praise rose from his ships when he first beheld the New World, and
navigators—the of the Carthaginians
voyages his first action on landing was to prostrate himself and the Scandinavians,—of Behem, the Pin. upon the earth and return thanksgivings. Every zons, Amerigo Vespucci, and others—with evening, the Salve Regina, and other vesper hymns, some very curious remarks on the travels of were chanted by his crew, and masses were per- Marco Polo, and Mandeville-a diseertation formed in the beautiful groves that bordered the on the ships used by Columbus and his conwild shores of this heathen land. The religion thus deeply seated in the soul, diffused a sober dig. temporaries on the Atalantis of Plato—the nity and benign composure over his whole demean. imaginary island of St. Brandan, and of the our. His language was pure and guarded, free Seven Cities—together with remarks on the from all imprecations, oaths, and other irreverent writings of Peter Martyr, Oviedo, Herrera, expressions. But his piety was darkened by the Las Casas, and the other contemporary chronibigotry of the age. He evidently concurred in the clers of those great discoveries. The whole opinion that all the nations who did not acknowledge drawn up, we think, with singular judgment, that the sternest measures might be used for their diligence, and candour; and presenting the conversion, and the severest punishments inflicted reader, in the most manageable form, with upon their obstinacy in unbelief. In this spirit almost all the collateral information which of bigotry he considered himself justified in making could be brought to elucidate the transactions captives of the Indians, and transporting them to
to which they relate. Spain to have them taught the doctrines of Chris. tianity, and in selling them for slaves if they
Such is the general character of Mr. Irving's pretended to resist his invasions. He was counte. book-and such are parts of its contents. We nanced in these views, no doubt, by the general do not pretend to give any view whatever of opinion of the age. But it is not the intention of the substance of four large historical volumes; the author to justify Columbus on a point where it and fear that the specimens we have ventured is inexcusable to err. Let it remain a blot on his to exhibit of the author's way of writing are ülustrious name,-and let others derive a lesson from it.”
not very well calculated to do justice either
to the occasional force, or the constant variety, He was a man, too, undoubtedly, as all of his style. But for judicious readers they truly great men have been, of an imaginative will probably suffice-and, we trust, will be and sensitive temperament--something, as found not only to warrant the praise we have Mr. Irving has well remarked, even of a vis- felt ourselves called on to bestow, but to inionary—but a visionary of a high and lofty duce many to gratify themselves by the peruorder, controlling his ardent imagination by a sal of the work at large. powerful judgment and great practical sa- Mr. Irving, we believe, was not in England gacity, and deriving not only a noble delight when his work was printed: and we must say but signal accessions of knowledge from this he has been very insufficiently represented vigour and activity of his fancy.
by the corrector of the press. We do not • Yet, with all this fervour of imagination," as
recollect ever to have seen so handsome a Mr. Irving has strikingly observed, its fondest book with so many gross typographical errors. dreams fell short of the reality: He died in igno. In many places they obscure the sense-and rance of the real grandeur of his discovery. Until are very frequently painful and offensive. his last breath he entertained the idea that he had It will be absolutely necessary that this be nerely opened a new way to the old resorts of opu- looked to in a new impression; and the aulent commerce, and had discovered some of the thor would do well to avail himself of the wild regions of the east. He supposed Hispaniola to be the ancient Ophir which had been visited by same opportunity, to correct some verba) in. the ships of Solomon, and that Cuba and Terra accuracies, and to polish and improve some Firma were but remote parts of Asia. What visions | passages of slovenly writing.
( Inne, 1827.) Memoirs of ZEHIR-ED-DIN MUHAMMED BABER, Emperor of Hindustan, written by himself, in the Jagħatai Turki, and translated, partly by the late JOHN LEYDEN, Esq. M.D., partly by William Erskine, Esq. With Notes and a Geographical and Historical Introduction : together with a Map of the Countries between the Oxus and Jazartes, and a Memoir regarding its Construction, by CHARLES WADDINGTON, Esq., of the East India Company's Engineers. London : 1826. This is a very curious, and admirably edited Tartars to the Celestial Empire of China. It work. But the strongest impression which will not do to say, that we want something the perusal of it has left on our minds is the nobler in character, and more exalted in inboundlessness of authentic history; and, if tellect, than is to be met with among those we might venture to say it, the uselessness murderous Orientals—that there is nothing to of all history which does not relate to our own interest in the contentions of mere force and fraternity of nations, or even bear, in some violence; and that it requires no very fineway or other, on our own preseut or future drawn reasoning to explain why we should condition.
turn with disgust from the story, if it had We have here a distinct and faithful account been preserved, of the savage affrays which of some hundreds of battles, sieges, and great have drenched the sands of Africa or ihe rocks military expeditions, and a character of a pro- of New Zealand—through long generations of digious hamber of eminent individuals,-men murder-with the blood of their brutish popufamous in their day, over wide regions, for lation. This may be true enough of Madagenius or fortune--poets, conquerors, martyrs gascar or Dahomy; but it does not apply to --founders of cities and dynasties-authors the case before us. The nations of Asia geneof immortal works-ravagers of vast districts rally—at least those composing its great states abounding in wealth and population. Of all - were undoubtedly more polished than those these great personages and events, nobody in of Europe, during all the period that preceded Europe, if we except a score or two of studi- their recent connection. Their warriors were ous Orientalists, has ever heard before; and as brave in the field, their statesmen more it would not, we imagine, be very easy to subtle and politic in the cabinet: In the arts show that we are any better for hearing of of luxury, and all the elegancies of civil life, them now.
A few curious traits, that hap- they were immeasurably superior; in ingepen to be strikingly in contrast with our own nuity of speculation—in literature—in social manners and habits, may remain on the politeness--the comparison is still in their memory of a reflecting reader-with a gene- favour. ral confused recollection of the dark and gor- It has often occurred to us, indeed, to congeous phantasmagoria. But no one, we may sider what the effect would have been on the fairly say, will think it worth while to digest fate and fortunes of the world, if, in the fouror develope the details of the history; or be teenth, or fifteenth century, when the germs at the pains to become acquainted with the of their present civilisation were first disclosed, leading individuals, and fix in his memory the the nations of Europe had been introduced to series and connection of events. Yet the ef- an intimate and friendly acquaintance with fusion of human blood was as copious—the the great polished communities of the East, display of talent and courage as imposing, and had been thus led to take them for their the perversion of high moral qualities, and the masters in intellectual cultivation, and their waste of the means of enjoyment as unspar- models in all the higher pursuits of genius, ing, as in other long-past battles and intrigues polity, and art. The difference in our social and revolutions, over the details of which we and moral condition, it would not perhaps be still pore with the most unwearied atten- easy to estimate: But one result, we conceive, tion; and to verify the dates or minute cir- would unquestionably have been, to make us cumstances of which, is still regarded as a take the same deep interest in their ancient great exploit in historical research, and among story, which we now feel, for similar reasons, the noblest employments of human learning in that of the sterner barbarians of early Rome, and sagacity
or the more imaginative clans and colonies It is not perhaps very easy to account for of immortal Greece. The experiment, howthe eagerness with which we still follow the ever, though there seemed oftener than once fortunes of Miltiades, Alexander, or Cæsar, 1 to be some openings for it, was not made. of the Brice and the Black Prince, and the Our crusading ancestors were too rude theminterest which yet belongs to the fields of selves to estimate or to feel the value of the Marathon and Pharsalia, of Crecy and Ban- oriental refinement which presented itself to nockburn, compared with the indifference, or their passing gaze, and too entirely occupied rather reluctance, with which we listen to the with war and bigotry, to reflect on its causes details of Asiatic warfare—the conquests that or effects; and the first naval adventurers wluo transferred to the Moguls the vast sovereign- opened up India to our commerce, were both ties of India, or raised a dynasty of Manchew too few and too far off to communicate to