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upon his wavering and unskilful movements him; and one of them took that opportunity of in before his defeat, and on some ambiguous forming him, that their controversial altercatiota words in the letter which he afterwards wrote he would again be pressed for more explicit and

were not yet at an end ; and that upon the scaffold, to King James; but the natural tenderness of satisfactory declarations of repentance. When arhis disposition enables him to interest us in rived at the bar, which had been put up for the purthe description of his after sufferings. The pose of keeping out the multitude, Monmouth following extract, we think, is quite charac- descended from the carriage, and mounted the teristic of the author.

scaffold with a firm step, attended by his spiritual

assistants. The sheriffs and executioners were al. *. In the mean while, the Queen Dowager, who ready there. The concourse of spectators was in: seems to have behaved with a uniformity of kind. numerable, and, if we are to credit traditional ness towards her husband's son that does her great accounts, never was the general compassion more nonour, urgently pressed the King to admit his affectingly expressed. The tears, sighs, and groans, nephew to an audience. Importuned therefore by which the first sight of this heari-rending spectacle entreaties, and instigated by the curiosity which produced, were soon succeeded by an universal and Monmouth's mysterious expressions, and Sheldon's awful silence; a respectful attention, and affectionstory had excited, he consented, though with a ate anxiety, to hear every syllable that should pass fixed determination to show no mercy. James was the lips of the sufferer. The Duke began by saying not of the number of those, in whom the want of he should speak little ; he came to die ; and lic an extensive understanding is compensated by a should die a Protestant of the Church of England. delicacy of sentiment, or by those right feelings Here he was interrupted by the assistants, and which are ofien found to be better guides for the told, that if he was of the Church of England, he conduct, than the most accurate reasoning. His must acknowledge the doctrine of Non-resistance nature did not revolt, his blood did not run cold, at to be true. In vain did he reply, that, if he aci he thoughts of beholding the son of a brother whom knowledged the doctrine of the church in general, he had loved, embracing his knees, petitioning, and it included all : they insisted he should own that petitioning in vain, for life !-of interchanging words doctrine particularly with respect to his case, and and looks with a nephew on whom he was inex. urged much more concerning their favourite point ; orably determined, within forty-eight hours, to in upon which, however, they obtained nothing but a flict an ignominious deaih.

repetition, in substance, of former answers. * In Macpherson's extract from King James'

pp. 265, 266. Memoirs, it is confessed that the King ought not to have seen, if he was not disposed to pardon the

After making a public profession of his atculprit; but whether the observation is made by the tachment to his beloved Lady Harriet Wentexiled prince himself, or by him who gives the ex- worth, and his persuasion that their connection tracı, is in this, as in many other passages of those was innocent in the sight of God, he made Memoirs, difficult to determine. Surely, if the King reference to a paper he had signed in the had made this reflection before Monmouth's exe. cution, it must have occurred to that monarch, that morning, confessing the illegitimacy of his if he had inadvertenıly done that which he ought birth, and declaring that the title of King had not to have done without an intention to pardon, been forced on him by his followers, much The only remedy was to correct that part of his against his own inclination. conduct which was still in his power; and since he ould not recall the interview, io grant the pardon." “The bishop, however, said, that there was

pp. 258, 259.

nothing in that paper about resistance; nor, though

Monmouth, quite worn out with their importuni. Being sentenced to die in two days, he made tieg, said to one of them in a most affecting manner, a humble application to the King for some 'I am to die !--pray my lord !-I reler to my little respite; but met with a positive and paper,' would these men think it consistent with stern refusal. The most remarkable thing in iheir duty to desist. There were only a few words the history of his last hours, is the persecution they desired on one point. The substance of these which he suffered from the bishops who had applications on one hand, and answers on the other. been sent to comfort him. Those reverend that could not be believed, if the facts were not al. persons, it appears, spent the greater part of tested by the signature of the persons principally the time in urging him to profess the orthodox concerned. If the Duke, in declaring his sorrow doctrines of passive obedience and non-resist- for what had passed, used the word invasion, 'give ance; without which, they said, he could not

it the true name,' said they, and call it rebellion.' be an upright member of the church, nor at- Monmouth! He was sure he was going to everlası.

What name you please,' replied the mild-tempered tain to a proper state of repentance! It must ing happiness, and considered the serenity of his never be forgotten, indeed, as Mr. Fox has mind, in his present circumstances, as a certain remarked, if we would understand the history carnest of the favour of his creator: His repent. of this period, "that the orthodox members ance, he said, must be true, for he had no fear of of the church regarded monarchy, not as a from natural courage,' was the unfeeling and stupid

dying ; he should die like a lamb! Much may come human, but as a divine institution; and pas- reply of one of the assistants. Monmouth, with sive obedience and non-resistance, not as po- that modesty inseparable from true bravery, denied litical measures, but as articles of religion." that he was in general less fearful than other men,

The following account of the dying scene maintaining that his present courage was owing to of this misguided and unhappy youth, is very past transgressions, of all which generally he re

his consciousness that God had forgiven him his striking and pathetic; though a certain tone pented, with all his soul. of sarcasm towards the reverend assistants

Ai last the reverend assistants consented to does not, to our feelings, harmonize entirely join with him in prayer; but no sooner were they with the more tender traits of the picture. risen from their kneeling posture, than they re

turned 10 their charge. Not satisfied with what " Al ten o'clock on the 15th. Monmouth pro had passed, they exhorted him to a true and thorough ceeded, in a carriage of the Lieutenant of the repentance. Would he not pray for the King and Tower, to Tower Hill, the place destined for his send a dutiful message to his majesty, to recomexecution. Two bishops were in the carriage with mend the duchess and his children?

• As you

please;' was the reply, 'I pray for him and for all / variety of words and phrases rather more inen.'' He now spoke to the executioner, desiring homely and familiar than should find place that he might have no cap over his eyes, and began in a grave composition. Thus, it is said in undressing. One would have thought that in this last sad ceremony, the poor prisoner might have p. 12, that “the King made no point of adherbeen unmolested, and that the divines would have ing to his concessions.” In p. 20, we hear been satisfied, that prayer was the only part of their of men," swearing away the lives" of their function for which their duty now called upon them. accomplices; and are afterwards told of "the They judged ditferently; and one of them had the style of thinking” of the country-of " the cry: the business, that he would address himself to the ing injustice" of certain proceedings—and of soldiers then present, to tell then he stood a sad persons who were fond of ill-treating and example of rebellion, and entreat the people to insulting” other persons. These, we think, be loyal and obedient to the King. I have said I are phrases too colloquial for regular history, will make no speeches,' repeated Monmouth, in a and which the author has probably been intone more peremptory than he had before been duced to admit into this composition, from his provoked 10; 'I will make no speeches! I come so die.' My lord, ten words will be enough," long familiarity with spoken, rather than with said the persevering divine; to which the Duke written language. What is merely lively and made no answer, but turning to the executioner, natural in a speech, however, will often apexpressed a hope that he would do his work better pear low and vapid in writing. The following now than in the case of Lord Russell. He then is a still more striking illustration. In speakfelt the axe, which he apprehended was not sharp ing of the Oxford Decree, which declared the sharpness and weight, he laid down his head. In doctrine of an original contract, the lawfulness the mean time, many fervent ejaculations were of changing the succession, &c. to be impious used by the reverend assistanıs, who, it must be as well as seditious, and leading to atheism as observed, even in these moments of horror, showed well as rebellion, Mr. Fox is pleased to obthemselves not unniindful of the points upon which

serve- _"If Much Ado about Nothing had they had been disputing; praying God to accept his been published in those days, the town-clerk's imperfect and general repentance. • The executioner now struck the blow; but so

declaration, that receiving a thousand ducats feebly or unskillfully, that Monmouth, being but for accusing the Lady Hero wrongfully, was slighily wounded, lifted up his head, and looked" flat burglary,might be supposed to be a him in the face as if to upbraid him; but said noth. satire upon this decree; yet Shakespeare, ing. The two following strokes were as ineffectual well as he knew human nature, not only as as the first, and the headsman, in a fit of horror, declared he could not finish his work. The sheriff's to its general course, but in all its eccentric threatened him; he was forced again to make a deviations, could never dream that, in the furi her trial; and in two more strokes separated person of Dogberry, Verges, and their followthe head from the body."-pp. 267–269.

ers, he was representing the vice-chancellors With the character of Monmouth, the and doctors of our learned University." It second chapter of the history closes; and would require all the credit of a well-estabnothing seems to have been written for the lished speaker, to have passed this compari. third, but a few detached observations, oc- son, with any success, upon the House of cupying but two pages. The Appendix is Commons; but even the high name of Mr. rather longer than was necessary. The Fox, we believe, will be insufficient to con, greater part of the diplomacy which it con- ceal its impropriety in a serious passage of tains, had been previously published by a history, written in imitation of Livy and Macpherson and Dalrymple; and the other Thucydides. articles are of little importance.

Occupied, indeed, as we conceive all the We have now only to add a few words as readers of Mr. Fox ought to be with the sento the style and taste of composition which timents and the facts which he lays before belongs to this work. We cannot say that them, we should scarcely have thought of we vehemently admire it. It is a diffuse, noticing those verbal blemishes at all, had and somewhat heavy style,-clear and man- we not read so much in the preface, of the ly, indeed, for the most part, but sometimes fastidious diligence with which the diction deficient in force, and almost always in vi- of this work was purified, and its style elabovacity. In its general structure, it resembles rated by the author. To this praise we canthe style of the age of which it treats, more not say we think it entitled; but, to praise of than the balanced periods of the succeeding a far higher description, its claim, we think, century--though the diction is scrupulously is indisputable. Independent of its singular purified from the long and Latin words which value as a memorial of the virtues and talents defaced the compositions of Milton and Har- of the great statesman whose name it bears, rington. In his antipathy to every thing that we have no hesitation in saying, that it is might be supposed to look like pedantry or written more truly in the spirit of constituaffected loftiness, it appears to us, indeed, tional freedom, and of temperate and practical that the illustrious author has sometimes patriotism, than any history of which the fallen into an opposite error, and admitted a public is yet in possession.

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(April, 1805.) Mémoires d'un Temoin de la Révolution ; ou Journal des faits qui se sont passé sous ses yeux, et

qui ont preparé et fixé la Constitution Française. Ouvrage Posthume de JEAN SYLVAIN Bailly, Premier Président de l'Assemblée Nationale Constituant, Premier Maire de Paris, et Membre des Trois Académies. 8vo. 3 tomes. Paris: 1804.*

Among the many evils which the French characters of those who were connected with Revolution has inflicted on mankind, the most those memorable occurrences. The tide of deplorable, perhaps, both in point of extent popular favour, which ran at one time with a and of probable duration, consists in the in- dangerous and headlong violence to the sido jury which it has done to the cause of rational of innovation and political experiment, has freedom, and the discredit in which it has in- now set, perhaps too strongly, in an opposite volved the principles of political philosophy. direction; and the same misguiding passions The warnings which may be derived from that placed factious and selfish men on a the misfortunes of that country, and the les- level with patriots and heroes, has now sons which may still be read in the tragical ranked the blameless and the enlightened in consequences of her temerity, are memorable, the herd of murderers and madmen. no doubt, and important: But they are such There are two classes of men, in particular, as are presented to us by the history of every to whom it appears to us that the Revolution period of the world; and the emotions by has thus done injustice; and who have been which they have been impressed, are in this made to share in some measure the infamy case too violent to let their import and appli- of its most detestable agents, in consequence cation be properly distinguished. From the of venial errors, and in spite of extraordinary miscarriage of a scheme of frantic innovation, merits. There are none indeed who made a we have conceived an unreasonable and un- figure in its more advanced stages, that may discriminating dread of all alteration or re- not be left, without any great breach of charity, form. The bad success of an attempt to make to the vengeance of public opinion: and both government perfect, has reconciled us to im- the descriptions of persons to whom we have perfections that might easily be removed; and alluded only existed, accordingly, at the period the miserable consequences of treating every of its commencement. These were the phi. thing as prejudice and injustice, which could losophers or speculative men who inculcated not be reconciled to a system of fantastic a love of liberty and a desire of reform by equality, has given strength to prejudices, their writings and conversation; and the vir. and sanction to abuses, which were gradually tuous and moderate, who attempted to act wearing away before the progress of reason upon these principles at the outset of the and philosophy. The French Revolution, in Revolution, and countenanced or suggested short, has thrown us back half a century in those measures by which the ancient frame the course of political improvement; and of the government was eventually dissolved. driven many among us to cling once more, To confound either of these classes of men with superstitious terror, to those idols from with the monsters by whom they were sucwhich we had been nearly reclaimed by the ceeded, it would be necessary to forget that lessons of a milder philosophy. When we they were in reality their most strenuous oplook round on the wreck and ruin which the ponents—and their earliest victims! If they whirlwind has scattered over the prospect were instrumental in conjuring up the tembefore us, we tremble at the rising gale, and pest, we may at least presume that their coshrink even from the wholesome air that stirs operation was granted in ignorance, since the fig-leaf on our porch. Terrified and dis- they were the first to fall before it; and can gusted with the brawls and midnight murders scarcely be supposed to have either foreseen which proceed from intoxication, we are al or intended those consequences in which most inclined to deny ourselves the pleasures their own ruin was so inevitably involved. of a generous hospitality; and scarcely venture That they are chargeable with imprudence to diffuse the comforts of light or of warmth and with presumption, may be affirmed, perin our dwellings, when we turn our eyes on haps, without fear of contradiction; though, the devastation which the flames have com- with regard to many of them, it would be no mitted around us.

easy task, perhaps, to point out by what con. The same circumstances which have thus duct they could have avoided such an impuled us to confound what is salutary with tation ; and this charge, it is manifest, ought what is pernicious in our establishments, at any rate to be kept carefully separate from have also perverted our judgments as to the that of guilt or atrocity. Benevolent inten

tions, though alloyed by vanity, and mis. * I have been tempted 10 let this be reprinted guided by ignorance, can never become the show at how early a period those views of the objects of the highest moral reprobation; and character of the French Revolution, and its first enthusiasm itself, though it does the work of effects on other countries, were adopted-which the demons, ought still to be distinguished from have not since received much modification. treachery or malice. The knightly adven.

turer, who broke the chains of the galley- tion to the schemes of the court, the clergy slaves, purely that they might enjoy their de- and the nobility, appears to us to have been liverance from bondage, will always be re- as impolitic with a view to their ultimate garded with other feelings than the robber success, as it was suspicious perhaps as to who freed them to recruit the ranks of his their immediate motives. The parade which banditti.

they made of their popularity; the support We have examined in a former article the which they submitted to receive from the extent of the participation which can be fairly menaces and acclamations of the mob; the innputed to the philosophers, in the crimes and joy which they testified at the desertion of miseries of the Revolution, and endeavoured the royal armies; and the anomalous milito ascertain in how far they may be said to tary force, of which they patronized the forhave made themselves responsible for its mation in the city of Paris, were so many consequences, or to have deserved censure for preparations for actual hostility, and led altheir exertions: And, acquitting the greater most inevitably to that appeal to force, by part of any mischievous intention, we found which all prospect of establishing an equitareason, upon that occasion, to conclude, that ble government was finally cut off. Santhere was nothing in the conduct of the ma- guine as the patriots of that assembly unjority which should expose them to blame, or doubtedly were, they might still have redeprive them of the credit which they would membered the most obvious and important have certainly enjoyed, but for consequences lesson in the whole volume of history, That which they could not foresee. For those who, the nation which has recourse to arms for with intentions equally blameless, attempted the settlement of its internal affairs, necesto carry into execution the projects which had sarily falls under the iron yoke of a military been suggested by the others, and actually government in the end ; and that nothing engaged in measures which could not fail to but the most evident necessity can justify terminate in important changes, it will not be the lovers of freedom in forcing it from the easy, we are afraid, to make so satisfactory hands of their governors. In France, there an apology. What is written may be cor- certainly was no such necessity. The whole rected; but what is done cannot be recalled; weight and strength of the nation was bent a rash and injudicious publication naturally upon political improvement and reform.calls forth an host of answers; and where the There was no possibility of their being ultisubject of discussion is such as excites a very mately resisted; and the only danger that powerful interest, the cause of truth is not was to be apprehended was, that their pro.always least effectually served by her oppo- gress would be too rapid. After the Statesnents. But the errors of cabinets and of legis- General were once fairly granted, indeed, it latures have other consequences and other appears to us that the victory of the friends confutations. They are answered by insur- to liberty was certain. They could not have rections, and confuted by conspiracies. A gone too slow afterwards ; they could not paradox' which might have been maintained have been satisfied with too little. The by an author, without any other loss than that great object, then, should have been to exof a little leisure, and `ink and paper, can clude the agency of force, and to leave no only be supported by a minister at the ex- pretext for an appeal to violence. Nothing pense of the lives and the liberties of a na- could have stood against the force of reason, tion. It is evident, therefore, that the pre- which ought to have given way; and from cipitation of a legislator can never admit of a monarch of the character of Louis XIV. the same excuse with that of a speculative there was no reason to apprehend any at. inquirer ; that the same confidence in his tempt to regain, by violence, what he had opinions, which justifies the former in main- yielded from principles of philanthropy and taining them to the world, will never justify conviction. The Third Estate would have the other in suspending the happiness of his grown into power, instead of usurping it; country on the issue of their truth; and that and would have gradually compressed the he, in particular, subjects himself to a tre other orders into their proper dimensions, mendous responsibility, who voluntarily takes instead of displacing them by a violence upon himself the new-modelling of an ancient that could never be forgiven. Even if the constitution

Orders had deliberated separately, (as it apWe are very much inclined to do justice pears to us they ought clearly to have done,) to the virtuous and enlightened men who the commons were sure of an ultimate preabounded in the Constituent Assembly of ponderance, and the government of a perFrance. We believe that the motives of manent and incalculable amelioration. Conmany of them were pure, and their patriot- vened in a legislative assembly, and engrossism inaffected : their talents are still more ing almost entirely the respect and affections indisputable: But we cannot acquit them of of the nation, they would have enjoyed the blameable presumption and inexcusable im- unlimited liberty of political discussion, and prudence. There are three points, it appears gradually impressed on the government the to us, in particular, in which they were bound character of their peculiar principles. By to have foreseen the consequences of their the restoration of the legislative function to proceedings.

the commons of the kingdom, the system Ii. the first place, the spirit of exasperation, was rendered complete, and required only to riefiuce and intimidation, with which from be put into action in order to assume all those the beginning they carried on their opposi- | improvements which necessarily resulted from the increased wealth and intelligence of its and to expose even those which were salutary representatives.

to misapprehension and miscarriage. From of this fair chance of amelioration, the a scheme of reformation so impetuous, and nation was disappointed, chiefly, we are in- an impatience so puerile, nothing permanent clined to think, by the needless asperity and or judicious could be reasonably expected. injudicious menaces of the popular party. In legislating for their country, they seem to They relied openly upon the strength of their have forgotten that they were operating un a adhérents among the populace. If they did living and sentient substance, and not on an not actually encourage them to threats and to inert and passive mass, which they might acts of violence, they availed themselves at model and compound according to their pleasleast of those which were committed, to in- ure or their fancy. Human society, however, timidate and depress their opponents; for it is not like a piece of mechanism which may is indisputably certain, that the unconditional be safely taken to pieces, and put together by compliance of the court with all the demands the hands of an ordinary artist. It is the of the Constituent Assembly, was the result work of Nature, and not of man; and has either of actual force, or the dread of its im- received, from the hands of its Author, an mediate application. This was the inaus- organization that cannot be destroyed withpicious commencement of the sins and the out danger to its existence, and certain propsufferings of the Revolution. Their progress erties and powers that cannot be altered or and termination were natural and necessary. suspended by those who may have been enThe multitude, once allowed to overawe the trusted with its management. By studying old government with threats, soon subjected those properties, and directing those powers, the new government to the same degradation; it may be modified and altered to a very conand, once permitted to act in arms, camé siderable extent. But they must be allowed speedily to dictate to those who were assem- to develope themselves by their internal enbled to deliberate. As soon as an appeal was ergy, and to familiarize themselves with their made to force, the decision came to be with new channel of exertion. A child cannot be those by whom force could at all times be stretched out by engines to the stature of a commanded. Reason and philosophy were man; or a man compelled, in a morning, to discarded ; and mere terror and brute vio- excel in all the exercises of an athlete. Those lence, in the various forms of proscriptions, into whose hands the destinies of a great insurrections, massacres, and military execu: nation are committed, should bestow on its tions, harassed and distracted the misguided reformation at least as much patient obserynation, till, by a natural consummation, they ance and as much tender precaution as are fell under the despotic sceptre of a military displayed by a skilful gardener in his treatusurper. These consequences, we conceive, ment of a sickly plant. He props up the were obvious, and might have been easily for- branches that are weak or overloaded, and

Nearly half a century had elapsed gradually prunes and reduces those that are since they were pointed out in those memo- too luxuriant : he cuts away what is absolutely rable words of the most profound and philo- rotten and distempered : 'he stirs the earth sophical of historians. " By recent, as well about the root, and sprinkles it with water, as by ancient example, it was become evi- and waits for ihe coming spring! He trains dent, that illegal violence, with whatever the young branches to the right hand or to the pretences it may be covered, and whatever left; and leads it, by a gradual and spontaobject it may pursue, must inevitably end at neous progress, to expand or exalt itself, sealast in the arbitrary and despotic government son after season, in the direction which he of a single person. *

had previously determined: and thus, in the The second inexcusable blunder, of which course of a few summers, he brings it, withthe Constituent Assembly was guilty, was out injury or compulsion, into that form and one equally obvious, and has been more fre- proportion which could not with safety have quently noticed. It was the extreme rest- been imposed upon it in a shorter time. The lessness and precipitation with which they reformers of France applied no such gentle proceeded to accomplish, in a few weeks, the solicitations, and would not wait for the effects legislative labours of a century. Their con- of any such preparatory measures, or volunstitution was struck out at a heat; and their tary developments. They forcibly broke its measures of reform proposed and adopted like lofty boughs asunder, and endeavoured to toasts at an election dimer. Within less straighten its crooked joints by violence: they than six months from the period of their first tortured it into syminetry in vain, and shed convocation, they declared the illegality of all its life-blood on the earth, in the middle of its the subsisting taxes; they abolished the old scattered branches. constitution of the States-General; they set- The third great danger, against which we iled the limits of the Royal prerogative, their think it was the duty of the intelligent and own inviolability, and the responsibility of virtuous part of the Deputies to have provided, ministers. Before they put any one of their was that which arose from the sudden transprojects to the test of experiment, they had ference of power to the hands of men who adopted such an enormous multitude, as en- had previously no natural or individual influtirely to innovate the condition of the country, ence in the community. This was an evil

indeed, which arose necessarily, in some deHume's History, chapter 1x. at the end. The whole passage is deserving of the most profound gree, from the defects of the old goverment, ireditation.

and from the novelty of the situation in which


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