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The services of the offending actress on the miscellaneous contents. Whoever wishes to occasion. Sumarokoff did not venture to take see the economist wittily abused—to read a any step against his Excellency the Gover- full and picturesque account of the tragical nor ; but when the heroine advanced in full rejoicings that filled Paris with mourning at Muscovite costume on the stage, the indig- the marriage of the late King—to learn how nant poet rushed forward from behind the Paul Jones was a writer of pastorals and love scenes, seized her reluctantly by the collar songs—or how they made carriages of leather, and waist, and tossed her furiously from the and evaporated diamonds in 1772—to trace boards. He then went home, and indited two the debüt of Madame de Staël as an author at querulous and sublime epistles to the Em- the age of twelve, in the year
-!--to unpress. Catherine, in the midst of her gigantic derstand M. Grimm's notions on suicide and schemes of conquest and improvement, had happiness—to know in what the unique charm the patience to sit down and address the fol- of Madlle. Thevenin consisted—and in what lowing good-humoured and sensible exhorta- manner the dispute between the patrons of tion to the disordered bard.
the French and the Italian music was con"Monsieur Sumarokoff, j'ai été fort étonnée de ducted—will do well to peruse the five thick Yotre lettre du 28 Janvier, et encore plus de celie volumes, in which these, and innumerable du premier Février. Toutes deux contiennent, à other matters of equal importance are disce qu'il me semble, des plaintes contre la Belmon- cussed, with the talent and vivacity with tia qui pourtant n'a fait que suivre les ordres du which the reader must have been struck, in comte Soltikoff. Le feld-maréchal a désiré de voir the least of the foregoing extracts. représenter votre tragédie; cela vous fait honneur. Il était convenable de vous conformer au désir de la
We add but one trivial remark, which is première personne en autorité à Moscou ; mais si forced upon us, indeed, at almost every page elle a jugé à propos d'ordonner que cette pièce fût of this correspondence. The profession of litreprésentée, il fallait exécuter sa volonté sans con erature must be much wholesomer in France testation. Je crois que vous savez mieux que per: than in any other country:—for though the sonne combien de respect méritent des hommes qui volumes before us may be regarded as a great ont servi avec gloire, et dont la tête est couverte de cheveux blancs; c'est pourquoi je vous conseille literary obituary, and record the deaths, we d'éviter de pareilles disputes à l'avenir. Par ce suppose, of more than an hundred persons of moyen vous conserverez la tranquillité d'âme qui some note in the world of letters, we scarcely est nécessaire pour vos ouvrages, et il me sera tou meet with an individual who is less than jours plus agréable de voir les passions représentées seventy or eighty years of age—and no very dans vos drames que de les lire dans vos lettres. Au surplus, je suis votre affectionnée.
small proportion actually last till near ninety Signé CATHERINE."
or an hundred-although the greater part of “Je conseille," adds M. Grimm, “ à tout min. them seem neither to have lodged so high, istre chargé du département des lettres de cacher, nor lived so low, as their more active and abd'enregistrer ce formulaire à son greffe, et à tout stemious brethren in other cities. M. Grimm hasard de n'en jamais délivrer d'autres aux poetes observes that, by a remarkable fatality, Euc'est-à-dire enfant et fou par état. Après cette rope was deprived, in the course of little more lettre qui mérite peut-être autant l'immortalité que than six months, of the splendid and comles monumens de la sagesse et de la gloire du règne manding talents of Rousseau, Voltaire, Haller, actuel de la Russie, je meurs de peur de m'affermir Linnæus, Heidegger, Lord Chatham, and Lé dans la pensée hérétique que l'esprit ne gâte jamais Kain-a constellation of genius, he adds, that rien, même sur le trône."
when it set to us, must have carried a dazzling But it is at last necessary to close these en- light into the domains of the King of Terrors, tertaining volumes,—though we have not and excited no small alarm in his ministers been able to furnish our readers with any if they bear any resemblance to the ministers thing like a fair specimen of their various and of other sovereigns.
( January, 1810.) Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Victor ALFIERI. Written by Himself. 2 vols. 8vo.
pp. 614. London: 1810.
This book contains the delineation of an great leading features in the mind of Alfieri. extraordinary and not very engaging charac- Strengthened, and in some degree produced, ter; and an imperfect sketch of the rise and by a loose and injudicious education, those progress of a great poetical genius. It is de traits were still further developed by the preserving of notice in both capacities—but mature and protracted indulgences of a very chiefly in the first; as there probably never dissipated youth; and when, at last, they adwas an instance in which the works of an mitted of an application to study, imparted author were more likely to be influenced by their own character of impetuosity to those his personal peculiarities. Pride and enthu- more meritorious exertions ;-converted a siasm-irrepressible vehemence and ambition taste into a passion; and left him, sor a great and an arrogant, fastidious, and somewhat part of his life, under the influence of a true narrow system of taste and opinions, were the and irresistible inspiration. Every thing in him, indeed, appears to have been passion and are by no means well written; and that they ungoverned impulse; and, while he was will form no exception to the general obserraised above the common level of his degene- vation, that almost all Italian prose is feeble rate countrymen by a stern and self-willed and deficient in precision. There is some. haughtiness, that might have become an an- thing, indeed, quite remarkable in the wordicient Roman, he was chiefly distinguished ness of most of the modern writers in this from other erect spirits by ihe vehemence language,—the very copiousness and smoothwhich formed the basis of his character, and ness of which seems to form an apology for by the uncontrolled domin which he al- the want of force or exactness—and to hide, lowed to his various and successive propensi- with its sweet and uniform flow, both from ties. So constantly and entirely, indeed, was the writer and the reader, that penury of he under the influence of these domineering thought, and looseness of reasoning, which attachments, that his whole life and character are so easily detected when it is rendered into might be summed up by describing him as a harsher dialect. Unsatisfactory, however, the victim, successively, of a passion for as they are in many particulars, it is still im. horses—a passion for travelling-a passion for possible to peruse the memoirs of such a man literature--and a passion for what he called as Alfieri without interest and gratification, independence.
The traits of ardour and originality that are The memoirs of such a life, and the con- disclosed through all the reserve and gravity fessions of such a man, seem to hold out a of the style, beget a continual expectation and promise of no common interest and amuse- curiosity; and even those parts of the story ment. Yet, though they are here presented which seem to belong rather to his youth, to us with considerable fulness and apparent rank, and education, than to his genius or pefidelity, we cannot say that we have been culiar character, acquire a degree of importmuch amused or interested by the perusal. ance, from considering how far those very There is a proud coldness in the narrative, circumstances may have assisted the forma. which neither invites sympathy, nor kindles tion, and obstructed the development of that the imagination. The author seems to dis- character and genius; and in what respects dain giving himself en spectacle to his readers; | its peculiarities may be referred to the obstaand chronicles his various acts of extrava- cles it had to encounter, in misguidance, gance and fits of passion, with a sober and passion, and prejudice. languid gravity, to which we can recollect no Alfieri was born at Asti, in Piedmont, of parallel. In this review of the events and noble and rich, but illiterate parents, in Janufeelings of a life of adventure and agitation, ary 1749. The history of his childhood, he is never once betrayed into the genuine which fills five chapters, contains nothing language of emotion; but dwells on the scenes very remarkable. The earliest thing he reof his childhood without tenderness, and on members, is being fed with sweetmeats by the struggles and tumults of his riper years an old uncle with square-toed shoes. He was without any sort of animation. We look in educated at home by a good-natured, stupid vain through the whole narrative for one priest; and having no brother of his own age. gleam of that magical eloquence by which was without any friend or companion for the Rousseau transports us into the scenes he de- greater part of his childhood. When about scribes, and into the heart which responded seven years old, he falls in love with the to those scenes,—or even for a trait of that smooth faces of some male novices in a neighsocial garrulity which has enabled Marmontel bouring church; and is obliged to walk about and Cumberland to give a grace to obsolete with a green net on his hair, as a punishment anecdote, and to people the whole space for fibbing. To the agony which he endured around them with living pictures of the beings from this infliction, he ascribes his scrupulous among whom they existed. There is not one adherence to truth through the rest of his life; character attempted, from beginning to end -all this notwithstanding, he is tempted to of this biography ;-which is neither lively, in steal a fan from an old lady in the family, short, nor eloquent-neither playful
, impas- and grows silent, melancholy, and reserved; sioned, nor sarcastic. Neither is it a mere -at last, when about ten years of age, he is unassuming outline of the author's history and sent to the academy at Turin. publications, like the short notices of Hume This migration adds but little to the interest or Smith. It is, on the contrary, a pretty co- of the narrative, or the improvement of the pious and minute narrative of all his feelings writer. The academy was a great, ill-reguand adventures; and contains, as we should lated establishment; in one quarter of which suppose, a tolerably accurate enumeration of the pages of the court, and foreigners of dishis migrations, prejudices, and antipathies. It tinction, were indulged in every sort of dissi
, is not that he does not condescend to talk pation-while the younger pupils were stowed about trifling things, but that he will not talk into filthy cells, ill fed, and worse educated. about them in a lively or interesting manner; There he learned a little Latin, and tried, in and systematically declines investing any part vain, to acquire the elements of mathematics; of his statement with those picturesque de for, after the painful application of several tails, and that warm colouring, by which alone months, he was never able to comprehend the story of an individual can often excite the fourth proposition of Euclid; and found, much interest among strangers. Though we he says, all his life after, that he had "a comhave not been able to see the original of these pletely anti-geometrical head." From the Memoirs, we will venture to add, that they had diet, and preposterously early hours of
the academy, he soon fell into wretched to Asti, and were all bedaubed with rouge-the health, and, growing more melancholy and use of which was then exclusively confined to the solitary than ever, became covered over with French. I have frequently mentioned this circumsores and ulcers. Even in this situation, account for such an absurd and ridiculous practice,
stance several years afterwards, not being able to however, a little glimmering of literary ambi- which is wholly at variance with nature ; for when tion became visible. He procured a copy of men, to disguise the effects of sickness, or other Ariosto from a voracious schoolfellow, by giv. calamities, besmear themselves with this detestable ing up to him his share of the chickens which rouge, -- they carefully conceal it; well knowing formed their Sunday regale; and read Metas- that, when discovered, it only exciies the laughter tasio and Gil Blas with great ardour and de- figures left a deep and lasting impression on my
or pity of the beholders. These painted French light. The inflammability of his imagination, mind, and inspired me with a certain feeling of dishowever, was more strikingly manifested in gust towards the females of this nation. the effects of the first opera to which he was From my geographical studies resulted another admitted, when he was only about twelve cause of antipathy to that nation. Having seen on
the chart the great difference in extent and popula. years of age.
tion between England or Prussia and France ; and “ This varied and enchanting music," he ob hearing, every time news arrived from the armies, serves, sunk deep into my soul, and made the most that the French had been beaten by sea and land; astonishing impression on my imagination ;--it agi. --recalling to mind the first ideas of my infancy, tated the inmost recesses of my heart to such a during which I was told that the French had fre. degree, that for several weeks I experienced the quently been in possession of Asti; and that during most profound melancholy, which was not, how. the last time, they had suffered themselves to be ever, wholly unattended with pleasure. I became taken prisoners to the number of six or seven tired and disgusted with my studies, while at the thousand, without resistance, after conducting them. same time the most wild and whimsical ideas took selves, while they remained in possession of the such possession of my mind, as would have led me place, with the greatest insolence and tyranny ;to portray them in ihe most impassioned verses, all these different circumstances, being associated had I not been wholly unacquainted with the true with the idea of the ridiculous dancing-master! tend. nalure of my own feelings. "It was the first time ed more and more to rivet in my mind an aversion music had produced such a powerful effect on my to the French nation."-pp. 83-86. mind. I had never experienced any thing similar, and it long remained engraven on my memory.
At the early age of fourteen, Alfieri was When I recollect the feelings excited by the repre put in possession of a considerable part of his sentation of the grand operas, at which I was pre. fortune; and launched immediately into every sent during several carnivals, and compare them sort of fashionable folly and extravagance. with those which I now experience, on returning His passion for horses, from which he was from the performance of a piece I have not witnessed for some time, I am fully convinced thai never entirely emancipated, now took entire nothing acts so powerfully on my mind as all spe possession of his soul; and his days were cies of music, and particularly the sound of female spent in galloping up and down the environs voices, and of contro-alto. Nothing excites more of Turin, in company chiefly with the young various or terrific sensations in my mind. Thus English who were resident in that capital. the plots of the greatest number of my tragedies From this society, and these exercises, he were either formed while listening to music, or a few hours afterwards."—p. 71-73.
soon derived such improvement, that in a
short time he became by far the most skilful With this tragic and Italian passion for jockey, farrier, and coachman, that modern Music, he had a sovereign contempt and ab- Italy could boast of producing. horrence for Dancing. His own account of For ten or twelve years after this period, the origin of this antipathy, and of the first the life of Alfieri presents a most humiliating, rise of those national prejudices, which he but instructive picture of idleness, dissipation, never afterwards made any effort to over- and ennui. It is the finest and most flattering come, is among the most striking and charac-illustration of Miss Edgeworth's admirable teristic passages in the earlier part of the tale of Lord Glenthorn; and, indeed, rather story.
outgoes, than falls short of that high-coloured "To the natural hatred I had to dancing, was
and apparently exaggerated representation.joined an invincible antipathy towards my master Such, indeed, is the coincidence between the - Frenchman newly arrived from Paris. He traits of the fictitious and the real character, possessed a certain air of polite assurance, which, that if these Memoirs had been published when joined to his ridiculous motions and absurd dis. Miss Edgeworth's story was written, it would course, greatly increased the innate aversion I fell have been impossible not to suppose that she towards this frivolous art. ibis aversion, that, after leaving school, I could had derived from them every thing that is striknever be prevailed on to join in any dance what. ing and extraordinary in her narrative. For ever. The very name of this amusement still two or three years, Alfieri contented himself makes me shudder, and laugh at the same time with running, restless and discontented, over a circumstance by no means unusual with me. I the different states and cities of Italy; almost attribute, also, in a great measure, 10 this dancing ignorant of its language, and utterly indifferopinion I have formed of the French people! who, ent both to its literature and its arts. Connevertheless, it must be confessed, possess many sumed, at every moment of inaction, with the agreeable and estimable qualities. But it is diffi- most oppressive discontent and unhappiness, cult to weaken or efface impressions received in he had no relief but in the velocity of his early youth. I'wo other causes also contributed to movements and the rapidity of his transitions. French character. The first was the impression Disappointed with every thing, and believing made on my mind by the sight of the ladies who himself incapable of application or reflection, accompanied the Duchess of Parma in her journey | he passed his days in a perpetual fever of impatience and dissipation ;-apparently pur- | against a rock, I could behold the sea and sky suing enjoyment with an eagerness which without interruption. In the contemplation of these was in reality inspired by the vain hope of objects, embellished by the rays of the setting syn, escaping from misery. There is much gene- Vol. i. pp. 150, 151.
I passed my time dreaming of future delights.". ral truth, as well as peculiar character, in the following simple confession.
In a very short time, however, these reve“In spite, however, of this constant whirl of killed himself and his horses in rushing, with
ries became intolerable; and he very nearly dissipation, my being master of my own actions ; potwithstanding I had plenty of money, was in the incredible velocity, to Paris. This is his own heyday of youth, and possessed a prepossessing account of the impression which was made figure; I yel felt every where satiety, ennui, and upon him by his first sight of this brilliant disgust. My greatest pleasure consisted in attend.
metropolis. ing the opera buffa, though the gay and lively inusic left a deep and melancholy impression in my “It was on a cold, cloudy, and rainy morning, mind. A thousand gloomy and mournful ideas between the 15th and 20th of August, that I assailed my imagination, in which I delighted to entered Paris, by the wretched suburb of St. Mar. indulge by wandering alone on the shores near the ceau. Accustomed to the clear and serene sky of Chiaja and Portici.—Vol. i. p. 128.
Italy and Provence, I felt much surprised at the When he gets to Venice, things are, if pos- this season.
thick fog which enveloped the city, especially at
Never in my life did I experience sible, still worse,—though like other hypo- more disagreeable feelings than on entering the chondriacs, he is disposed to lay the blame damp and dirty suburb of St. Germain, where I on the winds and the weather. The tumult was to take up my lodging. What inconsiderate of the carnival kept him alive, it seems, for a haste, what mad folly had led me into this sink few days.
of filth and nastiness! On entering the inn, I felt
myself thoroughly undeceived; and I should cer. “But no sooner was the novelty over, than my tainly have set off again immediately, had not shame habitual melancholy and ennui returned. I passed and fatigue withheld me. My illusions were still several days together in complete solitude, never further dissipated when I began to ramble through leaving the house nor stirring from the window, Paris. The mean and wretched buildings; the whence I made signs to a young lady who lodged contemprible ostentation displayed in a few houses opposite, and with whom l'occasionally exchanged dignified with the pompous appellation of hotels a few words. During the rest of the day, which and palaces; the filthiness of the Gothic churches; hung very heavy on my hands, I passed my time the truly vandal-like construction of the public either in sleeping or in dreaming, I knew not which, theatres at that time, besides innumerable other and frequently in weeping without any apparent disagreeable objects, of which not the least dismotive. I had lost my tranquillity, and I was unable gusting to me was the plastered countenances even to divine what had deprived me of it. A few of many very ugly women, far outweighed in my years afterwards, on investigating the cause of this mind the beauty and elegance of the public walks occurrence, I discovered that it proceeded from a and gardens, the infinite variety of fine carriages, malady which attacked me every spring, some- the lofty façade of the Louvre, as well as the num. times in April, and sometimes in June : its dura- ber of spectacles and entertainments of every tion was longer or shorter, and its violence very kind."- Vol. i. pp. 153, 154. different, according as my mind was occupied.
“I likewise experienced that my intellectual There, then, as was naturally to be ex: faculties resembled a barometer, and that I pos- pected, he again found himself tormented sessed more or less talent for composition, in pro: by the demon of melancholy;"' and, after prevalence of the solstirial and equinoctial winds, trying in vain the boasted stimulant of play,
was always remarkably stupid, and uniformly he speedily grew wearied of the place and erinced less penetration in the evening than the all its amusements, and resolved to set off, morning. I likewise perceived that the force of without delay, for England. To England, my imagination, the ardour of enthusiasm, and ca: accordingly, he goes, at midwinter; and with pability of invention, were possessed by me in a such a characteristic and compassionable cramiddle of summer, than during the intermediate ving for all sorts of powerful sensations, that periods. This materiality, which I believe to be “he rejoiced exceedingly at the extreme cold, common to all men of a delicate nervous system, which actually froze the wine and bread in his has greatly contributed to lessen the pride with carriage during a part of the journey.". Prewhich the good I have done might have inspired pared, as he was, for disappointment, by the the shame I might have felt for the errors I have continual extravagance of his expectation, committed, particularly in my own art.”—Vol. i. Alfieri was delighted with England. “The pp. 140-142.
roads, the inns, the horses, and, above all, the In his nineteenth year, he extends his incessant bustle in the suburbs, as well as in travels to France, and stops a few weeks at delight." "He passed a part of the winter in
the capital, all conspired to fill my mind with Marseilles, where he passed his evenings good society, in London ; but soon becoming . exactly as Lord Glenthorn is represented to have done his at his Irish castle. To help mined no longer to play the lord 'in the
disgusted with assemblies and routs, deteraway the hours, he went every night to the play, although his Italian ears were disgusted drawing-room, but the coachman at the gate!” with the poverty of the recitation; and,
and accordingly contrived to get through
three laborious months, by being “five or -"after the performance was over, it was my six hours every morning on horseback, and regular practice to bathe every evening in the sea. being seated on the coachbox for two or three I was induced to indulge myself in this luxury, in hours every evening, whatever was the state tongue of land lying to the right of the harbour, of the weather." Even these great and where, sealed on the sand, with my back 'eaning meritorious exertions, however, could not
long keep down his inveterate malady, nor | off to Vienna. The state of his mind, both quell the evil spirit that possessed him; and as to idleness and politics, is strikingly reprehe was driven to make a hasty tour through sented in the following short passage. the west of England, which appears to have
“I might easily, during my stay at Vienna, have afforded him very considerable relief. been introduced io the celebrated poet Metastasio,
“ The country then so much enchanted me that at whose house our minister, the old and respecta? I determined to settle in it; not that I was much ble Count Canale, passed his evenings in a select attached to any individual, but because I was de company of men of letters, whose chief amusement lighted with the scenery, the simple manners of the tin, and Italian classics. Having taken an affec.
consisted in reading portions from the Greek, La. inhabitants, the modesty and beauty of the women, and, above all, with the enjoyment of political lib- tion for me, he wished, out of pity to my idleness, erty, -all which made me overlook its mutable to conduct me thither. But I declined accompany. climate, the melancholy almost inseparable from it, ing him, either from my usual awkwardness, or and the exorbitant price of all the necessaries of reading French works had given me for Italian
from the contempt which the constant habit of life.” – Vol. i. pp. 162, 163.
ductions. Hence I concluded, that this assemblage Scarcely, however, was this bold resolution of men of letters, with their classics, could be only of settling adopted, when the author is again Metastasio, in the gardens of Schoenbrunn, perform li seized with the mania of travelling;' and the customary genuflexion to Maria Theresa in skims over to Holland in the beginning of such a servile and adulatory manner, that I, who
And here he is still more effec- had my head stuffed with Plutarch, and who exag. tually diverted than ever, by falling in love gerated every thing I conceived, could not think of with a young married lady at the Hague, who binding myself, either by the ties of familiarity or was obliging enough to return his affection. friendship, with a poet who had sold hiniself is a Circumstances, however, at last compel the despotism which I so cordially
Vol. i. pp. 182, 183. fair one to rejoin her husband in Switzer
From Vienna he flew to Prussia, which, he land; and the impetuous Italian is affected with such violent despair, that he makes a says, looked all like one great guardhouse; desperate attempt on his life, by taking off and where he could not repress** the horror the bandages after being let blood; and re-sion and despotism assuming the mask of
and indignation he felt at beholding opprestums sullenly to Italy, without stopping to virtue." From Prussia he passed on to Denlook at any thing, or uttering a single word to his servant during the whole course of the mark; where his health was seriously affectjourney.
ed by the profligacy in which he indulged; This violent fit of depression, however, and and where the only amusement he could relthe seclusion by which it was followed, led ish, consisted in driving a sledge with inhim, for the first time, to look into his books;
conceivable velocity over the snow.” In this and the perusal of the lives of Plutarch seems way he wandered on through Sweden and to have made such an impression on his ardent Finland to Russia ; and experienced, as usual, and susceptible spirit, that a passion for liberty
a miserable disappointment on arriving at St. and independence now took the lead of every
Petersburg. other in his soul, and he became for life an “Alas! no sooner had I reached this Asiatic asemulator of the ancient republicans. He read semblage of wooden huis, than Rome, Genoa, Ve. the story of Timoleon, Brutus, &c., he assures could not refrain from laughing. What I after
nice, and Florence rose to my recollection; and I us, with floods of tears, and agonies of admi- wards saw of this country tended still more strongly ration. “I was like one beside himself; and to confirm my first impression, that it merited not shed tears of mingled grief and rage at having to be seen. Every thing, except their beards and been born at Piedmont; and at a period, and their horses, disgusted me so much, chat, during six under
a government, where it was impossible mined not to become acquainted with any one ; nor to conceive or execute any great design.”
even to see the two or three youths with whom I The same sentiment, indeed, seems to have had associated at Turin, and who were descended haunted him for the greater part of his life; from the first families of the country. I took no and is expressed in many passages of these measure to be presented to the celebrated AutoMemoirs besides the following.
cratrix Catherine II. ; nor did I even behold the
countenance of a sovereign who in our days has “Having lived two or three years almost wholly outstripped fame. On investigating, at a future pe. among the English ; having heard their power and riod, the reason of such extraordinary conduci, I riches everywhere celebrated; having contemplated became convinced that it proceeded from a certain their great political influence, and on the other hand intolerance of character, and a hatred to every spe. viewing Italy wholly degraded from her rank as a cies of tyranny, and which in this particular instance nation, and the Italians divided, weak, and enslaved, attached itself to a person suspected of the most I was ashamed of being an Italian, and wished not horrible crime-the murder of a defenceless husto possess any thing in common with this nation.''-band."'- Vol. i. pp. 194, 195. Vol. i. p. 121. "I was naturally attached to a domestic life ; but
This rage for liberty continued to possess after having visited England at nineteen, and 'read' him in his return through Prussia, and really Plutarch with the greatest interest at ewenty years seems to have reached its acmé when it dicof age, I experienced the most insufferable repug. tated the following most preposterous pasnance at marrying and having my children born at sage,—which, we cannot help suspecting, is Turin."-Vol. i. p. 175.
indebted for part of its absurdity to the transThe time, however, was not yet come lator. when study was to ballast and anchor this
“I visited Zorndorff, a spot rendered famous by agitated spirit
. Plutarch was soon thrown the sanguinary battle fought between the Russiang aside; and the patriot and his horses gallop / and Prussians, where thousands of men on both