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He disputes with

CHAP. IX.

and confounds them.

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age; ask him.

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23 Therefore said his parents, He is ses' disciples. of

29 We know that God spake unto Moses : as 24 Then again called they the man that was for this fellow, " we know not from whence he blind, and said unto him, "Give God the praise: is. we know that this man is a sinner.

30 The man answered and said unto them, 25 He answered and said, Whether he be a Why herein is a marvellous thing, that ye sinner or no, I know not: one thing I know, know not from whence he is, and yet he hath that, whereas I was blind, now I see.

opened mine eyes ! 26 Then said they to him again, What did he 31 Now we know that God heareth not sinto thee? how opened he thine eyes?

ners : but if any man be a worshipper of God, 27 He answered them, I have told you and doeth his will, him he heareth. already, and ye did not hear : wherefore 32 Since the world began was it not heard would ye hear it again ? will ye also be his that any man opened the eyes of one that was disciples ?

born blind.

* Ver. 31. ch. 16. 2. - Josh. 7. 19. 1 Sam. 6. 5.---fver. 16.dch. 8. 14. cb. 3. 10,- Job 27. 9. & 35. 12. Ps. 18. 41. & SI. 15. & 66. 18.

Prov. 1. 28. & 15. 29. & 28. 9. Isai. 1. 15. Jer. 11. 11. & 11. 12. Ezek. 8. 18. Mic. S. 4. Zech. 7. 13.

anathema, was not used against the followers of Christ, till has his heart full of murderous intentions; and that if he had after the resurrection.

the same power with a sword as he has with his tongue, he Verse 24. Give God the praise] Having called the man a would destroy him whom he thus reproaches. second time, they proceeded to deal with him in the most We are Moses' disciples.] By this they meant that they solemn manner : and therefore they put him to his oath; for were genuine Pharisees ; for they did not allow the Sadducees the words above, were the form of an oath proposed by the to be disciples of Moses. chief magistrate, to those who were to give evidence to any Verse 29. We know not from whence he is.) As if they had particular fact; or to attest any thing, as produced by, or be- | said : We have the fullest assurance that the commission of longing to the Lord. See Josh. vii. 19. 1 Sam, vi. 5. and Moses was divine; but we have no proof that this man has Luke xvii. 18. But while they solemnly put him to his oath, such a commission : and should we leave Moses, and attach they endeavour to put their own words in his mouth, viz. he ourselves to this stranger? No. is a sinner—a pretender to the prophetic character, and a Verse 30. Why herein is a marvellous thing] As if he had transgressor of the law of God :-assert this, or you will not said, This is wonderful indeed! Is it possible that such perplease us.

sons as you are, whose business it is to distinguish good from Verse 25. Whereas I was blind, now I see.) He pays no evil, and who pretend to know a true from a false prophet, attention to their cavils, nor to their perversion of justice ; can not decide in a case so plain? Has not the man opened my but in the simplicity of his heart speaks to the fact, of the eyes? Is not the miracle known to all the town, and could reality of which he was ready to give them the most substan- any one do it who was not endued with the power of God ? tial evidence.

Verse 31. God heareth not sinners] I believe the word

Oxuago Verse 27. I have told you already] So he did ver. 15. | TwWwy signifies heathens, or persons not proselyted to the JewAnd did ye not hear? Ye certainly did. Why then do you ish religion ; and therefore it is put in opposition to Osoreßrii, wish to hear it again? Is it because ye wish to become his a worshipper of the true God. See the note on Luke vii. 37. disciples? The poor man continued steady in his testimony; But in what sense may it be said, following our common verand by putting this question to them, he knew he should soon sion, that God heareth not sinners? When they regard iniput an end to the debate.

quity in their heart--when they wish to be saved, and yet Verse 28. Then they reviled him] Exodognsar. Eustathius abide in their sins—when they will not separate themselves derives 20.dogs, from 20yos, a word, and dogu, a spear :-tbey from the workers and works of iniquity. In all these cases, spoke cutting piercing words. Solomon talks of some, who God heareth not sinners. spoke like the piercings of a sword, Prov. xii. 18. And the Verse 32. Since the world began) E: TOU'Q.wros, from the age Psalmist speaks of words that are like drawn swords, Psal. --probably meaning, from the commencement of time. Nein ly. 21. words which shew that the person who speaks them, I ther Moses nor the prophets have ever opened the eyes of a They cast him that was hcaled

Sr. JOHN.

out of the synagogue.

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33 · If this man were not of God, | 37 And Jesus said unto him, Thou A M. 435. An. Olymp. he could do nothing.

hast both seen him, and it is lie that An. Oirup. 34 [They answered and said unto talketh with thee. him, Thou wast altogether born in sins, and 38 And he said, Lord, I beliere. And he dost thou teach us? And they cast him out. worshipped him.

35 | Jesus heard that they had cast him out; 39 | And Jesus said, 'For judgment I am and when he had found him, he said unto him, come into this world, 5 that they which see not Dost thou believe on "the Son of God ? might sce; and that they which see might be

36 He answered and said, Who is he, Lord, made blind. that I might believe on him?

40 And some of the Pharisees which were with

a Ver. 16.

ver. 2.- Or, eicommunicated him, ver. 22.- d Matt. 14. 33. & 16. 16. Mark 1. 1. ch. 10. So. 1 John 5. 13.

e Ch. 4. 26. fch. 5. 22, 27. See ch. 3. 17. & 12. 47.

Mark 4. 12.

5 Matt. 13. 13.

man who was born blind : if this person then were not the silenced by political power, a person whom they had neither best of beings, would God grant him a privilege which he has reuson nor religion to withstand. They have had since, many hitherto denied to his choicest favourites ?

followers in their crimes. A false religion, supported by the Opened thè eyes of one that was born blind.] It will readily state, has, by fire and sword, silenced those, whose truth in appear, that our Lord performed 'no surgical operation in this the end annihilated the system of their opponents. cure : the man was born blind, and he was restored to sight Verse 35. Dost thou believe on the Son of God ?:) This was by the power of God; the simple means used could have the same with, Dost thou believe on the Messiuh? for these two had no effect in the cure; the miracle is therefore complete. characters were inseparable ; see chap. i. 34, 49. x. 36. Matt. That there are cases, in which a person who was born blind xvi. 16. Mark i. 1. may be restored to sight by surgical means, we know; but no Verse 36. Who is he, Lord ?] It is very likely that the such means were used by Christ : and it is worthy of remark, blind man did not know that it was Jesus the Christ who now that from the foundation of the world, no person born blind spoke to him ; for it is evident he bad never seen him before has been restored to sight, even by surgical operation, till about this time; and he might now see bitn without knowing that the year of our Lord, 1728; when the celebrated Dr. Chesel- he was the person by whom he was cured, till our Lord made den, by couching the eyes of a young man, 14 years of age, that discovery of himself, mentioned in the following verse. who had been born blind, restored him to perfect soundness. Verse 38. And he said, Lord, I believe.] That is, I believe This was the effect of well directed surgery: that performed " thou art the Messiah : and to give the fullest proof of the by Christ was a miracle.

sincerity of his faith, he fell down before and adored bim. Verse 33. If this man were not of God, &c.] A very just | Never having seen Jesus before, but simply knowing that a conclusion : God is the fountain of all good : all good must person of that name had opened his eyes; he had only consiproceed from him, and no good can be done but through dered him as a holy man and a prophet : but now that he sees him : if this person were not commissioned by the good God, and hears him, he is convinced of his divinity, and glorifies him he could not perform such beneficent miracles as these. as his Saviour. We may hear much of Jesus, but can never

Verse 34. Thou wast altogether born in sins] Thou hast not know his glories and excellencies till he has discovered himself only been a vile wretch in some other pre-existent state, but to our hearts by his own spirit; then we believe on him, trust thy parents also have been grossly iniquitous, therefore thou him with our souls, and trust in him for our salvation. The and they are punished by this blindness; thou wast altogether word xupie has two meanings: it signifies Lord, or Sovereign born in sins-thou art no other than a sinful lump of defor- Ruler, and Sir, a title of civil respect. In the latter sense it mity, and utterly unfit to have any connection with those who seems evidently used in the 36th verse; because the poor man worship God.

did not then know that Jesus was the Messiah: in the former And they cast him out.] They immediately excommunicated sense it is used in this verse; now the healed man kuew the him, as the margin properly reads-drove him from their as- quality of his benefactor. sembly with disdain, and forbade his further appearing in the Verse 39. For judgment I am come] I am come to manifest worship of God. Thus a simple man guided by the Spirit of and execute the just judgment of God, 1. By giving sight to truth, and continuing steady in his testimony, utterly con- the blind, and light to the Gentiles who sit in darkness. 2. By founded the most eminent Jewish doctors. When they had removing the true light from those who, pretending to make no longer either reason or argument to oppose to him, as a a proper use of it, only abuse the mercy of God. In a word, proof of their discomfiture and a monument of their reproach salvation shall be taken away from the Jews, because they reand shame, they had recourse to the secular arm, and thus ll ject it; and the kingdom of God shall be given to the Gentiles. Our Lord denounces

CHAP. X.

judgment against them.

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A.M.4033. him, heard these words, “and said un- were blind, ye should have no sin; but A.M. 4058. An. Olymp. to him, Are we blind also ?

now ye say, We see; therefore your An. Olymp. 41 Jesus said unto them, If ye sin remaineth.

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Verse 40. Are we blind also ?] These Pharisees understood man was the first confessor. The power ånd influence of TRUTH Christ as speaking of blindness in a spiritual sense; and wished in supporting its friends and confounding its adversaries, are to know if he considered them in that state.

well exemplified in him; and not less so, that providence of Verse 41. If ye were blind) If ye had not had sufficient | God by which he was preserved from the malice of these bad opportunities to have acquainted yourselves with my divine men. The whole story is related with inimitable simplicity; nature, by the unparalleled miracles which I have wrought and cannot be read by the most cold-hearted without extortbefore you, and the holy doctrine which I have preached; | ing the exclamation, How forcible are right words ! then your rejecting me could not be imputed to you as sin : 2. It has already been remarked, that since the world bebut because ye say, we see-we are perfectly capable of judg- gan, there is no evidence that any man born blind, was ever ing between a true and false prophet, and can from the scrip- restored to sight by surgical means, till the days of Mr. Chetures point out the Messiah by his works; on this account you selden, who was a celebrated surgeon at St. Thomas's Hosare guilty: and your sin is of no common nature, it remaineth, pital, London. For though even before the Christian æra, i.e. it shall not be expiated : as ye have rejected the Lord from there is reason to believe that both the Greek and Roman being your deliverer, so the Lord has rejected you from be- physicians performed operations to remove blindness occaing bis people. When the Scripture speaks of sin remaining, sioned by the cataract, yet we know of none of these ever it is always put in opposition to pardon : for pardon is termed attempted on the eyes of those who had been born blind : the taking away of sin, chap. i. 29. Psal. xxxii. 5. And this much less of any such persons being restored to sight. The is the proper import of the phrase, aferis Twv eepcaçtıwy, which cure before us must have been wholly miraculous : no approoccurs so frequently in the sacred writings.

priate means were used to effect it. What was done, had ra

ther a tendency to prevent and destroy sight, than to help or 1. The history of the man who was born blind and cured by restore it. The blindness in question was probably occasioned our Lord, is in every point of view instructive. His simplicity, by a morbid structure of the organs of sight; and our Lord, his courage, his constancy and his gratitude are all so many by his sovereign power, instantaneously restored them to subjects worthy of attention and emulation. He certainly perfect soundness, without the intervention of any healing confessed the truth at the most imminent risk of his life; and process. In this case there could be neither deception nor coltherefore, as Stephen was the first martyr for Christianity, this I lusion.

CHAPTER X. Christ speaks the parable of the sheepfold, 1–6. Proclaims himself the door of the sheepföld, 7—10, and the good

shepherd who lays down his life for the sheep, 11-18. The Jew's are again divided, and some revile and some vindicate our Lord, 19–21. Ilis discourse with the Jews

Ilis discourse with the Jews at the temple, on the feast of dedication, 22--29. Having asserted that he was one with the Father, the Jews attempt to stone him, 30, 31. He vindicates his conduct, and appeals to his works, 32–38. They strive to apprehend him; he escapes, and retires beyond Jordan, 39, 40. Many resort to and believe on him there, 41, 42.

ERILY, verily, I say unto you, | up some other way, the same is a thief A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. . He that entereth not by the and a robber.

An. Olymp. door into the sheepfold, but climbeth 2 But he that entereth in by the

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a Jer. 23. 21. Ezek. 34. 23. Mic. 2. 12.

Ps. 110. 4. Matt. 7. 15. Acts 20. 28.

NOTES ON CHAP. X.

this discourse immediately after that mentioned in the preVerse 1. Verily, verily, &c.] From ver. 6. we learn that this ceding chapter : others think it was spoken not less than three is a parable, i. e. a representation of heavenly things through months after. The former, says Bishop Pearce, was spoken the medium of earthly things. Some think our Lord delivered || at the feast of tabernacles, see chap. vii. or about the end of

Jesus is the true

Sr. JOHN

shepherd of the sheep.

AM, 1983. door is the shepherd of the sheep. If eth his own sheep by name, and lead- 4. 1.4075

3 To him the porter openeth ; * and eth them out.
the sheep hear his voice: and he call- 4 And when he putteth forth his

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* Isai. 43. 1. Matt. 25. 34, 11. Acts 20. 31.

62 Sam. 7. 8. Jer. 17. 16. Matt. 25. 32.

September, and this at the feast of dedication, or in Decem- | marks, qualities, and duties of a good pastor : The first mark ber. See ver. 22.

is, that he has a lawful entrance into the ministry by the inChrist, says Calmet, having declared himself to be the light ternal call of Christ, namely, by an impulse proceeding from of the world, which should blind some while it illuminated his Spirit, upon considerations which respect only his glory; others, chap. ix. 41. continues his discourse, and under the and upon motives which aim at nothing but the good of his similitude of a shepherd and his flock, shews that he was about church, the salvation of souls, the doing the will of God, and to form his church of Jews and Gentiles; and that into it he | the sacrificing himself entirely to his service, and to that of would admit none but those who heard his voice. The un- | the meanest of his flock. believing and presumptuous Jews who despised his doctrine, Verse 3. To him the porter openeth] Sir Isaac Newton obare the sheep, which hear not the roice of the Shepherd : the serves, that our Lord being near the temple wbere sheep were proud and self-sufficient Pharisees are those who imagine they kept in folds to be sold for sacrifices, spoke many things parasee clearly while they are blind. The blind who become illu- | bolically of sheep, of their shepherds, and of the door to the minated are the Gentiles and Jews who turn from their sins || sheepfold; and discovers that he alluded to the sheepfolds and believe in Jesus.

which were to be hired in the markel-place, by speaking of The light of the world, the good shepherd, and the door which | such folds as a thief could not enter by the door, nor the shepleads into the sheepfold, are all to be understood as meaning herd himself open, but a porter opened to the shepherd. In Jesus Christ; the hireling shepherds the wilfully blind: the mur- the porter opening the door to the true shepherd, we may derers and robbers are the false Christs, false prophets, scribes, | discover the second mark of a true minister—his labour is Pharisees, wicked hireling priests, and ungodly ministers of all crowned with success. The Holy Spirit opens his way into the -sorts, whether among primitive Jews, or modern Christians. hearts of his hearers, and he becomes the instrument of their

Our Lord introduces this discourse in a most solemn man- li salvation. See Col. iv. 3. 2 Cor. ii. 12. 1 Cor. xvi. 9. Rev. ner, verily, verily, amen! amen! it is true, it is true ! a He- iii. 8. braism for, this is a most important and interesting truth ; a The sheep hear his voice] A third mark of a good shepherd truth of the utmost concern to mankind. At all times our is, that he speaks" so as to instruct the people—the sheep kear Lord speaks what is infallibly true ; but when he delivers any His voice; he does not take the fat and the fleece, and leare truths with this particular asseveration, it is either 1. Because I another hireling on less pay to do the work of the pastoral ofthey are of greater importance; or 2. because the mind office. No; himself preaches Christ Jesus the Lord, and in that man is more averse from them; or 3. because the small num- simplicity too that is best calculated to instruct the common ber of those who will practise them may render them incre- people. A man who preaches in such a language as the peodible. Quesnel.

ple cannot comprehend, may do for a stage-player or a mounHe that entereth not by the door] Christ assures us, ver. 7. tebank, but not for a minister of Christ. that he is the door ; whoever, therefore, enters not by Jesus He calleth his own sheep by name) A fourth mark of a good Christ into the pastoral office, is no other than a thief and a pastor is, that he is well acquainted with his flock; he knows -robber in the sheepfold. And he enters not by Jesus Christ, them by name; he takes care to acquaint himself with the who enters with a prospect of any other interest besides that i spiritual states of all those that are entrusted to him. He of Christ and his people. Ambition, avarice, love of ease, a speaks to them concerning their souls, and thus getting a thodesire to enjoy the conveniencies of life, to be distinguished rough knowledge of their state, he is the better qualified to from the crowd, to promote the interests of one's family, and profit them by his public ministrations. He who has not a even the sole design of providing against want; these are all proper acquaintance with the church of Christ, can never by ways by which thieves and robbers enter. And whoever enters his preaching, build it up in its most holy faith. by any of these ways, or by simony, craft, solicitation, &c. And leudeth them out.] A fifth mark of a good shepherd is, deserves no better naine. Acting through motives of self-in- he leads the flock, does not lord it over God's heritage; por terest, and with the desire of providing for himself and his attempt by any rigorous discipline not founded on the gospel family are innocent, yea laudable, in a secular business : but of Christ, to drive men into the way of life; nor drive them to enter into the ministerial office through motives of this kind, out of it, which many do, by a severity which is a disgrace is highly criminal before God.

to the mild gospel of the God of peace and love. Verse 2. He that entereth in by the door] Observe here the He leads them out of themselves to Christ, out of the follies,

The character of the false

CHAP. X.

shepherds and teachers.

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. own sheep, he goeth before them, and! 7 Then said Jesus unto them again, 41, 433. An. Olymp. the sheep follow him: for they know Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am An. Olymp. his voice.

the door of the sheep. 5 And ’ a stranger will they not follow, but 8 All that ever came before me are thieves will flee from him : for they know not the voice and robbers: but the sheep did not hear of strangers.

them. 6 This parable spake Jesus unto them: but 9 °I am the door : by me if any man enter in, they understood not what things they were he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and which he spake unto them.

find pasture.

* Gal. 1. 8. 1 Thess. 5. 21.

_bEzek. 20. 49.

Ch. 14. 6. Eph. 2. 18.

diversions, and amusements of the world, into the path of onite, who are mentioned Acts v. 36, 37. and who were Christian holiness : in a word, he leads them by those gentle, | indeed no other than thieves, plundering the country whereyet powerful persuasions, that flow from a heart full of the ever they came; and murderers, not only slaying the simple word and love of Christ, into the kingdom and glory of his God. I people who resisted them, but leading the multitudes of their

Verse 4. He goeth before them) A sixth mark of a true pas- || followers to the slaughter. tor is, he gives them a good example: he not only preaches, But our Lord probably refers to the Scribes and Pharisees, but he lires the truth of the gospel; he enters into the depths of who pretended to shew the way of salvation to the people-the salvation of God, and having thus explored the path, he who in fact stole into the fold, and clothed themselves with the knows how to lead those who are entrusted to his care, into | fleece, and devoured the sheep. the fulness of the blessings of the gospel of peace. He who The words ago tuou, before me, are wanting in EGMS. Mt. does not endeavour to realise in his own soul the truths which || BKV. seventy others, Syriac, Persic, Syriac Hieros. Gothic, he preaches to others, will soon be a salt without its savour; his Saxon, Vulgate, eleden copies of the Itala ; Basil, Cyril, preaching cannot be accompanied with that unction, which Chrysostom, Theophylact, Euthemius, Augustin, and some others. alone can make it acceptable and profitable to those whose Griesbach has left them in the text with a note of doubtfulness. hearts are right with God. The minister who is in this state | The reason why these words are wanting in so many respectof salvation, the sheep, genuine Christians, will follow, for | able MSS. Versions, and Fathers, is probably that given by they know his voice. It was the custom in the eastern countries | Theophylact, who says that the Manicheans inferred from for the shepherd to go at the head of his sheep, and they fol. these words, that all the Jewish prophets were impostors. lowed him from pasture to pasture. I have seen many hun- || But our Lord has borne sufficient testimony to their inspi. dreds of sheep thus following their shepherd on the extensive ration in a variety of places. Downs in the western parts of England.

Kaenons and ansns, the thief and the robber, should be properly Verse 5. And a stranger will they not follow] That is, a distinguished; one takes by cunning and stealth; the other man, who pretending to be a shepherd of the flock of God, I openly and by violence. It would not be difficult to find bad is a stranger to that salvation which he professes to preach. ministers who answer to both these characters. His mode of preaching soon proves to those whose hearts are The reflection of pious Quesnel on this verse is well worth acquainted with the truths of God, that he is a stranger to attention. A pastor ought to remember that whoever boasts them: and therefore knowing him to have got into the fold of being the way of salvation, and the gate of heaven, shews in an improper way, they consider him a thief, a rolsber, and himself to be a thief and an impostor: and though few are a murderer; and who can blame them if they wholly desert | arrived at this degree of folly, yet there are many who rely his ministry! There are preachers of this kind among all too much upon their own talents, eloquence, and labours ; as if classes.

the salvation of the sheep depended necessarily thereon: in Verse 7. I am the door of the sheep.] It is through me only which respect they are always robbers, since they rob the grace that a man can have a lawful entrance into the ministry; and of Christ of the glory of saving the sheep. God often puts it is through me alone that mankind can be saved. Instead such pastors to shame, by not opening the hearts of the people of I am the door, the Sahidic version reads I am the shepherd; to receive their word: while he blesses those who are humble, but this reading is found in no other version, nor in any in causing them to be heard with attention, and accompany. MS.

ing their preaching with an unction which converts and saves Verse 8. All that ever came before me] Or, as some trans- souls. Let every man know that in this respect his sufficiency late, ali t'at Cume instead of me, mc0 fuov, i.e. all that came as and success are of the Lord. the Christ, or Messiab, such as Theudas, and Judas the Gaula | Verse 9. I an the door: by me if uny man enter, &c.]

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