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A. M. 4053.
A.D. 29. An. Olymp.
36 Simon Peter said unto him, follow thee now? I will lay down my ... Olymp. Lord, whither goest thou ? Jesus an- life for thy sake.
swered him, Whither I go, thou canst 38 Jesus answered him, Wilt thou lay not follow me now; but a thou shalt follow me down thy life for my sake? Verily, verily, I say afterwards.
unto thee, The cock shall not crow, till thou 37 Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot I hast denied me thrice.
i Ch. 21. 18. 2 Pet. 1.14.
- Matt: 26. 33, S1. 35. Mark 14. 29, 30, S1. Luke 22. 33, 34.
essential and distinctive mark of all my disciples. When they &c. But here, two days before that time, he says, the cock love one another, with pure hearts, fervently-even' unto shall not crów; that is, shall not have done his crowing. The death; then shall it fully appear that they are disciples of that Jews, and some other nations, divided the cock-crowing into person who laid down his life for his sheep; and who became, the first, the second, and the third tiines.” by dying, a ransom for all.
The disciples of different teachers were known by their 1. On Peter's denial of our Lord, much has been written; habits, or some particular creed or rite, or point of austerity, by one class he has been incautiously excused, and by another, which they had adopted; but the disciples of Christ were rashly censured. Peter was self-confident, but he was cerknown by this love which they bore to each other. The tainly sincere, and had he trusted more in God, and less in primitive Christians were particularly known by this ainong himself, he would not have miscarried. He did not look to the Gentiles: Tertullian, in his Apology, gives us their very his Maker for strength, and therefore he fell. He was_surwords : Vide, inquiunt, ut se diligunt ; et pro alterutro, mori prised, and found unarmed. It is a well known fact, that parati sunt. “See, said they, how they love one another ; circumstances have occurred, in which persons of the most and are ready to lay down their lives for each other.”
bold, intrepid, and adventurous minds, have proved mere cowVerse 36. Thou canst not follow me now] Thou hast not ards, and acted to their own disgrace and ruin. Facts of this faith strong enough to die for me; nor is thy work yet done; kind occur in the naval and military history of this and every but hereafter thou shalt suffer for my sake, and die in defence other country. No man is master of himself at all times; of my truth : see chap. xxi. 18.
therefore prudence and caution should ever be united to Verse 37. Why cannot I follow thee row ?] Peter probably courage. Peter had courage, but he had not caution: he thought that our Lord intended to go some long journey, which felt a powerful and determined will, but the trial was above would necessarily subject him to many inconveniences and fa- | his own strength, and he did not look to God for power from tigue; and he felt quite disposed to follow him in this supposed on high. He was warned by this miscarriage, but he dearly journey, at all hazards. He saw no reason, because he did not bought his experience. Let him that readeth understand. see our Lord's meaning, why he could not follow him now. 2. A fact which occurs in the English Martyrology will
I will lay down my life for thy suke.] Poor Peter, thou wast serve to illustrate the history of Peter's denial and fall. In sincere, but thou didst not know thy own strength. Thou the reign of Queen Mary, when the papists of this kingdom Wert at this time willing to die, but when the time came burned all the protestan's th y could convict of denying the thou wert not able. Christ must first die for Peter, before doctrine of transubstantiation; a poor man who had received Peter can die for him. Let no man think he can do any the truth in theory, but had not as yet felt its power, was thing good, without the immediate assistance of God. Peter's convicted and sentenced by their bloody tribunal to be burned denial should be an eternal warning to all self-confident persons : alive. While they were drawing him to the place of executhough there be sincerity and good will at the bottom; yet in tion, he was very pensive and melancholy, and when he came the trial, these cannot perform that office which belongs to the within sight of the stake, &c. he was overpowered with fear power of God. We should will, and then look to God for and terror; and exclaimed, Oh! I can't burn! I can't burn! porwer to execute : without him we can do nothing.
Some of the attending priests supporing that he wished to Verse 38. The cock shall not crow, &c.] See on Matt. xxvi. recant, spoke to him to that effect. The poor man still believed 34. Dr. Lightfoot has very properly remarked. that we must the truth; felt no disposition to deny it; but did not feel such not understand these words, as if the cock should not crow an evidence of his Maker's approbation in his own soul, as at all, before Peter had thrice denied his Master : but we must could enable him to burn for it! He continued in great agony, understand them thus :. "the cock shall not have finished his feeling all the bitterness of death, and calling on God to recrowing before thou wilt thrice deny me. When the time veal himself through the Son of his love. While thus engaged, was near, the very night in which this was to happen, Christ God broke in upon his soul, and he was filed with peace and said, 'This very night the cock shall not crow his second time, joy in believing. He then clapped his hands, and exclaimed
He comforts his disciples
with the promise of glory.
with a powerful voice, I can burn! I can burn! He was bound case lies; no man is expected to do a supernatural work by his to the stake, and burned gloriously, triumphing in God through own strength : if left to that, in a case of this kind, his failure whom he had received the atonement. This was a case in must be inevitable. But in all spiritual matters, assistance is point. The man was convinced of the truth, and was willing to be sought from God; he that seeks shall find, and he that to burn for the truth; but had not as yet power, because he finds divine strength shall be equal to the task he is called to fulhad not yet received an evidence of his acceptance with God. || fill. Peter was incautious and off his guard: the trial cameHe pleaded for this with strong crying and tears, and God an- he looked not for power from op high, and he fell :--not merely swered him to the joy of his soul; and then he was as able because he was weak;-not because God withheld the necessary as he was willing to go to prison and to death. Without the assistance, but because he did not depend on and seek it. In no power and consolation of the Spirit of God, who could be a part of this business, can Peter be excused—he is every where martyr, even for divine truth? We see now plainly, how the blameable; and yet, through the whole, an object of pity.
CHAPTER XIV. Christ comforts his disciples on the event of his removal from them, by the consideration of his going to prepare a
place for them in heaven, 1-4. Thomas questions him concerning the way to the Father, and is answered, 5-7. Philip proposes a difficulty, and Christ shews that he and the Father are one ; that he is Mediator between God and man; and that whatsoever is asked in his name, shall be obtained, 8—14. He promises them the Holy Spirit as the Comforter and Spirit of truth, 15—18. Shews them that he is shortly to leave them, and that those who love him, should be loved of the Father, 19–21. Jude asks a question, how Christ is to manifest himself to the disciples, and not to the Jews? 22. Christ ansk'ers, and shew's that the manifestation is to be made to those wlm love God, and to them the Joly Spirit is to be an infallible teacher, 23–26. He bequeaths his peace to them, and fortifies them against discouragements, 27–29. Foretells his approaching death, 30, 31. ET not your heart be troubled : || if it were not so, I would have told
you. An. Olymp. ye believe in God, believe also "I
to prepare a place for you. An. Olymp.
3 And if I go and prepare a place for 2 In my Father's house are many mansions : you, ‘I will come again, and receive
• Ver. 27. ch. 10 S, 22.
Ch. 13. 33, 36.
Sver, 18, 28. Acts 1. 11.
NOTES ON CHAP. XIV.
am going, ye cannot come now, yet do not think that we shall "Verse 1. Let not your heart be troubled) After having an- be for ever separated. I am going to that state of glory where swered St. Peter's question, he addresses himself again to his there is not only a place of supreme eminence for myself, but disciples, and tells them not to be adicted at his leaving them; also places for all my disciples ;-various degrees of glory, suited nor to lose courage because of what he said concerning Peter's | to the various capucities and attainments-of my followers. denying him :--that if they reposed their confidence in God, Our Lord alludes here to the temple, which was called the he would protect them; and that howsoever they might see house of God, in the precincts of which there were a great him treated, they should believe in him more firmly, as his number of chambers, 1 Kings vi. 5. Ezra viii. 29. Jer. xxxv. sufferings, death, and resurrection should be to them the most | 2, 4. xxxvi. 10. positive proof of his being the Messiah, the Saviour of the If—not~I would have told you.] If your places were not world.
prepared in the kingdom of God, I would not have permitted Ye believe in God, believe also in me.] It is best to read beth you to indulge a vain hope concerning future blessedness. the verbs in the imperative mood :-Place your confidence in Verse 3. And if I go] And when I shall have gone and God, and in me as the Mediator between God and man, ver. prepared a place for you-opened the kingdom of an eternal 12–14. and expect the utmost support from God; but ex- glory for your reception, and for the reception of all that shall *pect it all through me. The disciples began to lose all hopedie in the faith, I will come again, after my resurrection, and of a secular kingdom, and were discouraged in consequence : 1 give you the fullest asşurances of this state of blessedness; and -Christ promises them a spiritual and heavenly inheritance, confirm you in tire faith, by my grace and the effusion of my and thus lifts up their drooping hearts.
Spirit. Dr. Lightfoot thinks, and with great probability too, Verse 2. In my Father's house, &c.] The kingdom of glory. that there is an allusion here to Num. x. 33. And the ark of Many mansions] Though I have said before, that whither 1 || the Lord went before them, to search out a renting place for them, The questions of Thomas and
Philip; and our Lord's answers.
A 2.1.68 myself; that * where I am, there ye || time with you, and yet hast thou not 4.4.95. An. Olymp. may be also.
known me, Philip ? 5 he that hath seen An. Olymp. 4 And whither I go ye know, and me hath seen the Father? and how the way ye know.
sayest thou then, Shew us the Father? 5 [Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know 10 Believest thou not that I am in the Fanot whither thou goest; and how can we know ther, and the Father in me? the words that I the way?
speak unto you I speak not of myself: but 6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, and the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the the truth, and the life : 'no man cometh un- works. to the Father, but by me.
11 Believe me that I am in the Father, and the 7 'If ye had known me, ye should have known Father in me: kor else believe me for the very my Father also: and from henceforth.ye know works' sake. him, and have seen him.
12 I'Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that 8 Philip saith unto him, Lord, shew us the believeth on me, the works that I do shall be do Father, and it sufficeth us.
also; and greater works than these shall he do ; :.9 Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long because I my
a Ch. 12. 26. & 17. 24. 1 Thess. 4. 17. Hebr. 9. 8. ch. 1. 17. & 8. 34.ch. 1. 4. & 11.25.-_ ch. 10. 9.ch. 8. 19,-&ch. 12. 45. Col. 1. 15. Hebr. 1. 3.
Ver. 20. ch. 10. 38. & 17. 21, 23.-ich. 5. 19. & 7. 16. & 8. 98. & 12. 49,-_kch. 5. 36. & 10. 38.- Matt. 21. 21. Mark 16. 17. Lule 10. 17.
Verse 4. And whither I go ye know] I have told you this shew us the Father. The demand of Philip was similar to that so often, and so plainly that ye must certainly have compre- made by Moses, Exod. xxxiii. 18. He wished to see the glory hended what I have said.
of God. In Peter, James, or John, this would have been inVerse 5. Lord, we know not] Thomas, perhaps, thought | excusable; but Philip had not seen the transfiguration on the that our Lord only spoke of his going some distance from mount. The Jewish history is full of the manifestations which the place where he then was.
God made of himself; and especially when he gave the law, Verse 6. I am the way] That leads to the Father : the TRUTH As Christ was introducing a new law, Philip wished to have that teaches. the knowledge of God, and directs in the way :- an additional manifestation of God. the life that animates all those who seek and serve bim ; and Verse 9. He that hath seen me hath seen the Father] Could which is to be enjoyed eternally at the end of the way, any creature say these words? Do they not evidently imply
Christ is the way, I. By his doctrine, chap. vi. 68. 2. By that Christ declared himself to his disciples to be the everlasthis example, 1 Pet. ij. 21. 3. By his sacrifice, Heb. ix. 8, 9. l ing God? 4. By his Spirit, chap. xvi. 13.
Verse 10. I am in the Father, and the Father in me ?] We He is the TRUTH, 1. In opposition to all false religions. 2. || are essentially one; and those who have seen me, have seen him To the Mosaic law, which was only the shadow, not the truth who sent me. or substance of the good things which were to come. Aud 3. He doeth the works.] We are not only one in nature, but one In respect to all the promises of God, 2 Cor. i. 20.
also in operation. The works which I have done bear witness He is the life, both in grace and glory; the life that not of the infinite perfection of my nature. Such miracles as I only saves from death, but destroys it.
have wrought, could only be performed by unlimited power. No one cometh unto the Father] By any other doctrine, by Verse 12. And greater works than these] The miracles which any other merit, or by any other intercession than mine. I have wrought could not have been wrought but by the om
Verse 7. If ye had known me, ye should have known my Fa- | nipotence of God; but that omnipotence can work greater. ther] Because I and the Father are ONE, chap. x. 30. Or, if ye | And those who believe on my name shall, through my almighty had properly examined the intention and design of the law, power, be enabled to work greater miracles than those which ye would bave been convinced that it referred to me: and I have ordinarily wrought. An impostor might seduce the that what I have done and instituted, were according to the people by false miracles, but he could not make his power and design and intention of the Father, as expressed in that cunning pass to all those who were seduced by bim: but I will law.
give you this proof of the divinity of my mission and the truth Verse 8. Shew us the Father) As if he had said, We have
seen || of my doctrine. and adored thee, and our happiness will be complete if thou Perhaps the greater works refer to the immense multitudes
Christ promises to send the
Holy Ghost to his disciples.
A. D. 29.
13 · And whatsoever ye shall ask in 16 And I will pray the Father, and A.M. 4033. An. Olymp. my name, that will I do, that the Father he shall give you another Comforter, An. Olymp. may be glorified in the Son.
that he may abide with you for ever; 14 If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will 17 Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world do it.
cannot receive, because it seeth him not, nei15 q If ye love me, keep my commandments. ther knoweth him : but ye know him ; for he
* Matt. 7. 7. & 21. 22. Mark 11. 24. Luke 11.9. ch. 15, 7, 16. & 16. 23, Ver. 21, 23. ch. 15. 10, 14. 1 John 5. 3.—ch. 15. 26. & 16. 7. Rom. 24. Janies 1. 5. 1 John 3. 22. & 5. 14.
8. 15, 26.ch. 15. 26. & 16. 13. 1 Jolin 4. 6.--.ei Cor. 2. 11.
that were brought to God by the ministry of the apostles. By where the common translation renders the word advocate. the apostles was the doctrine of Christ spread far and wide; Christ is thus called, because he is represented as transacting while Christ confined his ministry chiefly to the precincts of the concerns of our souls with God; and for this cause, he tells Judea. It is certainly the greatest miracle of divine grace to us, be goes unto the Father, ver. 12. The Holy Spirit is thus convert tlie obstinate wicked heart of man, from sin to holi- || called, because he transacts the cause of God and Christ with ness. This was done in numberless cases by the disciples, who us, explains to us the nature and importance of the great atonewere endued with power from on high, while proclaiming re- ment, shews the necessity of it, counsels us to receive it, inmission of sins, through faith in his blood.
structs us how to lay hold on it, vindicates our claim to it, and Some account for the greater works thus: 1. The very, sha- makes intercessions in us with unulterable groanings. As Christ dow of Peter healed the diseased, Acts v. 15. 2. Diseases acted with his disciples while he sojourned with them, so the were cured and dæmons cast out, by applying to the persons Holy Ghost acts with those who believe in his name. handkerchiefs and aprons that had before touched the body of
As the death and atonement of Christ will be Paul, Acts xix. 12. 3. By the word of Peter, Ananias and necessary to man till the conclusion of the world; so the office Sapphira were struck dead, Acts v. 5, 9, 10. 4. Elymas the of the Holy Spirit must be continued among men till the end sorcerer was struck blind by the word of Paul, Acts xiii. 11. of time: therefore, says Christ, he shall continue with you for, 5. Christ only preached in Judea, and in the lunguage only of eter, teaching, comforting, advising, defending, and intercedthat country: but the apostles preached through the most of ing for you and for all my followers to the end of time. the then known world, and in all the languages of all countries. Verse 17. The Spirit of truuh] The Spirit, or Holy Ghost, But let it be remarked that all this was done by the power of whose essential office is to manifest, vindicate, and apply the Christ: and I think it still niore natural to attribute the greater truth. The Gospel of Christ may be thus called, because it works to the greater number of conversions made under the exposes falsity, removes error, and teaches the knowledge of apostles' ministry. The reason which our Lord gives for this the true God; shews the way to him, saves from vanity and ilis worthy of deep attention :
lusive hopes, and establishes solid happiness in the souls of those Because I go unto my Father.] Where I shall be an Interces- | who believe. sor for you, that
The world cannot receive] By the world, St. John means Verse 13. Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name] To enable || those who are influenced only by the desire of the flesh, the you to perform these miracles, and to convert souls, may be desire of the eye, and the pride of life, 1 John ii. 16. Now granted you. Besides, by going unto the Father, I shall ré- these cannot receive the Spirit of the truth, because they see hine: ceive the Holy Spirit, and send down his abundant influences not, have no spiritual discernment, attend to nothing but the dicinto the hearts of those who believe.
tates of their corrupt passions and affections; and will admit of Verse 15. If ye love me, keep my commandments.] Do not be no influence but what can be an object of their senses. Hence. amicted at the thought of my being separated from you: the all the deism and irreligion in the world. God, in the operation most solid proof ye can give of your attachinent to, and affec- of his hands, and in the influences of his spirit, is found every tion for me, is to keep my commandments. This I shall re- where except in the perverted passions of men. In these alone, ceive as a greater proof of your affection than your tears. do men of corrupt minds seek him; here only, he is not to be
Verse 16. I will pray the Father] After having made an found; and therefore they become infidels and atheists. atonement for the sin of the world, I will become Mediator But ye know him] Ye have already received a measure of the between God and man; and through my mediation and inter- ruth, and ye believe in this Spirit. Probably our Lord refers . cession shall all the blessings of grace and glory be acquired. to the knowledge which they should afterwards attain: in this
Another Comforter] The word aagarintos signifies not only sense the passage has been understood by the Vulgate, Nonnus, a comforter, but also an advocate, a defender of a cause, a and two copies of the Itala, which read, ye shall know him. counsellor, patron, mediator. Cbrist is thus termed 1 John ii. 2. For he dwelleth with you] Or, as the Æthiopic, Vulgate, He ihat loves Christ will
keep his commandments.
A. D.. An. Olymp.
A M. 40:3
dwelleth with you, “and shall be in I will love him, and will manifest myA. D. 29. An. Olymp. you.
self to him. CCII. 1.
18 I will not leave you comfortless: 22 'Judas saith unto him, not Iscar- ccll. 1. "I will come to you.
iot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt manifest thy19 Yet a little while, and the world seeth me self unto us, and not unto the world ? no more; but ye see me: 'because I live, ye 23 Jesus answered and said unto him, "If a shall live also.
man love me, he will keep my words: and my 20 At that day ye shall know that I am in Father will love him, 'and we will come unto my Father, and
in me, and I in you. him, and make our abode with him. 21 He that hath my commandments, and
24 He that loveth me not, keepeth not my say. keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he ings: and TM the word which ye hear is not mine, that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and but the Father's which sent me.
Nonnus, and sir copies of the Itala read, he shall dwell with Verse 21. He it is that loreth me) See on ver. 15. you (see above); and this, it is very evident, is the meaning And will manifest myself to him.] All my faithful disciples of the Evangelist, who not infrequently uses the present for shall se me after my resurrection: and I will manifest my the future tense. It is certain the Holy Spirit was not yet given power and goodness to all those who believe in and obey me; to the disciples so as to dwell in them: this St. John himself even to the end of the world. assures us, chap. vii. 39. And it is evidently of that Spirit Verse 22. Judas] The same as Thaddeus and Lebbeus, the broand its influences which was not given till the day of Pente- ther of Jumes, and author of what is called the epistle of Jule. cost, that our Loril here speaks.
How is it] Or, how can it be creyersy, what is to happen? Verse 18. I will not leave you comfortless] Literally, orphans. on what account is it? Judas, who was probably thinking that The original word, og pavos, is by some derived from 089v0s, ob- the kingdom of Christ should extend over all the earth, wonscure, dark, because, says Mintert, an orphan (one deprived ders how this can be, and yet Christ maniftst himself only to of father and mother) is little esteemed, neglected, and is ob- his disciples and not to the world, ver. 19. To this our Lord liged to wander about in obscurity and darkness. Others de- || in a more express manner than he had done before, answers: rive it from the Hebrew 970 charaph, to strip or make bare, Verse 23. If a man] Not only my present disciples, but all despoil, because such a child is destitute of comfort, direction, and those who shall believe on me through their word, or that of support, and is a prey to misery and disease, to sin and to death.
their successors; The disciples of a particular teacher among the Hebrews Love me] Receive me as his Saviour, and get the lore of Gul called him father, his scholars were called his children, and on shed abroad in his heart by the Holy Ghost : his death, were considered as orphans. Christ calls his disci- He will keep my words] Observe all my sayings, and have ples children, beloved children, chap. xiii. 33. and now that he his affections and conduct regulated by my Spirit and doctrine : is about to be re noved from them by death, he assures them My Father will love him] Call him his chill; support, de that they shall not be left futherless, or without a teacher; for fend, and preserve him as such. in a little time he should come again (rise from the dead), and And we will conie unto him) God the Father through his after his ascension, they should be male partakers of that spirit Son will continue to pour out his choicest blessings upon his which should be their comforter, advocate, teacher and guide head and upon his heart : for ever.
And make our abode with him.) Will make his heart our Verse 19. Because I live] As surely as I shall rise from the temple, where God, the Father, Son and Spirit, shall rest, redead, so shall ye. My resurrection shall be the proof and ccive homage, and dwell to eternity. Thus will I manifest neypledge of yours. And because I live a life of intercession for self to the believing, loving, obedient disciple, and not to the you at the right hand of God, ye shall live a life of gruce and world who will not receive the Spirit of the truth. peace here, and a life of glory hereafter.
Verse 24. He that loveth me not, &c.] Hence we learn, that Verse 20 That I am in my Father) After my resurrection, the man who is not obedient to the testimonies of Christ, does ye shall be more fully convinced of this important truth, that I not love him : and the Spirit of this truth bas said, He who und the Father are one; for I will live in you by the energy of , loves not the Lord Jesus Christ, let bim be accursed, I Cos my Spirit, ar.d ye shall live in me by faith, love, and obedience. xvi. 22.