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Dr. Lightfoot on Courts of


Judicature among the Jews.

and people of courage) they never answered those that ad- If men, slighting their own mercies, cry out, This is impossible. dressed them with the compliment of Salâm aleikum. One Whom does this arguing reprove ?-God, who on this ground, would not, perhaps, suspect that similar customs obtain in our has given a command, the fulfilment of which is impossible. times, among Europeans : but I find that the Roman Catho- “ But who can bring a clean out of an unclean thing?" lics, of some provinces of Germany, never address the Protest- | God Almighty--and however inveterate the disease of sin ants that live among them with the compliment, Jesus Christ may be, the grace of the Lord Jesus can fully cure it; and be praised; and when such a thing happens by mistake, the who will say, that he who laid down his life for our souls, will Protestants do not return it after the manner in use, among not use his power completely to effect that salvation, which he Catholics, For ever and ever, Amen!

has died to procure.

“ But where is the person thus saved?" “ After this the words of our Lord in the close of the fifth of Wherever he is found who loves God with all his heart, Matthew, want no farther commentary. The Jews would not soul, mind and strength ; and his neighbour as himself: and address the usual compliment of Peace be to you, to either for the honour of Christianity and its Author, may we not heathens or publicanså the publicans of the Jewish nation hope there are many such in the church of God, not known would use it to their countrymen, that were publicans, but indeed by any profession of this kind which they make, but not to heathens; though the more rigid Jews would not do by a surer testimony, that of uniformly holy tempers, piety to · it to them, any more than 10 heathens; our Lord required his God,, and beneficence to man?. disciples to lay aside the moroseness of Jews, and express more extensive benevolence in their salutations. There seems Dr. Lightfoot is not perfectly satisfied with the usual more to be nothing of embracing thought of in this case, though of interpreting the 22d verse of this chapter. I subjoin the that, doubtless, was practised anciently among relations, and substance of what he says. Having given a general exposition intimate friends, as it is among modern Asiatics.”

of the word brother, which the Jews understood as signifying If not to salute, be a heathenish indifference; to hide hatred none but an Israelite-soxos, which we translate is in danger unler outward civilities, is a diabolic treachery. To pretend of, and what he shews the Jews used to signify, is exposed to, much love and affection for those for whom we have neither— merits, or is guilty of; and the word gehennu, hell-fire, which to lie towards them, complimentary phrases, to which we he explains as I have done above, he comes to the three affix no meaning, but that they mean nothing, is highly of- offences, and their sentences. fensive in the sight of that God by whom actions are weighed The first is causeless anger, which he thinks too plain to and words judged.

require explanation; but into the two following he enters in Do notthe publicans] Tidwan; — but tônozos heathens, is adopt- considerable detail: ed by Griesbach, instead of thwyon, on the authority of Codd. “ The second. Whosoever shall say to his brother, 'Racha, Patican. 8. Bezæ, and several others; together with the Coptic, a nickname, or scornful title usual, which they disdainfully Syriac later, and Syriac Jerusalem; two Arabic, Persic, Sla- put one upon another, and very commonly; and therefore tonic; all the Itala but one; Vulgate, Saron, and several of our Saviour has mentioned this word, the rather because the primitive Futhers.

it was of so common use among them. Take these few exVerse 48. Be ye therefore perfect--as your Father] God amples: himself is the grand law, sole giver, and only pattern of the “.A certain man sought to betake himself to repentance, perfection which he recommends to his children. The words (and restitution). His wife said to him, ' Rekah, if thou make are very emphatic, trecbe our upeos TER605, Ye shall be therefore restitution, even thy girdle about thee is not thine own, &c. Perfect-ye shall be filled with the spirit of that God whose name Tanchum, fol. 5.' is Mercy, and whose nature is love. God has many imitators “ Rabbi Jochanan was teaching concerning the building of of his power, independance, justice, &c. but few of his love, Jerusalem with saphires and diamonds, &c. One of his condescension, and kindness. Ile calls himself love, to teach scholars laughed him to scorn. But afterwards, being conus that in this consists that perfection, the attainment of which vinced of the truth of the thing, he saith to him, * Rabbi, do he has made both our duty and privilege: for these words thou expound, for it is fit for thee to expound: as thou of our Lord include both a command and a promise:

saidst, so have I seen it. He saith to him, · Rekah, hadst " Can we be fully saved from sin in this world?” is an thou not seen, thou wouldest not have believed, &c," Nidrus iraportant question, to which this text gives a satisfactory Tillin, fol. 38, col. 4. answer: “ Ye shall be perfect as your Father, who is in heaven, “ To what is the thing like? To a king of flesh and blood, is perfect.”—As in his infinite nature there is no sin, nothing who took to wife a king's daughter : he saith to her,

· Wait but goodness and love; so in your finite nature there shall dwell and fill me a cup;' but she would not: whereupon he was sin, for the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus, shall angry, and put her away: she went, and was married to a make you free from the law of sin and death, Rom. viii. 2. sordid fellow; and he saith to her, “Wait, and fill me a cup;' God shall live in, fill, and rule your hearts; and in what He she said unto him, Rekah, I am a king's daughter, &c.? tils and influences, neither Satan nor sin can have any part. Idem in Psalm cxxxvii.

Di. Lightfoot on Courts of


Judicature among the Jews.

A Gentile saith to an Israelite, I have a choice dish for i he that delivers up his neighbour before a beast to be rent in thee to eat of.' He saith, “What is it?' He answers, ‘Swine's | pieces. At the hand of man, even at the hand of every man's flest.' He saith to him, Rekah, even what you kill of clean | brother, will I require the life of man. This is he that hires beasts, is forbidden us, much more this.' Tanchum, fol. 18. others to kill his neighbour: In this interpretation, requiring, is col. 4.

spoken of all the three, behold their judgment is delivered over “ The Third offence is to say to a brother, “Thou fool,' | to Heaven (or God). And all these manslayers and the like, wbich, how to distinguish from Racha, which signifies, an who are not liable to death by the Sanhedrin; if the king of empty fellow, were some difficulty, but that Solomon is a good Israel will slay them by the judgment of the kingdom, and dictionary here for ns, who takes the term continually here the law of nations, he may, &c.Maym. ubi supr. per. 3. for a wicked wretch and reprobate, and in opposition to You may observe in these wretched traditions a twofold spiritual wisdom: so that in the first clause, is condemned killing, and a twofold judgment; a man's killing another in causeless anger; in the second, scornful taunting and reproach-| his own person, and with his own band, and such an one ing of a brother; and in the last, calling him a reprobate und liable to the judgment of the Sanhedrin, to be put to death by wicked, or uncharitably censuring bis spiritual and eternal them, as a murderer; and a .ttan that killed another by proxy; estate. And this last does more especially hit the Scribes and not with his own hand, but hiring another to kill him, or Pharisees, who arrogated to themselves only to be called turning a beast, or serpent upon him to kill him. This man Siron chocamim, wise-men, but of all others they had this is not to be judged and executed by the Sanhedrin, but scornful and uncharitable opinion, This people, thut knoweth referred and reserved only, to the judgment of God. So that not the law, is cursed,John vii. 49.

we see plainly from hence, in what sense the word judgment “ And now for the penalties denounced upon these offences, is used in the latter end of the preceding verse, and the first let us look upon them, taking notiee of these two traditions of clause of this, namely, not for the judgment of any one of the the Jews, which our Saviour seems to face, and to contradict. | Sanhedrins, as it is commonly understood, but for the judg

“ Ist. That they accounted the command, Thou shalt not ment of God. In the former verse, Christ speaks their sense, kill, to aim only at actual murder. So that in their collecting and in the first clause of this, his own, in application to it. the six hundred and thirteen precepts out of the law, they Ye have heard it said, that any man that kills is liable to the understand that command to mean but this : Thut one should judgment of God; but I say unto you, that he that is but not kill an Israelite,' and accordingly they allotted this only angry with his brother without a cause, is liable to the judgviolation of it to judgments against this wild gloss and practice, ment of God. You have heard it said, that he only that he speaks in the first clause : Ye have heard it said, Thou commits murder with his own hand, is liable to the council, shalt not kill, and he that killeth or committeth actual murder, or Sanhedrin, as a murderer; but I say unto you, that he that is liable to judgment, and ye extend the violation of that but calls his brother Racha, as common a word as ye make it, command no further; but I say to you, that causeless anger and a thing of nothing, he is liable to be judged by the against thy brother is a violation of that command, and Sanhedrin. that maketh a man liable to judgment.

Lastly, He that saith to his brother, Thou fool, wicked “ 2nd. They allotted that murder only to be judged by the one, or cast-away, shall be in danger of hell-fire, troxos xus council or Sanhedrin, that was committed by a man in propria ytovæv sougos. There are two observable things in the words. persona, let them speak their own sense, &c. Talm. in San- | The first is the change of case from what was before; there it hedrin, per. 9.

was said τη κρισει τα Ouvedęc, but here, aş yetvar. It is but an Any one that kills his neighbour with his hand, as if he emphatical raising of the sense, to make it the more feeling strike him with a sword, or with a stone' that kills him, and to speak hoine. He that saith to his brother, Raka, er strangle hum till he die, or burn him in the fire, seeing shall be in danger of the council; but he that says, Thou that he kills him any how in his own person, lo! such an one fool, shall be in danger of a penalty even to bell-fire. must be put to death hy the Sanliedrin: but he that hires And thus our Saviour equals the sin and penalty in a very just another to kill his neighbour, or that sends his servants, and parable. In just anger, with God's just anger and judgment; they kill him, or that violently thrusts him before a lion, or public reproach, with public correction by the council; and the like, and the beast kills him: any one of these is a censuring for a child of hell, to the fire of hell. shedder of blood, and the guilt of shedding of blood is upon « And. It is not said

515 TUŞ Yeezyns, To the fire of hell, him, and he is liable to death by the hand of Heaven, but he but svş yervievaugos, To a hell of fire; in which expression be is not to be put to death by the Sanhedrin. And whence is sets the emphasis still higher. And besides the reference to the proof that it must be thus? Becanse it is said, He that the valley of linnom, he seems to refer to that penalty used shedileth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed. This is by the Sanhedrin of burning: the most bitter death that be that slays a man himself, and not by the hand of another. they used to put men to: the manner of which was thus : Your blood of your lites will I 'require. This is be that slays They set the malefactor in a dunghill up to the knees: and hinself. At the hand of every beast will I require it. This is they put a towel about his neck, and one pulled one way,


Hypocrisy to be avoided


in alıns-giving.

and another the opposite, till, by thus strangling hiin, they judged by the Sanhedrin, whose most terrible penalty was forced him to open his mouth. Then they poured boiling lead this burning, he doth in this clause raise the penalty higher; into his mouth, which went down into his belly, and so burnt || namely, of burning in hell; not with a little scalding lead, but his bowels. Talm. in Sanhedrin per. 7.

even with a hell of fire.” It is powible that our Lord might “ Now having spoken in the clause before, of being | have reference to such customs as these.

CHAPTER VI, Of alms-giring, 1-5. Of prayer, 6-8. The Lord's prayer or model, according to which Christians should pray, 9–13. Of forgiveness, 14, 15. Of fasting, 16, 17. Of laying up treasures, 18—91. Of the single eye, 90, 93. The impossibility of serving two masters, 24. Of contentment and confidence in the divine providence, 25—39. Directions about seeking the kingdom of God, 33, 34.

VAKE heed that ye do not your 2 Therefore when thou doest thine A. M. 4031.

alms before men, to be seen of alms, « do not sound a trumpet before An. Olymp.

them: otherwise ye have no reward thee, as the hypocrites do in the synaof your Father which is in heaven.

gogues and in the streets, that they may have

4. M. 4131.

A. D. 27. An Olymp.

CCI. 3.


A. D. 37.

CCI. 3.

Rom. 12. 8.

- Or, cause not a trumpet to be sounded. Prov. 20.6.

Or, righteousness. Deut. 24. 13. Ps. 112. 9. Dan. 4. 27. 2 Cor. 9. 9, 10.

bOr, with.


you, should he call it Sixaloruiny, righteousness, in the first Verse 1. That ye do not your alms] A.XALOJUYNY Uuwa uen Tou,

verse, and Edsruosuvny, alms, in the following; when Christ perform not your acts of righteousness —such as alms-giving, every where used one and the same word ? Matthew might fasting, and prayer, mentioned immediately after. Instead of not change in Greek, where our Saviour had not changed in didziosumy, righteousness, or acts of righteousness, the reading Syriac: therefore we must say, that the Lord Jesus used the in the text, that which has been commonly receivel, is word np73 tsidekah, or xmpre zidkatha, in these four first ETUSTU?T?, alms. But the first reading has been inserted in verscs; but that, speaking in the dialect of common people, several editions, and is supported by the Codd. Vatican, and he was understood by the common people to speak of alms. Bezt, some others, and several versions, all the Itula except Now they called alms by the name of righteousness, for the one, and the Vulgate. The Latin Fathers have justitiam, a word Fathers of the traditions taught, and the common people beof the same meaning. Mr. Gregory has amply proved, npo lieved, that alms contributed very much to justification. Hear tsidekah, righteousness, was a common word for alms among the the Jerish chair in this matter–For one furthing giren to a Jews. Works, 4to. p. 58. 1671. R. D. Kimchi says, that np7s | poor man in alms, a man is made partaker of the beatific tsidekuh, Isai. lix. 14. njeans alms-giving; and the phrase ina vision : where it renders these words, Psal. xvii. 15. I shall Apy natan ésidekah, is used by the Jews to signify the giving behold thy face in righteousness, after this manner, I shall beof alms. The following passages from Dr. Lightfoot shew that hold thy fuce, BECAUSE of alms. Bava Bathra, it was thus comnionly used among the Jewish writers :

This money goeth for alms, that my sons muy lite, and that · It is questioned,” says he, “ whether Matthew writ I may obtain the world to come. Bab. Rosh. Hashshanah. Edmucouvrir, alms, or Arrancoviny, righteousness. I answer,

A man's table now expiates by alms, as heretofore the altar " I. That our Sayiour certainly said apos tsidekah, righte- || did by sucrifice. Beracoth. OUsness, (or, in Syriac, xnpo zidkatha) I make no doubt at If you afford alms out of your prurse, God will keep you all; but, that that word could not be otherwise understood by from all damage and harm. Hieros. Peah. the common people than of alms, there is as little doubt to be “ MonoważEs the king bestowed his goods liberally upon

the inade. For although the word 7p73 tsidekah, according to the poor, and had these words spoken to him by his kinsmen and idiom of the Old Testament, signifies nothing else than righte- friends— Your ancestors increased both their orin riches, and ousness ; yet now, when our Saviour spoke these words, it those that were left them by their fathers ; but you waste both signified nothing so much as alms.

your own and those of your uncestors.' To whom he answered“ II. Christ used also the same word xmp77 zidkatha, My futhers laid up their wealth on carth : Ilay up mine in righteousness, in the three verses next following, and Matthew | heuren. As it is written, Truth shall flourish out of the earth, und the word sienuorun, alms; but by what right, I beseech but Righteousness shall look down from heaven. My fathers Alms must be given


without ostentation,

A. D. 47.

*glory of men. Verily I say unto you, thy bleft hand know what thy right An. Olymp. They have their reward.

hand doeth:
3 But when thou doest alms, let not 4 That thine alms may be in secret:

A. D. a. An. Olymp

CCI. 3.

CCI. 3.

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« The

laid up treusures thnt bear no fruit, but I lay up such as bear trumpet or horn, under pretence of collecting the poor; though fruit. As it is said, It shall be well with the just, for they with no other design than to gratify their own ambition. shall eat the fruit of their own works. My fathers treasured There is a custom in the East not much unlike this. up, when power was in their hands; but I where it is not. As derrecshics carry horns with them which they frequently blow, it is said, Justice and judgment is the habitation of his when any thing is given to them, in honour of the donor. It throne. My fathers heaped up for others ; I for myself. As is not impossible that some of the poor Jews who begged. it is said, And this shall be to thee for righteousness. They alms might be furnished like the Persian derveeshes, who are scraped together for this world. I for the world to come. As a sort of religious beggars, and that these hypocrites might ģt is said, Righteousness shall deliver from death: Ibid. these be disposed to confine their alms-giving to those that they things are also recited in the Babylonian Talmud.

knew would pay them this honour.” Harmer's Observat. “ You see plainly in what sense he understands righteous- vol. i. p.

474. uess, namely, in the sense of alms: and that sense not so It must be granted, that in the Jewish writings there is no. niuch framed in his own imagination, as in that of the whole such practice referred to as that which I have supposed above, nation, and which the Royal Catechumen had imbibed from viz. blowing a trumpet to gather the poor, or the poor blowthe Pharisees his teachers.

ing a horn when relieved. Hence some learned men have “ Behold the justifying and saving virtue of alms from the dought that the word 2010 shopher a trumpet, refers to the yery work done according to the doctrine of the Pharisaical hole in the public alms chest, into which the money was chair! And hence, the opinion of this efficacy of alms so dropped which was allotted for the service of the poor. Such får prevailed with the deceived people, that they pointed out holes, because they were wide at one end and grew gradually valms by no other name (confined within one single word) narrow towards the other, were actually termed n1991 shothan api tạidekah, righteousness. Perhaps those words of pheroth, trumpets, by the Rabbins; of this Schoetgen furnishes our Saviour are spoken in derision of this doctrine. Yea, several examples. An ostentatious man, who wished to algite those things which ye have in alms, and behold all things tract the notice of those around him, would throw in his shall be clean to you, Luke xi. 41. With good reason indeed money with some force into these trumpet-resembling holes, exhorting them to give alms; but yet withal striking at the and thus he might be said now, oudTo(suv, to sound the trumcovetousness of the Pharisees, and confuting their vain opinion pet. The Jerusalem Gemara, Tract Shekalim, describes these of being clean by the washing of their hands from their own ningu shopheroth thus-—These trumpet holes were crooked, naropinion of the efficacy of alms. As if he had said, “ Yerow above and wide below, in order to prevent fraud. As our assert that alms justifies and saves, and therefore ye call it by Lord only uses the words, een oudrions, it may be tantamount the name of righteousness; why therefore do ye affect clean- to our term jingle. Do not make a public ostentatious jingle ress by the washing of hands; and not rather by the per- of that money which you give to public charities. Pride and formance of charity.LIGHTEPOT's Works, Vol. II. p. 153. hypocrisy are the things here reprehended. The Pharisees ne

Before men] Our Lord dçes not forbid public alms-giving, doubt, felt the weight of the reproof. fasting and prayer, þut simply censures those vain and Works of charity and mercy should be done as much in. hypocritica? persoņs who do these things publicly, that private as is consistent with the advancement of the glory of. they may be seen of men, and receive from them, the reputation | God, and the effectuaļ relief of the poor. of saints, &c.

In the synagogues and in the streets] That such chests or Verse 2. Therefore when thou doest thine alms) In the first boxes for receiving the alms of well-disposed people, were verșe the exhortation is general; Take ye heed. In this verse placed in the Synagogues, we may readily believe; but what the address is pointed—and thou-man-woman-who reaçl- | were the strcets? Schoetgen supposes that courts or avenues est-hearest,

in the temple and in the synagogues may be intended-places Do not sound a trumpet] {t is very likely that this was li- where the people were accustomed to walk, for air, amuseterally practised

among the Pharisees, who seemed to live ment, &c. for it is not to be supposed that such chests were on the public esteem, and were excessively self-righteous and fixed in the public streets. rain. Having something to distribute by way of alms, it is They have their reward.] That is, the honour and esteem gery probable they caused this to be published by blowing a of men which they sought. God is under no ol ligation to

CCI. 3.

CCI. 3.

Ilypocrisy to be


avoided in prayer. A.M. 1031. and thy Father which seeth in se- || Verily I say unto you, They have 4.M, 1931

1831. An. Olymp. cret, himself shall reward thee open their reward.

An. Olymp. ly.

6 But thou, when thou prayest, ben5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not ter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut be as the hypocrites are : for they love to pray thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; standing in the synagogues and in the corners and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reof the streets, that they may be seen of men. ward thee openly.

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them—they did notbing with an eye to his glory, and from prays not at all, or uses the language without the spirit of un they can expect no recompence. They had their re- || prayer. compence in this life; and could expect none in the world Thou shalt not be as the hypocrites] Υποκριται. Εtorm υπο to come.

under, and xps voucou to be judged, thought : properly a stageVerse 3. Let not thy left hand know] In many cases, works | player, who acts under a mask, personating a character disof charity must be hidden from even our nearest relatives, || ferent from his own; a counterfeit, a dissembler; one who who if they knew, vould hinder us from doing what God has would be thought to be different from wliat he really is. A given us power and inclination to perform. We must go person who wishes to be taken for a follower of God, but who even farther; and conceal them as far as is possible from our- has nothing of religion except the outside. selves, by not thinking of them, or eyeing them with com- Love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of placency. They are given to God, and should be hidden in the streets] The Jewish phylacterical prayers were long, and Hin.

the canonical hours obliged them to repeat these prayers Verse 4. Which seeth in secret] We should ever remember wherever they happened to be; and the Pharisees, who were that the eye of the Lord is upon us, and that he sees not full of vain glory, contrived to be overtaken in the streets by only the act, but also every motive that led to it.

the canonical hour, that they might be seen by the people, Shall reward thee openly.] Will give thee the fullest proofs and applauded for their great and conscientious piety. See of his acceptance of thy work of faith, and labour of love, Lightfoot. As they had no piety but that which was outrvard, hy encreasing that substance which, for his sake, thou sharest they endeavoured to let it fully appear, that they might make with the poor; and will manifest his approbation in thy own the most of it among the people. It would not have answerheart, by the witness of his spirit.

ed their end to kneel before God, for then they might have Verse 5. And when thou prayest] OFALI Tookuxn. Igorruxn been unnoticed by men ; and consequently have lost that reprayer, is compounded of


with, and evxn a row, because ward which they had in view : viz. the esteem and applause to pray right, a man binds himself to God as by a vow, to of the multitude. live to his glory, if he will grant him his grace, &c. Euxouces

Verse 6. But thou, when thou prayest] This is a very imsignifies to pour out prayers or dows, from ev well, and yow I || pressive and emphatic address. But thou! whosoever thou pour out ; probably alluding to the offerings or libations which art, Jew, Pharisee, Christian—enter into thy closet. Prayer were poured out before, or on the altar. A proper idea of is the most secret intercourse of the soul with God, and as it prayer is, a pouring out of the soul unto God, as a free-will were the conversation of one heart with another. The world offering, solemnly and eternally dedicated to hiin, accompa- is too prophane and treacherous to be of the secret. We nied with the most earnest desire that it may know, love, and must shut the door against it: endeavour to forget it, with all werve him alone. He that comes thus to God will ever be the affairs which busy and amuse it. Prayer requires retireheard and blessed. Prayer is the language of dependance; ment, at least of the heart; for this may be fitly termed he who prays not, is endeavouring to live independantly of the closet in the house of God, which house the body of God: this was the first curse, and continues to be the great every real Christian is, 1 Cor. iii. 16. To this closet we curse of mankind. In the beginning Satan said, Eat this ought to retire even in public prayer, and in the midst of fruit; ye shal then be as God; i.e. ye shall be independ- company aut: the man hearkened to bis voice, sin entered into the Reward thee openly.] What goodness is there equal to this world, and notwithstanding the full manifestation of the of God! to give not only what we ask, and more than we'ask, deception, the ruinous system is still pursued ; mån will, but to reward even prayer itself! How great advantage, is it if possible, live independantly of God; hence he either to serve a prince who places prayers in the number of ser

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