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Mary Magdalene announces
the resurrection to the disciples.
A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCII. 1.
A. M.4083 they have taken away my Lord, and herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; A. M. 4033. An. Olymp., I know not where they have laid him. which is to say, Master.
14 · And when she had thus said, 17 Jesus saith unto her, Touch me she turned herself back, and saw Jesus stand- not'; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: ing, and knew not that it was Jesus.
but go to my brethren, and say unto them, 15 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weep- " I ascend unto my Father, and your Father ; est thou ? whom seekest thou? She, suppos- and to my God, and your God. ing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, 18 #Mary Magdalenę came and told the dise Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me ciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he where thou hast laid him, and I will take him had spoken these things unto her. away.
19 f & Then the same day at evening, being 16 Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned the first day of the week, when the doors were
Ps. 22. 22.
. Matt. 28. 9. Mark 16. 9. Luke 24. 16, 31. ch. 21. 4.
Matt. 28. 10. Rom. 8. 29. Heb. 2. 11.
4 Ch. 16, 28.
Eph. 1. 17. Matt. 28. 10. Luke 24. 10. — Mark
16. 14. Luke 24. 36. 1 Cor. 15. 5.
rubim placed at each end of the mercy-seat : Exod. xxv. 18, | uncommon emphasis; and the usual sound of Christ's voice 19. Lightfoot.
accompanied it so, as immediately to prove that it must be Verse 13. They have taken away my Lord] It was conjec-Jesus. What transports of joy must have filled this woman's tured on chap. xix. 42. that the body of our Lord was only heart! Let it be remarked, that Mary Magdalene sought put
here for the time being, that after the sabbath they might Jesus more fervently, and continued more affectionately atcarry it to a more proper place—Mary seems to refer to this: tached to him, than any of the rest ; therefore to her først, They have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they Jesus is pleased to shew himself; and she is made the first have laid him. This removal she probably attributed to some herald of the gospel of a risen Saviour. of our Lord's disciples, or to some of his friends.
After Mary's exclamation of Rabboni, and its interpretation Verse 14. She turned herself back] Or, eorga@n eis TO OTIOw, by the Evangelist, one MS. the latter Syriac, Syriac Hieros. she was turned back, i. e. to go again with the other women and three copies of the Itala, add, και προσεδραμεν αψασθαι αυto Jerusalem, who had already departed: but she had not as Tou, And she ran to embrace, or cling to him. Then our Lord's yet gone so far, as to be out of the garden.
words come in with the reason for them. Knew not that it was Jesus.] John has here omitted what Verse 17. Touch me not] Mn MoU &TTOV, cling not to me. the angels said to the women, about Christ's being risen ; pro- Attomas has this sense in Job xxxi. 7. where the Septuagint bably because it was so particularly related by the other use it for the Hebrew pan dabak, which signifies to cleave, Evangelists : Matt. xxviii. 5–7. Mark xvi. 6, 7. Luke xxiv. cling, stick, or be glued to. From Matt. xxviii. 9. it appears 5,6,7. Mary was so absorbed in grief, that she paid but that some of the women held him by the feet, and worshipped little attention to the person of our Lord, and therefore did | him. This probably Mary did; and our Lord seems to have not at first discern it to be him : nor could she imagine such spoken to her to this effect : “ Spend no longer time with me an appearance possible, as she had no conception of his resur- now: I am not going immediately to heaven-you will have rection from the dead. She was therefore every way unpre- several opportunities of seeing me again : but go and tell my pared to recognize the person of our Lord.
disciples, that I am by and bye, to ascend to my Father and Verse 15. Supposing him to be the gardener] Kntougos, the God, who is your Father and God also. Therefore, let them inspector or overseer of the garden, from xntos, a garden, and take courage." ougos, an inspector—the person who had the charge of the Verse 18. Told the disciples-that he had spoken these things] workmen, and the care of the produce of the garden; and St. Mark says, chap. xvi. 11. that the afflicted apostles could who rendered account to the owner.
not believe what she had said. They seem to have considered And I will take him away.] How true is the proverb, Love it as an effect of her troubled imagination.' feels no load. Jesus was in the prime of life when he was Verse 19. The doors were shut--for fear of the Jews] We crucified, and had a hundred pounds' weight of spices added do not find that the Jews designed to molest the disciples : to his body; and yet Mary thinks of nothing less than carry- | that word of authority which Christ spoke, chap. xvii. 8. ing him away with her, if she can but find where he is Let these go away—had prevented the Jews from offering them laid!
any injury: but as they had proceeded so far as to put Christ Verse 16. Mary.] This word was no doubt spoken with to death, the faith of the disciples not being very strong, they
A. D. 29.
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Jesus appears to them, and
communicates the Holy Spirit. A. M.4038. shut, where the disciples were assem- unto you:
as my Father hath sent 4.M. 4033. Ån. Olymp. bled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus me, even so send I you.
An. Olymap. and stood in the midst, and saith unto 22 And when he had said this, he them, Peace be unto you.
breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive 20 And when he had so said, he shewed || ye'the Holy Ghost : unto them his hands and his side.
23 · Whose soever sins ye remit, they are were the disciples glad, when they saw the remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye Lord.
retain, they are retained.. 21 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be 24 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called
a Ch. 16. 29.--- Matt. 28. 18. ch. 17, 18, 19. Heb. 3. 1. 2 Tim. 2. 2.
• Matt. 16. 19. & 18. 18.-ch. 11. 16.
were led to think, that they should be the next victims if | comes accompanied by this divine breathing; and without this, found. Some think, therefore, that they had the doors not there is neither light nor life. Just as Adam was before God only shut, but barricadoed : nevertheless Jesus came in, the breathed the quickening spirit into him, so is every human doors being shut, i. e. while they continued shut. But how? soul till it receives this inspiration. Nothing is seen, known, By his almighty power : and farther we know not. Yet it is discerned, or felt of God, but through this.
, To every private quite possible, that no miraculous influence is here intended. Christian this is essentially requisite; and no man ever did, or The doors might be shut for fear of the Jews; and Jesus ever can preach the gospel of God so as to convince and conmight open them, and enter in the ordinary way. Where vert sinners without it." There are many (says pious Quesnel) there is no need for a miracle, a miracle is never wrought. | who extol the dignity of the apostolic mission, and compare See on ver. 30.
that of bishops and pastors with that of Christ; but with The Evangelist has omitted the appearing of our Lord to what shame and fear ought they to be filled, if they do but the other women who came from the tomb, Matt. xxviii. 9. compare the life and deportment of Christ, with the lives and and that to the two disciples who were going to Emmaus, conversation of those who glory in being made partakers of Luke xxiv. 13, &c. which all happened in the course of this his mission. They may depend on it, that if sent at all, they same day.
are only sent on the same conditions, and for the same end, Peuce be unto you.] His usual salutation and benediction. namely—to preach the truth, and to establish the kingdom of May every blessing of heaven and earth which you need be God, by opposing the corruption of the world; and by acting granted unto you!
and suffering to the end, for the advancement of the glory of Verse 20. He shewed unto them his hands and his side.] So God. That person is no other than a monster in the church, it appears that his body bore the marks of the nails and the who, by his sacred office, should be a dispenser of the spirit; spear; and these marks were preserved, that the disciples and who, by the corruption of his own heart, and by a dismight be the more fully convinced of the reality of his resur- orderly, worldly, voluptuous, and scandalous life, is at the same rection.
time a member and instrument of the Devil.” Verse 21. Even so send I you.] As I was sent to proclaim the Verse 23. Whose soerer sins ye remit] See the note on Matt. truth of the Most High, and to convert sinners to God; I xvi. 19. and xviii. 18. It is certain God alone can forgive send you for the very same purpose; clothed with the very sins : and it would not only be blasphemous, but grossly absame authority, and influenced by the very same Spirit. surd to say that any creature could remit the guilt of a trans
Verse 22. He breathed on them] Intimating by this, that gression which had been committed against the Creator. The they were to be made new men, in order to be properly qua- apostles received from the Lord the doctrine of reconciliation, lified for the work to which he had called them : for in this and the doctrine of condemnation. They who believed on the breathing he evidently alluded to the first creation of man, son of God, in consequence of their preaching, had their sins when God breathed into him the breath of lives, and he be- || remitted ; and they who would not believe, were declared to came a living soul : the breath or Spirit of God, (sunbae nilie under condemnation. The Reader is desired to consult the ruach Elohim) being the grand principle and cause of his note referred to above, where the custom to which our Lord spiritual and divine life.
alludes is particularly considered. Dr. Lightfoot supposes Receive ye the Holy Ghost] From this act of our Lord, the that the power of life and death, and the power of delivering influences of the Holy Spirit on the souls of men have been over to Satan, which was granted to the apostles, is here refertermed his inspiration ; from in, into, and spiro, I breathe. red to. This was a power which the primitive apostles ex. Every word of Christ which is received in the heart by faith, I clusively possessed.
Thomas receives full proof
of the resurrection.
A. D. 29.
A. M. 403. Didymus, was not with them when || Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood A. M. 1033 An. Olymp. Jesus came.
in the midst, and said, Peace be unto An. Olymp. 25 The other disciples therefore said you. unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said 27 Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the thy finger, and behold my hands ; and reach print of the nails, and put my finger into the hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his and be not faithless, but believing. side, I will not believe.
28 And Thomas answered and said unto him, 26 | And after eight days again his disciples | My Lord and my
God. were within, and Thomas with them: then came 29 Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because
A Ps. 38. 41. cl, 19. 34.
b Luke 44. 39. 1 John 1, 1.
Verse 24. Thomas-called Didymus] See this name ex- Verse 27. Then saith he to Thomas] Through his infinite plained, chap. xi. 16.
compassion, be addressed him in a particular manner; conWas not with them] And by absenting himself from the descending in this case to accommodate himself to the prejucompany of the disciples, he lost this precious opportunity of dices of an obstinate, though sincere, disciple. seeing and hearing Christ; and of receiving (at this time) the Reach hither thy finger, &c.] And it is very probable that inestimable blessing of the Holy Ghost. Where two or three | Thomas did so; for his unbelief was too deeply rooted to be are assembled in the name of Christ; he is in the midst of
easily cured. them. Christ had said this before : Thomas should have re- Verse 28. Thomas answered, &c.] Those who deny the membered it, and not have forsaken the company of the dis- godhead of Christ, would have us to believe that these words ciples. What is the consequence ?-His unbelief becomes, are an exclamation of Thomas, made through surprise, and 1st. Utterly unreasonable : Ten of his brethren witnessed that | that they were addressed to the Father, and not to Christ. they had seen Christ, ver. 25; but he rejected their testimony. Theodore of Mopsuestes was the first, I believe, who gave the 2dly. His unbelief became obstinate; he was determined not words this turn; and the fifth Ecumenic Council, held at Conto believe on any evidence that it might please God to give stantinople, anathematized him for it. This was not accordbim: he would believe according to his own prejudices, or not ing to the spirit of the gospel of God. However, a man must at all. 3dly. His unbelief became presumptuous and insolent; do violence to every rule of construction, who can apply the a view of the person of Christ will not suffice : he will not be- || address here to any but Christ. The text is plain, Jesus lieve that it is he, unless he can put his finger into the holes | comes in—sees Thomas, and addresses him; desiring him to made by the nails in his Lord's hands; and thrust his hand come to him, and put his finger into the print of the nails, into the wound made by the spear in his side
&c. Thomas, perfectly satisfied of the reality of our Lord's Thomas had lost much good, and gained much evil, and yet resurrection, says unto him,—My Lord! and my God! i.e. was insensible of his state. Behold the consequences of for- Thou art indeed, the very same person,--my Lord, whose saking the assemblies of God's people! Jesus comes to the disciple I have so long been; and thou art my God, hencemeeting—a disciple is found out of bis place, who might || forth the object of my religious adoration. Thomas was the have been there; and he is not only not blessed, but his heart first who gave the title of God to Jesus; and by this glorious gets hardened and darkened through the deceitfulness of sin. confession, made some amends for his former obstinate increIt was through God's mere mercy that ever Thomas had dulity. It is worthy of remark, that from this time forward, the another opportunity of being convinced of his error. Reader! whole of the disciples treated our Lord with the most supreme take warning,
respect; never using that familiarity towards him, which Verse 26. After eight days) It seems likely that this was they had often used before. The resurrection from the dead, precisely on that day se'nnight, on which Christ had appeared gave them the fullest proof of the divinity of Christ. And to them before-and from this we may learn, that this was the this, indeed, is the use which St. John makes of this mani. weekly meeting of the apostles; and though Thomas was not festation of Christ. See ver.30,31. Bishop Pearce says here: found at the former meeting, he was determined not to be “ Observe, that Thomas calls Jesus his God, and that Jesus
According to his custom, Jesus came does not reprove him for it, though probably it was the first again ; for he cannot forget his promise—two or three are time he was called so.” And I would ask, could Jesus be assembled in his name; and he has engaged to be among jealous of the honour of the true God; could he be a prothiein.
pbet; could he be even an honest man, to permit bis disciple
Those are blessed who believe.
The end for which this book was written.
A. D. 29.
4. M. 1033. thou hast seen me, thou hast believed :||are not written in this book :
31 . But these are written that ye An. Olymp. and yet have believed.
might believe that Jesus is the Christ, 30 I And many other signs truly did Je- || the Son of God; "and that believing ye might sus in the presence of his disciples, which have life through his name.
1 2 Cor. 5.7. 1 Pet. 1. 8.
ch. 21. 25.
Luke 1. 4.--ch. 3. 1.5, 16. & 5. 24. 1 Pet. 1. 9.
to indulge in a mistake so monstrous and destructive, if it had in the whole Revelation of God but what is for some important been one ?
purpose, and there is nothing left out that could have been of Verse 29. Thomas] This word is omitted by almost every | any real use. MS. Version, and ancient commentator of importance.
Verse 31. That ye might believe) What is here recorded is to Blessed are they, &c.] Thou hast seen, and therefore thou give a full proof of the divinity of Christ; that he is the promised hast believed, and now thou art blessed ; thou art now happy: Messiah ; that be really suffered, and rose again from the dead, fully convinced of my resurrection, yet no less blessed shall and that through bim every believer might have eternal life. all those be who believe in my resurrection, without the Life] Several MSS. Versions and Fathers read eternal life, evidence thou hast had. From this we learn, that to believe and this is undoubtedly the meaning of the word, whether the in Jesus on the testimony of his apostles, will put a man into various reading be admitted or not. the possession of the very same blessedness which they themselves enjoyed. And so has God constituted the whole æco- Grotius has conjectured that the Gospel, as written by St. nomy of grace, that a believer at eighteen hundred years' || John, ended with this chapter: and that the following chapter distance from the time of the resurrection, suffers no loss, be- was added by the church of Ephesus. This conjecture is supcause he has not seen Christ in the flesh. The importance | ported by nothing in antiquity. It is possible that these two and excellence of implicit faith in the testimony of God, is last verses might have formerly been at the conclusion of the thus stated by Rab. Tanchum.“ Rab. Simeon ben Lachesh | last chapter, as they bear a very great similarity to those that saith, The proselyte is more beloved by the holy blessed God, || are found there : and it is likely that their true place is between than that whole crowd that stood before Mount Sinai : for the 24th and 25th verses of the succeeding chapter ; with the unless they had heard the thundering, and seen the flames and latter of which, they in every respect correspond, and with it lightning, the-hills trembling, and the trumpets sounding, form a proper conclusion to the book. Except this corresthey had not received the Law. But the proselyte hath seen pondence, there is no authority for changing their present nothing of all this, and yet he hath come in, devoting himself position. to the holy blessed God, and hath taken upon him (the yoke After reading the Gospel of John, his first Epistle should of) the kingdom of heaven."
be next taken up: it is written exactly in the same spirit, Reader! Christ died for thee-believe, and thou shalt be and keeps the same object steadily in view. As John's Gossaved ; and become as blessed and as happy as an apostle. pel may be considered a supplement to the other Evangelists,
Verse 30. Many other signs truly did Jesus, &c.] That is, so his first Epistle may be considered a supplement and conbesides the two mentioned here: ver. 19. and ver. 26. viz. uinuation to his own Gospel. In some MSS. the Epistles Christ's entering into the house in a miraculous manner twice, || follow this Gospel, not merely because the transcribers wishnotwithstanding the doors were fust shut : see on ver. 19. Theed to have all the works of the same writer together; but other miracles which our Lord did, and which are not related because there was such an evident connection between them. here, were such as were necessary to the disciples only, and The first Epistle is to the Gospel, as a pointed and forcible therefore not revealed to mankind at large. There is nothing || application is to an interesting and impressive sermon.
CHAPTER XXI. Jesus shews himself to the disciples at the sea of Tiberias, 1-5. The miraculous draught of fishes, 6–11. He
dines with his disciples, 19–14. Questions Peter concerning his love to him, and gives him commission to feed his sheep, 15–17. Foretells the manner of Peter's death, 18, 19. Peter enquires concerning John, and receives an answer that was afterwards niisunderstool, 20—23. John's concluding testimony concerning the authenticity of his gospel, and the end for which it was written, 24, 25.
Jesus shews himself to the
disciples at the sea of Tiberias,
A.D. 99. An. Olymp CCII. 1.
A.D. 2). An. Olymp. CCII. 1,
FTER these things Jesus shewed || Jesus stood on the shore ; but the 4.1.203.
himself again to the disciples at disciples oknew not that it was Jesus.
the sea of Tiberias; and on this wise 5 Then Jesus saith unto them, shewed he himself
* Children, have ye any meat? They answered 2 There were together Simon Peter, and him, No. Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of 6 And he said unto them, ' Cast the net on Cana in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, the right side of the ship, and ye shall find. and two other of his disciples.
They cast therefore, and now they were not 3 Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. | able to draw it for the multitude of fishes. They say unto him, We also go with thee. 7 Therefore s that disciple whom Jesus loved They went forth, and entered into a ship im- saith unto Peter, It is the Lord. Now when mediately; and that night they caught no-Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he thing.
girt his fisher's coat unto him, (for he was 4 But when the morning was now come, naked,) and did cast himself into the sea.
* Ch. 1. 45.-- Matt. 4. 21.-ch. 20, 14.
d Luke 24. 41.
e Or, Sirs.- Luke 5. 1,6,7.-8 ch. 13. 23. & 20.2.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXI.
Any meat] Ilgorfaytov, from agos, besides, and Çayu, Verse 1. Jesus shewed himself again] After that our Lord I eat, any thing that is eaten with bread or such like solid had appeared several times to the women, and to the apostles substances, to make the deglutition the more easy : here it at Jerusalem, and at the tomb, he bade them to go into Galilee, evidently means any kind of fish: and our Lord seeins to have giving them the promise of meeting them there: Matt. xxviii. 7. appeared at first in the character of a person who wished Mark xvi. 7. This promise we find he fulfilled in the way to purchase a part of what they had caught : see the note on John relates it here. This was the seventh appearance of our chap. vi. 9. Lord after the resurrection. Matthew, chap. xxviii. 16. has Verse 6. And ye shall find.] The Ethiopic, three copies of but just mentioned it: of it the rest of the Evangelists say no- the Itala, and St. Cyril add, They said therefore unto him, we thing; and this is the reason why John gives it so particularly. have laboured all the night and caught nothing, nevertheless at
Verse 3. Peter saith— I go a fishing.] Previously to the cru- thy command we will let down the net. This is borrowed from cifixion of our Lord, the temporal necessities of himself and Luke v. 5. his disciples appear to have been supplied by the charity of For the multitude of fishes.] This was intended as an individuals : Luke viii. 3. As it is probable that the scandal | emblem of the immense number of souls which should be conof the cross had now shut up this source of support; and the verted to God by their ministry, according to the promise of disciples not fully knowing how they were to be employed, Christ : Matt. iv. 19. purposed to return to their former occupation of fishing, in Verse 7. His fisher's coat) Or, his upper coat. Extràuta, order to gain a livelihood, and therefore the seven mentioned, from ev, upon, and syduw, I clothe ; something analogous to ver. 2. embarked on the sea of Tiberias, otherwise called the what we term a great coat, or surtout. sea of Galilee.
He was naked] He was only in his vest. Tujeros, naked, is Verse 3. That night they caught nothing.] God had so or
often used to signify the absence of this upper garment only. In dered it, that they might be the more struck with the miracle 1 Sam. xix. 24. when Saul had put off his sparia, upper garwhich he afterwards wrought.
ments, he is said to have been yoperos, naked; and David, when Verse 4. Knew not that it was Jesus.] Probably because it girded only with a linen ephod, is said to have been uncovered, was either not light enough; or, he was at too great a dis- in 2 Sam. vi. 14, 20. To which may be added what we read in tance; or, he had assumed another form, as in Mark xvi. 12. the Sept. Job xxii. 6. thou hast taken away the covering of the otherwise, his person was so remarkable, that all his disciples naked; a pep.com yuuyw, the plaid, or blanket, in which they readily knew him when he was at hand: see ver. 12.
wrapped themselves; and besides which they had none other. Verse 5. Children] Ilasdsa, a term of familiarity, and af- In this sense, it is, that Virgil says, Geor. I. 299. Nudus era, fectionate kindness; it is the vocative case plural of radiov, sere nudus, i. e. strip off your upper garments, and work till you which is the diminutive of tabs, and literally signifies little | sweat. See more examples in Bp. Pearce. children, or beloved children. How the margin has made sirs Cast himself into the sea.] It is likely that they were in very out of it, I cannot conceive.
shallow water, and as they were only two hundred cubits from