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HISTORY

AND

HISTORICAL MEMOIRS.

(October, 1808.)

Msemoirs of the Life of COLONEL HUTCHINSON, Governor of Nottingham Castle and Town,

Representative of the County of Nottingham in the Long Parliament, and of the Town of Nottingham in the First Parliament of Charles II. &c.; with Original Anecdotes of many of the most distinguished of his Contemporaries, and a summary Review of Public Affairs : Written by his Widow, Lucy, daughter of Sir ALLEN APSLEY, Lieutenant of the Tower, ge. Now first published from the Original Manuscript, by the Rev. JULIUS HUTCHINSON, &c. &c. To which is prefixed, the Life of Mrs. HUTCHINSON, written by Herself, a Fragment. pp. 446. 4to. London, Longman and Co.: 1806.

We have not often met with any thing more that history to more recent transactions, if we interesting and curious than this volume. In- have not a tolerably correct notion of the dependent of its being a contemporary nar- character of the people of England in the rative of by far the most animating and im- reign of Charles I.

, and the momentous peportant part of our history, it challenges our riods which ensued. This character depended attention as containing an accurate and lu- very much on that of the landed proprietors minous account of military and political affairs and resident gentry; and Mrs. Hutchinson's from the hand of a woman; as exhibiting the memoirs are chiefly valuable, as containing a most liberal and enlightened sentiments in picture of that class of the community, the person of a puritan; and sustaining a high Agriculture was at this period still the tone of aristocratical dignity and pretension, chief occupation of the people; and the truly though the work of a decided republican governing part of society was consequently The views wbich it opens into the character of the rustic aristocracy. The country gentlethe writer, and the manners of the age, will men—who have since been worn down by be to many a still more powerful attraction. luxury and taxation, superseded by the ac

of the times to which this narrative be- tivity of office, and éclipsed by the opulence longs-times to which England owes all her of trade-were then all and all in England; freedom and all her glory-we can never hear and the nation at large derived from them its too much, or too often: and though their story habits, prejudices, and opinions. Educated has been transmitted to us, both with more almost entirely at home, their manners were fulness of detail and more vivacity of colour- not yet accommodated to a general European ing than any other portion of our annals, every standard, but retained all those national pecureflecting reader must be aware that our in- liarities which united and endeared them to formation is still extremely defective, and the rest of their countrymen. Constitutionally exposes us to the hazard of great misconcep- serious, and living much with their families, tion. The work before us, we think, is cal- they had in general more solid learning, and culated in a good degree to supply these de- more steady morality than the ry of other ficiencies, and to rectify these errors. countries. Exercised in local magistracies,

By far the most important part of history, and frequently assembled for purposes of as we have formerly endeavoured to explain, national cooperation, they became conscious is that which makes us acquainted with the of their power, and jealous of their privileges: character, dispositions, and opinions of the and having been trained up in a dread and great and efficient population by whose mo- detestation of that popery which had been tion or consent all things are ultimately gov- the recent cause of so many wars and perseerned. After a nation has attained to any cutions, their religious sentiments had con. degree of intelligence, every other principle tracted somewhat of an austere and polemical of action becomes subordinate; and, with re- character, and had not yet settled 'from the lation to our own country in particular, it may ferment of reformation into tranquil and regube said with safety, that we can know nothing lated piety. It was upon this side, accordut its past history, or of the applications of ingly, that they were most liable to error: and the extravagances into which a part of applause, on the violin,-stout esquires, at them was actually betrayed, has been the the same time, praying and quaffing October chief cause of the misrepresentations to which with their godly tenants, --and noble lords they were then exposed, and of the miscon- disputing with their chaplains on points of ception which still prevails as to their char- theology in the evening, and taking them out acter and principles of action.

a-hunting in the morning. There is nothing, In the middle of the reign of Charles I. al- in short, more curious and instructive, than most the whole nation was serious and devout. the glimpses which we here catch of the old Any licence and excess which existed was hospitable and orderly life of the country mostly encouraged and patronised by the gentlemen of England, in those days when Royalists; who made it a point of duty to the national character was so high and so deride the sanctity and rigid morality of their peculiar, -when civilization had produced all opponents; and they again exaggerated, out its effects

, but that of corruption, and when of party hatred, the peculiarities by which serious studies and dignified pursuits had not they were most obviously distinguished from yet been abandoned to a paltry and effeminate their antagonists. Thus mutually receding derision. Undoubtedly, in reviewing the anfrom each other, from feelings of general nals of those times, we are struck with a hostility, they were gradually led to realize loftier air of manhood than presents itself in the imputations of which they were recipro- any after era; and recognize the same charcally the subjects. The cavaliers gave way acters of deep thought and steady enthusiasm, to a certain degree of licentiousness; and the and the same principles of fidelity and selfadherents of the parliament became, for the command, which ennobled the better days of most part, really morose and enthusiastic. At the Roman Republic, and have made every the Restoration, the cavaliers obtained a com- thing else appear childish and frivolous in plete and final triumph over their sanctimo- the comparison. nious opponents; and the exiled monarch One of the most striking and valuable and his nobles imported from the Continent a things in Mrs. Hutchinson's performance, is taste for dissipation, and a toleration for de- the information which it affords us as to the bauchery, far exceeding any thing that had manners and condition of women in the period previously been known in England. I: is with which she is occupied. This is a point from the wits of that court, however, and the in which all histories of public events are writers of that party, that the succeeding and almost necessarily defective; though it is evithe present age have derived their notions of dent that, without attending to it, our notions the Puritans. In reducing these notions to of the state and character of any people must the standard of truth, it is not easy to deter- be extremely imperfect and erroneous. Mrs. mine how large an "allowance ought to be Hutchinson, however, enters into no formal made for the exaggerations of party hatred, disquisition upon this subject. What we the perversions of witty malice, and the illu- learn from her in relation to it, is learnt incisions of habitual superiority. It is certain, dentally-partly on occasion of some anechowever, that ridicule, toleration, and luxury dotes which it falls in her way to recite-but gradually annihilated the Puritans in the chiefly from what she is led to narrate or dishigher ranks of society and after-times, seeing close as to her own education, conduct, or their practices and principles exemplified only opinions. If it were allowable to take the among the lowest and most illiterate of man- portrait which she has thus indirectly given kind, readily caught the tone of contempt of herself, as a just representation of her fair which had been assumed by their triumphant contemporaries, we should form a most exaltenemies; and found no absurdity in believing ed notion of the republican matrons of Eng. that the base and contemptible beings who land. Making a slight deduction for a few were described under the name of Puritans traits of austerity, borrowed from the bigotry by the courtiers of Charles II., were true of the age, we do not know where to look for representatives of that valiant and conscien- a more noble and engaging character than tious party_which once numbered half the that under which this lady presents herself to gentry of England among its votaries and her readers; nor do we believe that any age adherents.

of the world has produced so worthy a counThat the popular conceptions of the auster- terpart to the Valerias and Portias of antiquity; ities and absurdities of the old Roundheads with a high-minded feeling of patriotism and and Presbyterians are greatly exaggerated, public honour, she seems to have been poswill probably be allowed by every one at all sessed by the most dutiful and devoted atconversant with the subject; but we know tachment to her husband; and to have comof nothing so well calculated to dissipate the bined a taste for learning and the arts with existing prejudices on the subject, as this the most active kindness and munificent hosbook of Mrs. Hutchinson. Instead of a set pitality to all who came within the sphere of of gloomy bigots waging war with all the her bounty. To a quick perception of charelegancies and gaieties of life, we find, in this acter, she appears to have united a masculine calumniated order, ladies of the first birth force of understanding, and a singular capacity and fashion, at once converting their husbands for affairs; and to have possessed and exer. to Anabaptism, and instructing their children cised all those talents, without affecting any in music and dancing,—valiant Presbyterian superiority over the rest of her sex, or aban colonels refuting the errors of Arminius, col- doning for a single instant the delicacy and lecting pictures, and practising, with great reserve which were then its most indispensable ornaments. Education, certainly, is far quently charms us by a sort of antique sim more generally diffused in our days, and ac- plicity and sweetness, admirably in unison complishments infinitely more common ; But with the sentiments and manners it is em. the perusal of this volume has taught us to ployed to represent. doubt, whether the better sort of women were The fragment of her own history, with not fashioned of old by a better and more ex. which the volume opens, is not the least inalted standard, and whether the most eminent teresting, and perhaps the most characteristic female of the present day would not appear part of its contents. The following brief acto disadvantage by the side of Mrs. Hutchin- count of her nativity, will at once make the son. There is, for the most part, something reader acquainted with the pitch of this lady's intriguing and profligate and theatrical in the sentiments and expressions. clever women of this generation; and if we “It was one the 29th day of January, in the yeare are dazzled by their brilliancy, and delighted of our Lord 1648, that in the Tower of London, with their talent, we can scarcely ever guard the principall citie of the English Isle, I was about against some distrust of their judgment or 4 of the clock in the morning brought forth to besome suspicion of their purity. There is hold the ensuing light. My father was Sr. Allen something, in short, in the domestic virtue, Apsley, leiftenant of the Tower of London; my and the calm and commanding mind of our daughter of Sr. John St. John, of Lidiard' Tregoz, English matron, that makes the Corinnes and in Wiltshire, by his second wife. My father had Heloises appear small and insignificant. then living a sonne and a daughter by his former

The admirers of modern talent will not ac- wives, and by my mother three sonns, 'I being her cuse us of choosing an ignoble competitor, if eldest daughter. The land was then att peace (it we desire them to weigh the merits of Mrs. being towards the latter end of the reigne of King Hutchinson against those of Madame Roland. which was rather like the calme and smooth surface

James), if that quietinesse may be call'd a peace, The English revolutionist did not indeed of the sea, whose darke womb is allready impreg. compose weekly pamphlets and addresses to nated of a horrid tempest."-pp. 2, 3. the municipalities ;-because it was not the She then draws the character of both her fashion, in her days, to print every thing that parents in a very graceful and engaging man. entered into the heads of politicians. But she ner, but on a scale somewhat too large to shut herself up with her husband in the gar- admit of their being transferred entire into rison with which he was intrusted, and shared our pages. We give the following as a specihis counsels as well as his hazards. She en

men of the style and execution. couraged the troops by her cheerfulness and heroism-ministered to the sick—and dressed kind to his children; a most noble master; who

“He was a most indulgen: husband, and no lesse with her own hands the wounds of the cap- thought it not enough to maintaine his servants tives, as well as of their victors. When her honourably while they were with him, but, for all husband was imprisoned on groundless sus- that deserv'd it, provided offices or settlements as picions, she laboured, without ceasing, for his for children. He was a father to all his prisoners, deliverance-confounded his oppressors by sweetning with such compassionate kindnesse their her eloquence and arguments--tended him restraint, that the afliction of a prison was not felt

in his dayes. He had a singular kindnesse for all with unshaken fortitude in sickness and soli- persons that were eminent either in learning or tude-and, after his decease, dedicated her- armes; and when, through the ingratitude and vice self to form his children to the example of his of thai age, many of the wives and chilldren of virtues; and drew up the memorial which is Queene Elizabeth's glorious captaines were reduc'd now before us, of his worth and her own and they knew not the inconvenience of decay'd

to poveriy, his purse was their common treasury, genius and affection. All this, too, she did fortunes till he was dead : many of those yalliani without stepping beyond the province of a seamen he maintain'd in prison; many he redeem'd private woman-without hunting after com- out of prison and cherisht with an extraordinary pliments to her own genius or beauty-with- bounty. He was severe in the angulating of his out sneering at the dulness, or murmuring at famely; especially would not enoure the least im. the coldness of her husband-without hazard- modest behaviour or dresse in any woman under ing the fate of her country on the dictates of an insignificant gallant, that could only make his

his roofe. There was nothing he hated more than her own enthusiasm, or fancying for a moment leggs and prune himself, and court a lady, but had that she was born with talents to enchant and not braines to employ himselfe in things more sute. regenerate the world. With equal power of able to man's nobler sex. Fidelity in his trust, love discriminating character, with equal candour and loyalty to his prince, were not the least of his and eloquence and zeal for the general good, any of his owne or succeeding times. He gave my

vertues, but those wherein he was not excell'd by she is elevated beyond her French competitor mother a noble allowance of 3001. a yeare for her

by superior prudence and modesty, and by a owne private expence, and had given her all her • certain simplicity and purity of character, of owne portion to dispose of how she pleas'd, as

which, it appears to us, that the other was soone as she was married; which she sufier'd to en. unable to form a conception.

crease in her friend's hands; and what my father After detaining the reader so long with had what was rich and requisite upon occasions, but

allowed her she spent not in vanities, alıhough she these general observations, we shall only with she lay'd most of it out in pious and charitable uses. hold him from the quotations which we mean Sr. Walter Rawleigh and Mr. Ruthin being prisoners to lay before him, while we announce, that in the Tower, and addicting themselves 10 chimisMrs. Hutchinson writes in a sort of lofty, I trie, she suffer'd them to make their rare experie classical, translated style; which is occasion: Imenis at her cost, parıly to comfort and diveri the ally diffuse and pedantic, but often attains to of their experiments, and the medicines to helpe

poore prisoners, and partly to gaine the knowledge great dignity and vigour, and still more fre-l such poore people as were not able to seeke to phi

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silians. By these means she acquir'd a greate deale "But while the incomparable mother shin'd in of skill, which was very profitable to many all her all the humane glorie she wisht, and had ike crowne life. She was not only to these, but to all ihe other of all outward telicity to the full in the enjoyment prisoners that came into the Tower, as a mother. of the mutuall love of her most beloved husband, All the time she dwelt in the Tower, if any were God in one moment tooke it away, and alienated sick she made them broths and restoratives with her her most excellent understanding in a difficult childowne hands, visited and took care of them, and birih, wherein she brought forth two daughters provided them all necessaries: If any were aflicted which liv'd to be married, and one more that died, she comforted them, so that they teli nor the incon. I think assoone or before it was borne. But after venience of a prison who were in that place. She that, all the art of the best physitians in England was not lesse bountifull to many poore widdowes could never restore her understanding. Yei she and orphans, whom officers of higher and lower was not frantick, but had such a pretty deliration, rank had left behind them as objecis of charity. that her ravings were more delighttul than other Her owne house was fill'd with distressed families weomen's most rationall conversations. Upon this of her relations, whom she supplied and maintained occasion her husband gave himselfe up to live re. in a noble way."--pp. 12–15.

tired with her, as became her condition. The

daughters and the rest of the children as soon as For herself, being her mother's first daugh- they grew up were married and disperst. I think ter, unusual pains were bestowed on her edu- I have heard she had some children after that cation; so that, when she was seven years of childbirth which distemper'd her; and then my age, she was attended, she informs us, by no lady Hutchinson must have bene one of them. I fewer than eight several tutors. In conse

have heard her servants say, that even after her quence of all this, she became very grave and to sitt and weepe in remembrance of her. Meane

marriage, she would steale many melancholy houres thoughtful; and withal very pious. But her while her parents were driving on their age, in no early attainments in religion seem to have lesse consiancy of love to each other, when even been by no means answerable to the notions that distemper which had estrang'd her mind in all of sanciity which she imbibed in her maturer things elce, had left her love and obedience entire years. There is something very innocent and to her husband, and he retein'd the same fond. natural in the Puritanism of the following as when she was the glory of her age! He had

nesse and respect for her, after she was distemper’d, passage.

two beds in one chamber, and she being a little sick, " It pleas'd God that thro' the good instructions died. It was his custome, as soon as ever be un

two weomen watcht by her, some time before she of my mother, and the sermons she carried me to, clos'd his eies, to aske how she did; but one night, I was convinc'd that the knowledge of God was he being as they thought in a deepe sleepe, she the most excellent study; and accordingly applied myselfe to it, and to practise as I was taught. I quietly departed towards the morning. He was usd to exhort my mother's maides much, and to for his health; and it was his custome to have his

that day to have gone a hunting, his usuall exercise turne their idle discourses to good subjects; but I chaplaine pray with him before he went out: the thought, when I had done this on the Lord's day, weomen, fearfull to surprise him with the ill and every day perform'd my due taskes of reading and praying, that then I was free to anie thing that newes, knowing his deare affection to her, had was noi sin; for I was not at that time convinc'd of sollen out and acquainted the chaplaine, desiring the vanity of conversation which was not scandal-him to informe him of it. Sr. John waking, did ously wicked; I thought it no sin to learne or heare not that day, as was his custome, ask for her; bat willie songs and amorous sonnets or poems, and him, in the middst of the prayer, expir’d !--and

call'd the chaplaine to prayers, and ioyning with twenty things of that kind; wherein I was so apt both of them were buried together in the same that I became the confident in all the loves that were managed among my mother's young women:

grave. Whether he perceiv'd her death and and there was none of them but had many lovers would not take notice, or whether some strange and some particular friends belov'd above the rest ;

sympathy in love or nature tied up their lives in among these I have -"-p. 17, 18.

one, or whether God was pleased to exercise an

unusuall providence towards them, preventing Here the same spirit of austerity which them both from that bitter sorrow which such dictated the preceding passage, had moved separations cause, it can be but conjectur'd,'' &c. the fair writer, as the editor informs

-p. 26-28.

us, tear away many pages immediately following The same romantic and suppressed sensithe words with which it concludes—and thus bility is discernible, we think, in her whole to defraud the reader of the only love story account of the origin and progress of her with which he had any chance of being husband's attachment to her. As the story regaled in the course of this narrative. is in many respects extremely characteristic Although Mrs. Hutchinson's abhorrence of of the times as well as the persons to which any thing like earthly or unsanctified love, it relates, we shall make a pretty large extract has withheld her on all occasions from the from it. Mr. Hutchinson had learned, it insertion of any thing that related to such seems, to “dance and vault” with great feelings, yet it is not difficult, we think, to agility, and also attained to “great mastery perceive that she was originally constituted on the violl” at the University; and, upon with an extraordinary sensibility to all power- his return to Nottingham, in the twentieth ful emotions; and ihat the suppression of year of his age, spent much of his time with those deep and natural impressions has given a licentious but most accomplished gentlea singular warmth and animation to her des. man, a witty but profane physician, and a criptions of romantic and conjugal affection. pleasant but cynical old schoolmaster. In In illustration of this, we may refer to the spite of these worldly associations, however, following story of her husband's grandfather we are assured that he was a most godly and grandmother, which she recounts with and incorruptible person; and, in particular, much feeling and credulity. After a very proof against all the allurements of the fair ample account of their mutual love and love- sex, whom he frequently "reproved, but in a liness, she proceeds—

handsome way of raillery, for their pride and

to

vanity.” In this hopeful frame of mind, it faine to pretend something had offended his sto. was proposed to him to spend a few summer mach, and to retire from the table into the garden, months at Richmond, where the young princes where the gentleman of the house going

wiih him, then held their court.

it was not necessary for him to feigne sickness, for

the distemper of his mind had insecied his body with “Mr. Hutchinson considering this, resolv'd to a cold sweate and such a dispersion of spirit, that accept his offer; and that day telling a gentleman all the courage he could at present recollect was of the house whither he was going, the gentleman little enough to keep him allive. While she so bid him take heed of the place, for it was so fatall ran in his thoughts, meeting the boy againe, he for love, that never any young disengag'd person found out, upon a little stricter examination of went thither, who return'd again free. Mr. him, that she was not married, and pleas'd him. Hutchinson laught at him; bui ho, to confirme selfe in the hopes of her speedy reiurne, when it, told him a very true story of a gentleman, one day, having bene invited by one of the ladies who not long before had come for some time 10 of that neighbourhood, to a noble treatment at lodge there, and found all the people he came in Sion Garden, which a courtier, that was her ser company with, bewailing the death of a gentle. vant, had made for her and whom she would bring, woman that had lived there. Hearing her so much Mr. Hutchinson, Mrs. Apsley, and Mr. Coleman's deplor’d, he made enquiry after her, and grew so daughter were of the partie, and having spent the in love with the description, that no other discourse day in severall pleasani divertisements, alt evening could at first please him, nor could he at last endure they were att supper, when a messenger came to any other; he grew desperately melancholly, and tell Mrs. Apsley her mother was come. She would goe to a mount where the print of her foote would immediately have gone; but Mr. Hutchin. was cutt, and lie there pining and kissing of it all son, pretending civility to conduct her home, made the day long, till att length death in some months her stay 'till the supper was ended, of which he space concluded his languishment. This story was eate no more, now only longing for that sight, very true; but Mr. Huichinson was neither easie which he had with such perplexity expected. This to believe it, nor frighted at the example; thinking at length he obteined; but his heart being prepose bimselfe not likely to make another."--p. 37, 38. sesst with his owne fancy, was not free to dis.

cerne how little there was in her to answer so He goes accordingly to Richmond, and greate an expectation. She was not ugly-in a boards with his music-master; in whose carelesse riding-habitt, she had a melancholly neglihouse a younger sister of his future wife gence both of herselfe and others, as if she neither happened then to be placed,-she herself affected 10 please others, nor looke notice of anie having gone into Wiltshire with her mother

, thing before her; yet spite of all her indifferency, with some expectations of being married be- soule, when she saw this gentleman, who had haire, fore her return.

eies, shape, and countenance enough to begett love "This gentlewoman, that was left in the house in any one at the first, and these sett off with a with Mr. Hutchinson, was a very child, her elder gracefull and a generous mine, which promis'd an sister being at that time scarcely past it; but a extraordinary person. Although he had but an child of such pleasanınesse and vivacity of spiritt, evening, sight of her he had so long desir'd, and and ingenuity in the quallity she practis'd, that Mr? that at disadvantage enough for her, yett the preHurchinson tooke pleasure in hearing her practise, vailing sympathie of his soule, made him thinke all and would fall in discourse with her. She having his paynes well pay'd, and this first did whett his the keyes of her mother's house, some halfe a mile desire to a second sight, which he had by accident distant, would some times aske Mr. Hutchinson, the next day, and to his ioy found she was wholly when she went over, to walk along with her : one

disengaged from that treaty which he so much day, when he was there, looking upon an odde fear'd

had been accomplisht; he found withall, that byshelf, in her sister's closett, the found a few though she was modest, she was accostable, and Latine bookes ; asking whose they were, he was

willing to entertaine his acquaintance. This soone told they were her elder sister's; whereupon, en past into a mutuall friendship betweene them, and quiring more after her, he began' first to be sorrie though she innocently thought nothing of love, yet she was gone, before he had seene her, and gone

was she glad to have acquir'd such a friend, who upon such an account, that he was not likely to see had wisedome and vertue enough to be trusted her; then he grew to love to heare mention of with her councells. Mr. Hutchinson, on the other her; and the other gentleweomen who had bene side, having bene told, and seeing how she shunn'd her companions, used to talke much to him of her, all other men, and how civilly she entertain'd him, telling him how reserv'd and studious she was, and believ'd that a secret power had wrought a mutuall other things which they esteem'd no advantage ; | inclination betweene them, and dayly frequented but it so much inflam'd Mr. Hutchinson's desire of her mother's house, and had the opportunitie of seeing her, that he began to wonder at himselfe, conversing, with her in those pleasant walkes, that his heart, which had ever had such an indiffer? which, at that sweete season of the spring, invited ency for the most excellent of weomenkind, should all the neighbouring inhabitants 10 seeke their have so strong impulses towards a stranger he ioys; where, though they were never alone, vet never saw.”_. While he was exercis'd in this, they had every day opportuniry for converse with many days past not, but a foote-boy of my lady each other, which the rest shar'd not in, wbie her mothers came to young Mrs. Apsley as they every one minded their own delights.”—pp. 39–44. were at dinner, bringing newes that her mother and sister would in few dayes return; and when romantic courtship, as of “ matters that are

Here the lady breaks off her account of this married, having before bene instructed to make to be forgotten as the vanities of youth, and them believe it

, he smiled, and pull'd out some not worthy mention among the greater transbride laces, which were given at a wedding in the actions of their lives. The consent of house where she was, and gave them to the young parents having been obtained on both sides, gentlewoman and the gentleman's daughter of the she was married at the age of eighteen. horise, and told them Mrs. Apsley bade him tell no news, but give them those iokens, and carried " That day that the friends on both sides me to the matter so, that all the companie believ'd she conclude the marriage, she fell sick of the small. had bene married. Mr. Hutchinson immediately pox, which was many ways a greate triall upon turned pale as ashes, and felt a fainting to seize him ; first her life was allmost in desperate hazard, his spiritts, in that extraordinary manner, that and then the disease, for the present, made her the finding himselfe ready to sinke att table, he was most deformed person that could be seene, for 3

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