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alunos is derived,' and as the signification of the substantive of which it is the adjective.' To prove this he refers to several passages in Homer, where unquestionably aw signifies life. On this narrowed basis he supports the idea of limited duration. It would not however be difficult to shew that, in the majority of instances, in classical as well as scriptural authorities, it is employed to denote proper eternity; and that in its application to existences of limited duration, it is not the quality of limitation that is denoted by the term, or that is a prominent idea in the complex thought of which it is the symbol. The correct definition of awy seems to be that of duration indefinitely, or continued existence; its etymology obviously suggests the idea ; and as the general exposition of its meaning, it will be found to include all the special and more restricted applications. For this definition we have the authority of Aristotle. Speaking of the celestial intelligences, he says, they are without
change or infirmity, and possessing a most excellent and satis. fying life, they continue through all eternity.' (dial:Neī tos a nayla ALTNA) 'I'hen follows a remarkable passage, including a definition founded on the obvious etymology of the term. . For this word has bəen divinely spoken by the ancients : For • the consummation containing the time of every life not su
pernatural is called its age : (its period of duration) For the same reason, the consummation of the whole heaven, and the
consummation containing the unlimited duration, and the im'mensity of all things is eternity deriving its name from always being-immortal and divine.' (Lib. I. Cæl. c. x.)
It is a welí founded rule in critical interpretation that every term be taken in its proper sense, except there be something in the subject or connexion which requires an improper or figurative explanation. But this can appear only by proving that the subject is incapable of the former explanation. When
everlasting punishment is directly opposed to everlasting life, to the contrast-fixes at once the meaning of the term, and proves the perpetuity of both states to be alike unlimited.
Here a natural question suggests itself---what is the impression which would be fixed on the mind of an unbiassed reader of the New Testament, one totally ignorant of the controversy in question, by its uniform scope and language on this subject? He would find the same duration applied to the state of the impenitent which is attributed to the happiness of the righteous. He would meet with incidental allusions to the former subject of tremendous import; and he would find noithing to encourage the hope of any alteration of that sentence which the judge of all will pronounce at the last day. We are persuaded that the impression would directly contradict the
scheme of universal restitution. There is one passage which, in the present case, appears to us peculiarly decisive. It is the awful language of the Saviour concerning Judas : it had been good for that man if he had not been born.' Now extend the idea of waww.os---E15 TON. KIWO as far as we can, if the terms do not convey the notion of future 'unlimited duration, that duration bears no assignable proportion to the eternity that will follow. It will therefore ultimately be good even for Judas, that he had been born. But this is in direct opposition to the solemn assertion of Jesus Christ himself. The difficulty is honestly confessed by Dr. E.; and his explanation is evidently unsatisfactory to himself. « Till more satisfactory answers be given? he says, “I am willing that the difficulty should remain, und be resolved into our ignorance. (P. 184.) This extorted concession is fatal to the scheme, and pronounces its condemnation.
In many parts of the volume before us, the author makes pathetic appeals to our feelings. It requires no penetration to perceive that such subterfuges are totally inadmissible where the language and conduct of God are concerned. If they prove any thing, they prove too much. It would not be difficult to make the same appeals to the advocates of restitution on behalf of an hypothesis that should assert there is no future punishment at all: and on Dr. E's. principles the appeal in this case would as successful as his own. Let his own account already cited (p. 170) be seriously considered, and if man is to be the judge of the degree of punishment apportioned to his deserts, we might address the “ children of frailty' in the same style of impassioned and sentimental eloquence which this soothing teacher of religion so frequently adopts. We might recommend the new scheme as the cure of infidelity and favourable to the general reception of Christianity;' as removing every thing terrific from the religion of the Bible, and infallibly securing an immense multitude of converts. Were Dr. E. to reason about the necessity of punishment in some form and to a certain extent, we night remind him of his own distinction between sin and the sinner, the quality and the person,' (p. 204.) and as the former only can be the object of detestation, the person of a sinner ought not to suffer for a mere “ quality!" But we must leave the Doctor and his unmeaning abstractions, and enter our solemn protest against a system which is thus, in the furv of its imaginary benevolence, subversive of all the admonitions and denunciations of the sacred volume; which nourishes the fatal hope of impunity; and reduces to an unmeaning chimera the awful sanctions of the divine law. Vol. X.
It was our intention to have adverted to the affected, the sickening sensibility of this slender volume. We designed also to notice the frequent attempts of the author to represent persecution as receiving its vital principle from the doctrine which he opposes. And yet, judging from the virulence of the party, we should have considerable apprehensions, if the legislature of these kingdoms were to be new-modelled by a Socinian faction. While they are very tolerant towards infidels, they are outrageously rancorous against those who are often contemptuously termed evangelical preachers.' As a proof of this we need only to advert to the last discourse of this volume. Dr. E. in the zeal of his charity asserts that British and Gallican catholics disclaim the principle of persecution : but from this commendation' he excludes a considerable number of those who in the established church ! assume to themselves the exclusive character of evangelical preachers ;' and a
large proportion of the evangelical sectaries. We have neither leisure nor inclination to expose the absurdity of this ungenerous imputation ; but must leave it to be refuted by the zealous exertions, and active benevolence of the calumniated party.
ART. XIV. SELECT LITERARY INFORMATION;
Geitlemen and Publishers who have works in the press will oblige the Conductors of the Eclectic Review, by sending Information (post paid) of the subject, extent, and probable price of such works : which they may depend upon being communicated to the public, if consistent with its plan.
Many friends of the late Dr. Williams resolutione verborum, alter de articulis having expressed a wish for his portrait, uterque perutilis, et æque desideratus. it is in contemplation to publish an en: Early in October will be published, graving in Quario, by a first rate artist, a new edition of Potter's Grecian Antifrom an original painting by Allingham qnities, with an Appendix by Professor (now in possession of Mrs. Williams,) Dunbar; containing a Concise History as soon as a sufficient number of Sub- of the States of Greece, and an Account scribers can be obtained. Price 15s. of the Lives and Writings of the nost Proofs 11. 1s. Subscriptions will be re- celebrate: Greek Authors. The Plates ceived by the Rev. J. Whittenbury, have been all re-drawn with great care Darlington, Durham, the Rev. J. Gil- under the Professor's Inspection, and rebert, Rotherham, Mr. S. Williams, Piy- stored to the Classic Purity. mouth, and Mr. James Black, York- Shortly will be published an Instreet, Covent Garden In conse
quiry into the Nature and Causes of quence of the death of the lamented the Wealth of Nations. By Adam editor a very large number of copies of Smith, LL. D. &c. A New edition, with the complete Works of President Notes, and an Additional Volume, conEdwards are lying at the disposal of the taining Dissertations on the Subjects Executors. Individuals who may wish treated up in the Text of Dr. Smitii, by to purchase this valuable publication D. Buchanau. will greatly oblige them by sending in The following notice has been recent. their names as above, on or before the ly issued by the Solicitors for the Uni. 31st of Dec, when the Subscription versity of Cambridge. Whereas by an price of 31. 12s. the set will be raised Act, passed in the Eghth Year of the to 41. Those who take seven Copies 10 Reign of her late Majesty Queen Anne, bave an eighth gratis. Catalogues of intitled “ An Act for the Encouragethe Dr.'s Library have been printed, and ment of Learning,” &c. a Copy of every may be had on application to Mr. new Book, and of every other Bok reBlack, the authorised publisher of all printed and published with Additions, is his works,
required to be delivered by the Printer In the course of the present month for Printers thereof to the Warehouser, will be published a new edition of the keeper of the Stationers' Company, at Life of Janeway, with a Preface by the their Hall,before such Publication made, Rev. Robert Hall, of Leicester.
for the use of the Library of the UniverIn November will be published, a new sity of Cambridge, which Aci, in an edition of Cornelii Schrevelii Lexicon Action brought by the Chancellor, MasManuale Græco-Latiuum et Latino- ters and Scholars of the said Univer. Græcam ; studio atque opera Josephi sity, confortably with a Notice pubHill, Joannis Entick, Gulielini Bowyer, lished on their behalf in January 1811, nec non Jacobi Smith, D. D. adauctum. bas been decided by the Court of King's Insuper quoque ad calcem adjectæ sunt Bench to extend to all bookis published Sententii Græco. Latinæ, quibus omnia as therein mentionell, whetirer they are Græcæ linguæ primitiva comprehen- entered in the Register of the Stationers! nuntur. Item Tractatus Duo: alter de Company or not; Notice is hereby
given, that the Chanceilor, Masters, George D'Oyly and the Rev. Richard and Scholars of the said University of Mant, and appropriate engravings. Cambridge, require the Directious of The Medical and Chirurgical Society the said Act to be complied with, and of London will publish the Fourth voan Action will be brought to enforce the lume of their Transactions in the course Penalties of the same in every instance of next mouth, in which one Copy of a Book, pub- Mr. Hobhouse bas nearly ready for lished as aforesaid after the Date of publication, a second edition of his Tra. this Norice, shall not be delivered to the vels in Turkey. Warehousekeeper of the Stationers' Dr. Smith, president of the Linnean Company, for the Use of the said Uni. Society, will soon publish a third edi. versity.
tion of his Introduction to Physiological Sir Everard Home has in the press, and Systematical Botany. a Course of Lectures on Comparative A new edition, carefully revised and Anatomy, delivered by him at the Col- corrected, of Dr. Gray's Delineation of lege of Surgeons
the Parables of our Saviour will soon Col. Montagu has nearly ready for
appear. publication, a Supplement to his Or- The Rev. W. Faulkner, of St. Annithological Dictiouary, which will con- drews, Worcester, has in the press, an tain much new and interesting matter improved edition of his Strictures on
the Natural History of British reading the Church Service. Birds.
A new edition of Baxter's Treatise The Rev. Frederic Nolan is printing on Converse with God in Solitude, is a Series of Sermons on the Operations nearly ready, the profits of which if any, of the Holy Ghost, with notes and illus- are to be devoted to a Charitable obtrations.
ject. A Picturesque Voyage round Great In the French exposé, for 1812, the Britain, illustrated by coloured population of France is stated as under. gravings, is preparing for publication, in -Old France (containing 147, 973 imperial quarto; to commencc with a square miles) 28,786,911: Countries Voyage from the Landsend, toward An. lately annexed (containiug61,049 square glesea. The narrative will be written miles 13,951,466: in all 49,738,377 by Mr. Richard Ayton, and the prints inhabit ants. The rate of population in engraved by Mr. William Daniel, from old France is 194. 5 to a square mile, his own drawings.
and in the late conquests 228. 5. The Mr. Wm. Godwin has nearly ready present rate of population in England for the press, Memoirs of the Lives is 196. 3 to a square mile. and Writings of Edward and John Mr. T. Sheldrake has been long en. Philips, the nephews of Milton.
gaged in the means of impelling vessels Mr. Wm. Dodsworth is preparing for on the water by machinery. His design the press a Description of Salisbury is to produce boats which will move Cathedral, including an account of its along rivers or canals by means of the monumeuts, and biographical memoirs arm, or by steam, so as to reduce the of the bishops, in a quarto volume, with labour expended on inland navigation engravings.
one half. Steam boats are already in C. Clarke, Esq. proposes to publish use on the river Aire. an Investigation of the Mechanical The seventh Annual Report of the Science and Historical Descent of Ar- Hibernian Society has just been putchitecture in England, during the mid- lished, and may be had at Hamilton's dle ages, in a quarto volume, with about Faternoster-Row. thirty engravings.
The net revenue of the post office for Mr. Barker is preparing for publica- 1812, amounted to 1,414,2241. In 1785 tion, a View of all the best and most it did not exceed 150,000l. valuable editions of the Classics, and of The Committee of the Religious Tract works on Latin criticism and antiqui- Society have issued tickets at 3s. per doties.
zen of a size convenient for the Pocketone The Society for Promoting Christian of which given to beggar or hawker, will Knowledge are preparing to publish entitle the bearer to receive twelve enterperiodically, a Family Bible, in two taiping Penny tracts with cuts; and thus quarto volumes, with notes by the Rer. to commence a profitable trade with ano