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Christ is the good shepherd that

ST. JOHN.

lays down his life for the sheep.

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10 The thief cometh not, but for shepherd, whose own the sheep are A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. to steal, and to kill, and to de- not, seeth the wolf coming, and leav. An. Olymp.

stroy: I am come that they might eth the sheep, and fleeth: and the have life, and that they might have it more wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep. abundantly.

13 The hireling fleeth, because he is a hire11 “I am the good shepherd : the good shep-ling, and careth not for the sheep. herd giveth his life for the sheep.

14 I am the good shepherd, and know my 12 But he that is a hireling, and not the sheep, and am known of mine.

• Zech. 11. 16, 17.2 Tim. 2. 19.

• Isai. 40. 11. Ezek. 31. 12, 23. & 37. 24. Heb. 13. 20. i Pet. 2. 25. & 5. 1.

Those who come for salvation to God, through Christ, shall an abundance, meaning either of life, or of all necessary get it: he shall be saved-he shall bare his sins blotted out; his good things; greater felicity than ever was enjoyed under soul purified ; and himself preserved unto eternal life. This the any period of the Mosaic dispensation; and it is cerScribes and Pharisees could neither promise nor impart.

tain that Christians have enjoyed greater blessings and priviGo in and out] This phrase in the style of the Hebrews, leges than were ever possessed by the Jews, even in the points out all the actions of a man's life; and the liberty he promised land. If Tipscow be considered the accusative fem. has of acting, or not acting. A good shepherd conducts his Attic, agreeing with Swny, (see Parkhurst) then it signifies more flock to the fields where good pasturage is to be found; abundant life, that is, eternal life; or, spiritual blessings much watches over them while there, and brings them back again, | greater than had ever yet been communicated to man, preparand secures them in the fold. So he that is taught and called ing for a glorious immortality. Jesus is come that men may of God feeds the flock of Christ with those truths of his word have abundance; abundance of grace, peace, love, life, and of grace

which nourish them unto eternal life: and God ' salvation. Blessed be Jesus! blesses together both the shepherd and the sheep, so that

Verse 11. I am the good shepherd] Whose character is the going out and coming in they find pasture: every occurrence very reverse of that which has already been described. In is made useful to them; and all things work together for their

verses 7, and 9. our Lord had called himself the door of the good.

sheep, as being the sole way to glory, and entrance into eterVerse 10. But for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy] nal life; here he changes the thought, and calls bimself the Those who enter into the priesthood that they may enjoy shepherd, because of what he was to do for them that believe the revenues of the church, are the basest and videst of in him, in order to prepare them for eternal glory. thieves and murderers. Their ungodly conduct is a snare

Giveth his life for the sheep.] That is, gives up bis soul to the simple, and the occasion of much scandal to the as a sacrifice to save them from eternal death. cause of Christ. Their doctrine is deadly; they are not Some will have the phrase here only to mean hazarding his commissioned by Christ, and therefore they cannot profit life in order to protect others; but the 15th, 17th, and 18th the people Their character is well pointed out by the verses, as well as the whole tenor of the new covenant, sufiprophet Ezekiel, chap. xxxiv. 2, &c. Woe be to the shepherds ciently prove, that the first sense is that in which our Lord's of Israel, that do feed themselves! Ye eat the fut, and ye clothe words should be understood. you with the wool; ye kill them that are fed: but ye

Verse 12. But he that is a hireling] Or, as my old MS. Bible not the flock, &c. Ilow can worldly minded, hireling, fox- , reads it, the marchaunt, he who makes merchandisc of men's hunting, and card-playing priests read these words of the souls; bartering them and his own too for filthy lucre. Lit Lord, without trembling to the centre of their souls! Woe not the Reader apply this, or any of the preceding censures, to those parents who bring up their children merely for to any particular class or order of men : every religious party church honours and emoluments! Suppose a person have all may have a hireling priest, or minister; and where the prothe church's revenues, if he have God's woc, how miserable is vision is the greatest, there the danger is most. his portion! Let none apply this censure to any one class of Whose own the sheep are not] A hireling priest who has preachers, exclusively.

never been the instrument of bringing souls to God, will not That they might have life] My doctrine tends to life, be abide with them in the time of danger or persecution. They cause it is the true doctrine--that of the false and bad shep-are not the produce of his labour, faith, and prayers : he had berds tends to death, because it neither comes from, nor can no other interest in their welfare, than that which comes from lead to that God who is the fountain of life.

the fleece and the fat. The hireling counts the sheep les Miglu hare it more abundantly.) That they might have | own, no longer than they are profttable to him; the good

feed

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Our Lord's farther discourse

CHAP. X.

with the Jews. They blaspheme. 15 · Ás the Father knoweth me,|| 18 No man taketh it from me, but I A. M: 4933. An. Olymp. even so know I the Father : "and I lay it down of myself. I have power An. Olymp.

lay down my life for the sheep. to lay it down, and I have power to 16 And other sheep I have, which are not of take it again. This commandment have I rethis fold': them also I must bring, and they ceived of my Father. shall hear my voice;

d and there shall be one 19 There was a division therefore again fold, and one shepherd.

among the Jews for these sayings. 17 Therefore doth my Father love me, be- 20 And many of them said, ' He hath a devil, cause I lay down my life that I might take it and is mad; why hear ye him? again.

21 Others said, These are not the words of

• Matt. 11. 27.- ch. 15. 13.- Isai. 56. 8. Ezek. 37. 92. Eph.

2. 14. 1 Pet. 2. 25.- e Isai. 53. 7, 8, 12. Heb. 2. 9.

Ch. 2. 19.--5 ch. 6. 38. & 15. 10. Acts 2.24, 32.-ch. 7. 43. & 9. 16.

ich. 7. 20. & 8. 48, 52.

shepherd looks upon them as his, so long as he can be pro- to the outer court, or court of the Gentiles, because the Genfitable to them.

tiles who were proselytes of the Gate were permitted to worAmong the ancient Jews some kept their own flocks, others ship in that place; but only those who were circumcised were hired shepherds to keep them for them. And every owner permitted to come into the inner court, over the entrance of must naturally have felt more interest in the preservation of which were written, in large characters of gold, these words, his flock, than the hireling could possibly feel.

let no uncircumcised person enter here! Our Lord therefore Verse 14. -krow my sheep] I know, ta suce, them that might at this time have pointed out to the worshippers in that are mine : I know their hearts, their wishes, their purposes, court, when he spoke these words, and the people would at their circumstances; and I approve of them; for in this sense once perceive that he meant the Gentiles. the word to know is often taken in the Scriptures. Homer Verse 17. Therefore doth my Father lovė me] "As I shall represents the goat-herds as being so well acquainted with | be shortly crucified by you, do not imagine that I am abantheir own, though mixed with others, as easily to distinguish doned by my heavenly Father, and therefore fall thus into them.

your hands. The Father loveth inc particularly on this acΤους δ' ως' αιπολια πλατε' αιγων αιπολοι ανδρες

count, because I am going to lay down my life for the life of

the world. Again, do not suppose that I shall be put to death Ρεια διακρινεωσιν, επει κε νομω μιγεωσιν. liad. 2. 474. “ As goat-herds separate their numerous flocks

by your rulers, because I have not strength to resist them. . I

LAT DOwn my life voluntarily and chearfully; no one can take it “ With ease, though fed promiscuous.”

away from me, see ver. 18. and I shall give you the fullest proof And am known of mine.) They know me as their father, of my supreme power by raising, in three days, that'very cruprotector, and saviour; they acknowledge me and my truth | cified wounded body from the grave. before the world, and they approve of me, my word, my Verse 18. I have power] Or, authority, etuotev. Our Lord ordinances and my people; and manifest this by their at- speaks of himself here as man, or the Messiah, as being God's tachment to me, and their zeal for my glory. The first clause messenger, and sent upon earth to fulfil the divine will, in of the 15th verse should be joined to the fourteenth. dying and rising again for the salvation of men.

Verse 16. Other sheep I have] The Gentiles and Samaritans This commandment have I received] That is, I act according As if our Lord had said, Do not imagine that I shall lay down to the divine commandment in executing these things, and my life for the Jews, exclusively of all other people; no, I giving you this information. shall die also for the Gentiles; for by the grace, the merciful Verse 19. There was a division] Exoopa, a schism, a rent. design and loving purpose of God, I am to taste death for They were divided in their opinions; one part received the every man. Heb. ii. 9. and though they are not of this fold light, and the other resisted it. now, those among them that believe shall be united with the Again) There was a dissension of this kind before, among believing Jews, and made one fold under one shepherd. Eph. the same people; see chap. ix. 16. ii. 13--17.

Verse 20. He hath a devil, and is mad] So then, a dæmo. The original word avan, which is here translated fold, sig- niac and a madman, were not exactly the same in the apprenifies properly a court. It is probable that our blessed Lord | hension of the Jews; no more than the effect is the same with : was now standing in what was termed the inner court, or court the cause which produces it. Some will have it, that when of the people, in the temple : see ver. 23. and that he referred ll the Jews told our Lord that he had a damon, they meant no

The Jews question our Lord

ST. JOHN.

concerning his mission.

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22 | And it was at Jerusalem the 24 Then came the Jews round about ' feast of the dedication, and it was winter. him, and said unto him, How long dost thou

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not appear

more than that he was deranged; but here these matters || temple service seems to have been suspended for three years, are evidently distinguished. They believed him to be pos- great dilapidations having taken place also in various parts of sessed by a dæmon, who deranged his faculties, and that he the buildings: see 1 Macc. iv. 36, &c. As Judas Maccahaus inust have been a wicked man, and a deceiver, thus to be put not only restored the temple service, and cleansed it from under the power of such a spirit.

pollution, &c. but also repaired the ruins of it, the feast was Verse 21. These are not the words of him that hath a devil.] called ta syxauva, the renovation. If he were deranged by an unclean spirit, his words would bear It was winter.] Xcopera y nu, or it was stormy or rainy weather. a similitude to the spirit that produced them: but these are And this is the reason, probably, why our Lord is represented words of deep sense, soberness, and piety: besides, could a de- as walking in Solomon's porch, or portico: ver. 23. Though inoniac

open
the

eyes of blind men? This is not the work of it certainly was in winter when this feast was held, yet it does a dæmon. Now we have seen that this man has restored a

that tbe word above refers so much to the time of man who was born blind. Therefore it is demonstrably evi- the year, as to the state of the weather. Indeed there was no dent that he is neither a madman nor a dæmoniac.

occasion to add it was winter, when the feast of the dedication Behold the usage which the blessed Lord received from his was mentioned, because every body knew that as that least creatures! and behold with what meekness and gentleness he was held on the twenty-fifth of the month Cisteu, that it was conducts himself; not a word of impatience proceeds from in the winter season. his lips; nor a look of contempt or indignation is seen in his John has here omitted all that Jesus did from the time when face. And what was he doing to merit all this? Why, he he left Jerusalem, after the feast of Tabernacles in September was instructing the ignorant, and telling the wretched that he was ended, until the feast of the Dedication in the December was just going to die to save their souls! Amazing love of following: and he did it probably because he found that the God, and ingratitude and obduracy of men! Let not the dis- other Evangelists had given an account of what our Lord did ciple suppose that in this respect, he shall be above his master. | in the interval. St. Luke relates what our Lord did on his way When a minister of Christ has done his utmost to do good to from Galilee to Jerusalem, to this feast: chap. xvii.-11—37. his fellow-creatures; let him not be surprised if he meet with | xviii. 1-14. Observe likewise, that this time here mentioned nothing from many but reproaches and persecutions for his was the fourth time (according to John's account) that Jesus pains. The grand point is, 10 take Jesus for an example of went up to the feasts at Jerusalem in about a year: for first, he suffering, and to be armed with the same mind. It appears went up to the feast of the Pass-over : chap. ii. 13. next to the that the words spoken by the friendly Jews prevailed; and feast of Pentecost, as it seems to have been : chap. v. 1. then to that the others were obliged to abandon the field.

the feast of Tabernacles : chap. vii. 2. 10. and lastly to the Verse 22. The feast of the dedication] This was a feast iņ. | feast of the Pass-over, in which he was crucified. John seems stituted by Judas Maccabæus, in commemoration of his pu- || purposely to have pointed out his presence in Jerusalem at rifying the temple after it had been defiled by Antiochus these four feasts, because all the other Evangelists have omitted Epiphanes. This feast began on the twenty-fifth of the month | the mention of every one of them. See Bishop Pearce, and Cisleu, (which answers to the eighteenth of our December) | see the note on chap. v. 1. and continued for eight days. When Antiochus had heard Verse 23. Solomon's porch.] By what we find in Josephus, that the Jews had made great rejoicings, on account of a report Ant. b. xx. c. 8. s. 7. a portico built by Solomon on the east that had been spread of his death; he hastened out of Egypt side of the outer court of the temple, was left standing by to Jerusalem, took the city by storm, and slew of the inhabi- Herod, when he rebuilt the temple. This portico was four tants in three days forly thousand persons ; and forty thousand | hundred cubits long, and was left standing, probably because more he sold for slaves to the neighbouring nations. Not of its grandeur and beauty. But when Agrippa came to contented with this, he sacrificed a great sow on the altar of || Jerusalem, a few years before the destruction of the city by burnt-off:rings; and broth being made by his command, of the Romans, and about eighty years after Herud had begun some of the flesh, he sprinkled it all over the temple, that he i his building (till which time what Herod bad begun was not might defile it to the uitermost. See Prideaux's Connections, completed) the Jews solicited Agrippa to repair this portico rol ji. p. 236. edit. 1725. After this, the whole of the at his own expence, using for argument not only that the He asserts himself to be the

CHAP. X.

Messiah, and to be one with God.

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them me,

make us to doubt? If thou be the 28 And I give unto them eternal life; A. M. 4035. An. Olymp. Christ, tell us plainly.

and they shall never perish, neither An. Olymp. 25 Jesus answered them, I told you, shall any man pluck them out of my and ye believed not: the works that I do hand. in my Father's name, they bear witness of 29 'My Father, which

gave

is

greater than all ; and no man is able to pluck 26 But "ye believe not, because ye are not of them out of my Father's hand. my sheep, as I said unto you.

30 "I and my Father are one. 27 « My sheep hear my voice, and I know 31 | Then the Jews took up stones again to them, and they follow me.

stone him.

me.

* Or, hold us in suspense.—bver. 38. ch. 3. 2. & 5. 36.ch. 8. 47.

1 John 1.6.--ver. 4, 14.

c Ch. 6. 57. & 17. 11, 12. & 18. 9.-fch. 14. 28.- -8 cli. 17. 3, 6, ốc.

ch. 17. 11, 22.--. ch. 3. 59.

building was growing ruinous, but that otherwise eighteen | any eternal decree, to the exclusion of others from the yearnthousand workmen, who had all of them, until then, been ings of the bowels of eternal mercy; but they are those who employed in carrying on the works of the temple, would be hear, beliere in, follow, and obey the Saviour of the world. all at once deprived of a livelihood.

Verse 28. They shall never perish] Why? Because they Verse 24. How long dost thou make us to doubt ?] Or, how hear my voice, and follow me; therefore I know, I approve long dost thou kill us with suspense. EwS TOTE THY fuxnu mewn of and love them, and give them eternal life. They who contipass, literally, how long wilt thou take away our life? Mr. tinue to hear Christ's voice, and to follow him, shall never peMurkland would read awgtes for augtis, which amounts nearly rish. They give themselves up to God-believe so on Jesus to the same sense with the above. The Jews asked this ques- that he lives in their hearts; God hath given unto them eternal tion, through extreme perfidiousness; they wished to get him | life, and this life is in his Son, and he that hath the Son hath to declare himself king of the Jews, that they might accuse life, 1 John v. 11, 12. Now it is evident that only those who him to the Roman governor: and by it they insolently in- || have Christ living in and governing their souls, so that they sinuated that all the proofs he had hitherto given them of his possess the mind that was in him, are his sheep; are those that divine mission, were good for nothing.

shall never perish, because they have this eternal life abiding Verse 25. I told you, &c.] That is, I told you before what in them : therefore to talk of a man's being one of the elect, I tell you now again, that the works which I do, bear testimony one that shall never perish—one who shall have eternal lifeto me. I have told you that I am the light of the world: the who shall never be plucked out of the hand of God, &c. while son of God: the good shepherd : that I am come to save : to he lives in sin, has no Christ in his heart, has either nerer regire life-to give libertyto redeem you : that in order to this, ceited, or fallen away from the grace of God, is as contrary I must die, and rise again : and that I am absolute master of to common sense, as it is to the nature and testimonies of the my life, and of my death. Have you not noticed my omni- | Most High. Final perseverance implies final faithfulness science, in searching and discovering the very secrets of your he that endures to the end shall be saved-hie that is faithful hearts? Have you not seen my omnipotence in the miracles unto death shall have a crown of life. And will any man atwhich I have wrought? Have not all these been sufficient totempt to say that he who does not endure to the end, and is convince you ? and yet ye will not believe! See the works unfaithful, shall ever enter into life? which bore testimony to him as the Messiah, enumerated Verse 29. My Father--is greater than all] More powerful Mati. xi. 5.

than all the united energies of men and dæmons. He who Verse 26. Ye are not of my sheep] Ye have not the dispo- loves God must be happy: and he who fears him, necd fear sition of those who come unto me to be instructed and saved: nothing on this side eternity. see what follows.

Verse 30. I and my Father are one] If Jesus Christ were Verse 27. My sheep hear my voice] But ye will not hear ;-my not God, could he have said these words without being guilty sheep follow me; but ye will neither follow nor acknowledge of blasphemy? It is worthy of remark that Christ does not me. Any person who reads without prejudice may easily see, say I and my Father, which my our translation very improthat our Lord does not at all insinuate that these persons could perly supplies, and which in this place would have conveyed rot believe, because God had made it impossible to them; but a widely different meaning: for then it would imply that ibe simply because they did not heur and follow Christ, which the human nature of Christ, of which alone, I conceive, God is whole of our blessed Lord's discourse proves that they might have ever said to be the Father in Scripture, was equal to the lost done. The sheep of Christ are not those who are included in Iligh: but he says, speaking then as God over all, I and The

The Jerus continue to cavil.

ST. JOHN.

Christ vindicates himself.

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32 Jesus answered them, Many good 34 Jesus answered them, Is it not A. M. 4055

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ther; for which of those works do ye gods? stone me?

35 If he called them gods, "unto whom the 33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good word of God came, and the scripture cannot be work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; broken ; and because that thou, being a man,

a. makest

36 Say ye of him, " whom the Father hath thyself God.

sanctified, and sent in the world, Thou blas

* Ch. 5. 18,-- Ps. 82. 6.Rom. 13. 1.,

Ch. 6. 27.-_ech. 3. 17. & 5. 36, 37. & 8. 42,

Father, tyw xan ó saine on souhiy, the Creator of all things, the a figurative, metaphorical or improper sense, but in the most Judge of all men, the Father of the spirits of all flesh, are literal meaning of the term. ONE, one in nature, one in all the attributes of Godhead, and Verse 34. Is it not written in your law] The words which one in all the operations of those attributes: and so it is evi- our Lord quotes are taken from Psal. Ixxxii. 6. which shews dent the Jews understood him. See chap. xvii. 11, 22. that under the word law, our Lord comprized the Jewish sa

Verse 31. The Jews took up stones) To stone him as a blas- cred writings in general, See also chap. xii. 34. xv. 25. phemer, Lev. xxiv. 1416. because he said he was one with Ye are gods?] That is, judges, who are called Sinbx eloGod. The Evangelist adds the word again, because they had him. That judges are here meant, appears from Psal. lxxxii. attempted to do this before, see chap. yiii. 59. but it seems 27&c. and also from what follows here. And this is probably they were prevented from doing this now, by the following the only place where the word Subs is applied to any but the discourse.

true God : see Parkhurst under the root 75%. • Verse 32. Many good works have I shered you] I have Verse 35. Unto whom the word of God came] Bishop healed your sick, delivered those of you who were possessed, Pearce thinks that “ the word aayos here, is put for lazos xeşte from the power of dæmons; I have fed multitudes of your cows, the word or matter of judgment, as in 2 Chron. xix. 6. poor, and I have taught you in all places, at all times, with where Jehosaphat, setting judges in the land of Judah, says, out expence, with patience; and is this my reward!

take heed what ye do: judge not for men, but for the Lord, who To shew good works or good things is a Hebraism, which is with you in judgment-Acyou tns; xpicts, in the words or matters signifies to do them really, to give good things liberally. The of judgment.---Sept. which is nearly according to the Hebrew phrase is similar to the following: Who will show us any ovn 1973 bedebur mishpat, in the word or matter of judge good ? Psal. iv. 6. i. e. who shall give us good things. Shew ment. In Deut. i. 17. when a charge is given to the judges, us thy mercy, Psal. Ixxxv. 7. i. e. give us, to feel the effects of that they should not be afraid of the face of man, this reason thy mercy. Thou hast ShewED thy people hard things, Psal. is given : for the judgment is God's. Hence it appears prolx. 3. i. e. thou hast treated them with rigour. Thou hast bable, that royos is here used for 20yos restows: and it is called SHEwed me great and sore troubles, Psal. Ixxi. 20. i. e. thou noyos Ossv, because it is the judgment that properly belongs to hast exposed me to terrible hardships.

God, and which they who give it on earth, give only as acting Verse 33. But for blasphemy] I have elsewhere shewn that in the stead of God. A way of speaking very like to this is the original word Braconutly, when applied to men, signifies found in Heb. iv. 23. where the writer says, teos cy, nys o agroig to speak injuriously of their persons, character, connexions, with whom we have to do, i. e. by whom we are to be judged." &c. but when applied to God it signifies to speak impiously, i. e. But the words aoyos ou may be here understood for the contrary to his nature, perfections, the wisdom of his provi- order, commission, or command of God : and so it properly dence, or goodness of his works.

signifies, Luke iii. 2. and in this sense it is found often emThou, being a man] That is, only a man-makest thyselfployed in the Old Testament. When it is there said, that the God. When Christ said before, v. 30. I and the Father are word of the Lord came, &c. it means, God gave an order, one, had the Jews understood him (as many called Christians commission, &c. to such a person, to declare or do such and profess to do) as only saying he had a unity of sentiments with such things. the Father, they would not have attempted to treat him for And the Scripture cannot be broken] Aufwas, dissolved, renthis as a blasphemer; because in this sense Abraham, Isaac, | dered of none effect, i. e. it cannot be gainsaid or set aside; Moses, David and all the prophets were one with God. But every man must believe this, because it is the declaration what irritated them so much was, that they understood him of God. If those were termed gods who were only earthly as speaking of a unity of nature. Therefore they say here, || magistrates, fallible mortals, and had no particular influence thou makest thyself God; wbich word they understood, not in ll of the Divine Spirit, and that they are termed gods is eria

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