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Parable of the nobleman who
went to receive a kingdom.
A. M.4053. thing from any man by a false accusa- Jerusalem, and because they thought A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. tion, I restore him fourfold.
that the kingdom of God should im- An. Olyıup. 9 And Jesus said unto him, This mediately appear. day is salvation come to this house, forsomuch 12 5 He said therefore, A certain nobleman as he also is a son of Abraham.
went into a far country, to receive for himself a 10 · For the Son of man is come to seek and kingdom, and to return. to save that which was lost.
13 And he called his ten servants, and deli11 [ And as they heard these things, he added vered them ten "pounds, and said unto them, and spake a parable because he was nigh to Occupy till I come.
a Ch. 3. 14. Exod. 22. 1. 1 Sam. 12. 3. 2 Sam. 12. 6. - Rom. 4. 11, 12, 16. Gal. 3. 7.-dchi. 13. 16. Matt. 18. 11. See Matt. 10. 6. & 15. 24.
f Acts 1. 6.
& Matt. 23. 14. Mark 13. 34.-" Mina, here translated a pound, is twelve ounces and a half: which according to five shillings the ounce is three pounds two shillings and sixpence.
Verse 9. Jesus said unto him] Bishop PEARCE observes, words, ver. 11. And they thought that the kingdom of God
Probably Luke wrote autous, not autov, said unto them, i. e. would immediately appear. 2. The other moral extends itself to those who had before called Zaccheus a sinner (ver. 7.); for through the whole of the parable, viz. that the disciples of Jesus here speaks of Zaccheus in the third person, he also is | Christ who are his servants, and who made a good improvea son of Abraham, and therefore he was not then speaking to ment of the favours granted them by the gospel, should be him." This conjecture of this respectable prelate, is supported rewarded in proportion to the improvement made under the by the margin of the latter Syriac, and by every copy of the means of
This latter moral is all that is intended by Itala but two.
Matthew in chap. xxiv. 14, &c. who mentions this parable as To this house) TwosUW TOUTW, to this very house or family. As spoken by Christ after his triumphant entry into Jerusalem; if he had said, “ If he be a sinner, he stands in the greater need though Luke has here placed that event after the parable. See of salvation, and the Son of man is come to seek and save what Bishop Pearce. was lost; v. 10. and therefore to save this lost soul, is a part of The meaning of the different parts of this parable appears my errand into the world.” See the sentiment contained in be as follows. this verse, explained on Matt. xviii. 11.
A certain nobleman— The Lord Jesus who was shortly to be Verse 11. And as they heard these things] I believe the par- crucified by the Jews. ticiple of the present tense here, is used for the participle of Went into a far country] Ascended to the right hand of the the past, or rather that the participle of the present conveys Divine Majesty. sometimes the sense of the past : for this discourse appears to To receive a kingdom] To take possession of the mediatorial have taken place the next day after he had lodged at the house kingdom, the right to which, as Messiah, he had acquired by of Zaccheus; for the text says that he was then drawing nigh his sufferings, see Phil. ii. 8, 9. Heb. i. 3, 8, 9. In these to Jerusalem, from which Jericho was distant nineteen miles. || words there is an allusion to the custom of those days, when I have not ventured to translate it so, yet I think probably the they who had kingdoms or governments given unto them, text should be read thus : And after they had heard these went to Rome to receive that dignity from the Emperors. things, he proceeded to speak a parable, because they were Bishop Pearce. In proof
Bishop Pearce. In proof of this, see Josephus, Ant. l. xir. nigh to Jerusalem.
c. xiv. where we find Herod went to Rome to receive the Immediately appear.) Perhaps the generality of his follow- sanction and authority of the Roman Emperor. And from lib. ers thought, that on his arrival at Jerusalein, he would pro- | xvii. c. 3. we learn that his successors acted in the same way. claim bimself king.
And to return.) To judge and punish the rebellious Jews. Verse 12. A certain nobleman In the following parable Verse 13. Ten servants] All those who professed to receive there are two distinct morals intended; let it be viewed in his doctrine. Ten was a kind of sacred nuinber among the these two points of light. 1. The behaviour of the citizens to Hebrews, as well as seven. Sce chap. xiv. 31. xr. 8. Matt. the nobleman ; and 2. The behaviour of his own servants to him. I. By the behaviour of the citizens, and their punish Ten pounds] Ten minas. The Septuagint use the original ment (verses 14, 27.) we are taught that the Jews who were word jyou for the Hebrew nyo maneh, froin which it is evithe people of Christ, would reject him, and try to prevent his dently derived; and it appears from Ezek. xlv. 12. to have reiguing over them in his spiritual kingdom : and would for been equal to sixty shekels in money. Now suppose we allow that crime be severely punished by the destruction of their the shekel, with Dean Prideaux, to be 3s. then the mina or State. And this moral is all that answers to the introductory I maneh was equal to 91. English money. The impropriety of
Of the servants to whom
their lord had entrusted money.
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14' “ But his citizens hated him, and here is thy pound, which I have kept A. M. 4083. An. Olymp. sent a message after him, saying, We laid up in a napkin:
An. Olymp. will not have this man to reign over us. 21 «For I feared thee, because thou 15 And it came to pass, that when he was re- art an austere man : thou takest up that thou turned, having received the kingdom, then he layedst not down, and reapest that thou didst commanded these servants to be called unto not sow. him, to whom he had given the money, that
22 And he saith unto him, Out of thine own he might know how much every man had gained mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked servant. by trading
- Thou knewest that I was an austere man, tak16 Then came the first, saying, Lord, thy ing up that I laid not down, and reaping that I pound hath gained ten pounds.
did not sow: 17 And he said unto him, Well, thou good 23 Wherefore then gavest not thou my money servant : because thou hast been faithful in a into the bank, that at my coming I might have very little, have thou authority over ten cities. | required mine own with usury?
18 And the second came, saying, Lord, thy| 24 And he said unto them that stood by, Take pound hath gained five pounds.
from him the pound, and give it to him that 19 And he said likewise to him, Be thou also hath ten pounds. over five cities.
25 (And they said unto him, Lord, he hath 20 And another came, saying, Lord, behold, ten pounds.)
* John 1. 11.--- Gr. silver, and so ver. 23.
- Matt. 25. 21. ch. 16. 10.
d Matt. 25. 24.
Le 2 Sam. 1. 16. Job 15. 6. Matt. 12. 37.fMatt. 25. 26.
rendering the original word pound, will easily be seen by the after this, preferred even a murderer to him. most superficial reader. We should therefore retain the origi- | like. No wonder that those who murdered the Lord of glory, nal word for the same reason so often before assigned. Sur- should prefer a murderer, one of their own temper, to the
“ the talent was sixty minas, the mina one hundred Redeemer of their souls. drachms, the drachm six oboli, the obolus six chalchi, the chal- Verse 15. When he was returned] When he came to punish chos seven mites or lepla.”
the disobedient Jews; and when he shall come to judge the By the ten minas given to each, we may understand the world. See the parable of the talents, Matt. xxv. 14, &c. gospel of the kingdom given to every person who professes to Verse 16. Lord, thy pound hath gained ten] The principal believe in Christ, and which he is to improve to the salvation | difference between this parable and that of the talents above of his soul. The same word is given to all, that all may be referred to, is, that the mina given to each seems to point lieve and be saved.
out the gift of the gospel, which is the same to all who hear Verse 14. His citizens) Or countrymen--the Jewish people, it: but the talents distributed in different proportions, accordwho professed to be subjects of the kingdom of God.
ing to each man's ability, seem to intimate, that God has giHated him] Despised him for the meanness of his birth, his ven different capacities and advantages to men, by which, this crucifixion to the world, and for the holiness of his doctrine. one gift of the gospel may be differently improved. . Neither mortification nor holiness suits the dispositions of the Verse 17. Over ten cities.] This is to be understood as recarnal mind.
ferring to the new kingdom which the nobleman had just reSent a message after him] As in ver. 12. there is an allusionceived. His former trustiest and most faithful servants he to a person's going to Rome, when elected to be ruler of a pro- now represents as being made governors under him, over a vince or kingdom, to receive that dignity from the hand of number of cities, according to the capacity he found in each; the emperor; so it is here intimated that after the person went which capacity was known by the improvement of the minas. lo receive this dignity, some of the discontented citizens took Verse 20. Lord, behold, here is thy pound) See Matt. xxv. 18. the opportunity to send an embassy to the emperor, to pre- Verse 23. With usury?] Lux toxw, with its produce, i. e. what vent him from establishing the object of their hatred in the the loan of the money is fairly worth, after paying the person government.
sufficiently for using it: for in lent money, both the lender We will not have this man, &c.] The Jews rejected Jesus and borrower are supposed to reap profit. Christ; would not submit to his government, and a short time Verse 25. And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds.]
Christ rides into
Jerusalem in triumph.
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in the way
26 For I say unto you, · That unto 34 And they said, The Lord hath A. M. 4053. An. Olymp. every one which hath shall be given; need of him.
and from him that hath not, even that 35 And they brought him to Jesus: he hath shall be taken away from him.
d and they cast their garments upon the colt, and 27 But those mine enemies, which would not they set Jesus thereon. that I should reign over them, bring hither, and 36 · And as they went, they spread their clothes slay them before me.
28 | And when he had thus spoken, he went 37 And when he was come nigh, even now at before, ascending up to Jerusalem.
the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole 29. And it came to pass, when he was come multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and nigh to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount praise God with a loud voice, for all the mighty called the mount of Olives, he sent two of his works that they had seen; disciples,
38 Saying, 'Blessed be the King that cometh 30 Saying, Go ye into the village over against in the name of the Lord : % peace in heaven, you ; in the which at your entering ye shall find and glory in the highest. a colt tied, whereon yet never man sat: loose 39 And some of the Pharisees, from among the him, and bring him hither.
multitude, said unto him, Master, rebuke thy 31 And if any man ask you, Why do ye loose disciples. him ? thus shall ye say unto him, Because the 40 And he answered and said unto them, I Lord hath need of him.
that if these should hold their peace, 32 And they that were sent, went their way, the stones would immediately cry out. and found even as he had said unto them.
41 And when he was come near, he beheld 33 And as they were loosing the colt, the own- the city, and 'wept over it, ers thereof said unto them, Why loose ye the 42 Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, colt?
at least in this thy day, the things which belong
* Matt. 13. 12. & 25. 29. Mark 4. 25. ch. 8. 18.-Mark 10. 32.- - Matt 21. 1. Mark 11. 1.-12 Kings 9. 13. Matt. 21.7. Mark 11. 7. Jubin 12. 14.
• Matt. 21. 3.- Ps. 118. 26. ch. 13. 35.-ich. 2. 14. Eph. 2. 14.
1 Hab. 2. 11.-i John 11. 35.
This whole verse is omitted by the Coder Beza, a few others, Verses 29—38. See this triumphant entry into Jerusalem and some copies of the Itala. It is probably an observation explained at large, on Matt. xxi. 1–11. and Mark xi. 1–10. that some person made while our Lord was delivering the pa- Verse 38. Glory in the highest.] May thou receive the utterrable, with a design to correct him in the distribution : as if most degrees of glory! See on Matt. xxi. 9. he had said, “Why give the mina to that person? he has got Verse 40. If these should hold their peace, the stones would ten already; give it to one of those who has fewer.”
-cry out.] Of such importance is my present conduct to Verse 26. And from him that hath not] See this particularly ' you and to others, being expressly predicted by one of your explained Matt. xiii. 12. Perhaps it would be well with Bi- own prophets, Zech. ix. 9. as pointing out the triumph of hushop Pearce, to supply the word gained-give it to him who mility over pride, and of meekness over rage and malice, as hath gained ten minas; for I say unto you, That unto every one signifying the salvation which I bring to the lost souls of men, - who hath gained, shall be given ; and from him who hath not that if this multitude were silent, God would give even to the gained, even that which he hath received shall be taken away. stones a voice, that the advent of the Messiah might be duly
Verse 27. Those--enemies—bring hither] The Jews, whom celebrated. I shall shortly slay by the sword of the Romans.
Verse 4l. And wept over it] See on Matt. xxiii. 37. Verse 28. He went before] Joyfully to anticipate his death, Verse 42. The things which belong unto thy peace !] It is very say some. Perhaps it means that he walked at the head of his likely that our Lord here alludes to the meaning of the word disciples; and that he and his disciples kept on the road be- Jerusalem, Sigurn from one yerch, he shall see; and Sub fore other companies who were then also on their way to Je- shalom, peace or prosperity. Now because the inhabitants of Tualem, in order to be present at the feast.
it had not seen this peace and salvation, because they had re.
He foretells the destruction of
Jerusalem. He purges the temple.
A. D. 29.
unto thy peace! but now they are hid 45 [ And he went into the temple, A.M.4033. An. Olynp. from thine eyes.
and began to cast out them that sold An. Olymp 43 For the days shall come upon thee, is therein, and them that bought; that thine enemies shall a cast a trench about 46 Saying unto them, 'It is written, My thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee house is the house of prayer: but ye have made in on every side,
it a den of thieves. 44 And shall lay thee even with the ground, 47 [ And he taught daily in the temple. But and thy children within thee; and they shall "the chief priests and the scribes and the chief not leave in thee one stone upon another; "be- of the people sought to destroy him, cause thou knewest not the time of thy visita 48 And could not find what they might do: for tion.
all the people i were very attentive to hear him.
a Isai. 29. 3, 4. Jer. 6. 3, 6. ch. 21.20. --bikings 9.7, 8. Mic. 3. 12.• Mait. 24. 2. Mark 13. 2. ch. 21. 0. Dan. 9. 24. c. 1. 68, 78. 1 Pet. 2. 12.
• Matt. 21. 12. Mark 11. 11, 15. John 2. 14, 15.
& Jer. 7. 11 n Mark 11. 18. John 7. 19. & 8. 37.him, Acts 16. 14.
of Isai. 56. 7. Or, hanged on
fused to open their eyes, and behold this glorious light of hea- the temple, and lodged cach night at Bethany. See the note ven which shone among them; therefore he said, now they on Matt. xxi. 17. are hidden from thy eyes, still alluding to the import of the Verse 48. W'ere very attentive to hear him.] Or, they heard name.
him with the utmost attention, tšix qua to AUTOV axouwv, literally, Verse 43. Cast a trench about thee] This was literally ful-They hung upon him, hearing. The same form of speech is filled when this city was besieged by Titus. Josephus gives a used often by both Greek and Latin writers of the best revery particular account of the building of this wall, which he pute. says was effected in three days, though it was not less than
Ex vultu dicentis, pendet omnium vultus. thirty-nine furlongs in circumference; and that when this wall
The face of every man hung on the face of the speaker. and trench were completed, the Jews were so enclosed on
Penditque iterum narrantis ab ore. every side, that no person could escape out of the city, and
Virg. Æn. iv. 79. no provision could be brought in, so that they were reduced to the most terrible distress by the famine which ensued. The
And she kung again on the lips of the narrator. whole account is well worth the Reader's attention. See Jo The werds of the Evangelist, mark not only the deepest atsephus, War, book v. chap. xii. sec. 1, 2, 3.
tention because of the importance of the subject, but also the Verse 44. The time of thy risitation.] That is, the time of very high gratification which the hearers bad from the disGod's gracious offers of mercy to thee. This took in all the
Those wbo read or hear the words of Christ in this time which elapsed from the preaching of Jolin the Baptist to way, must inevitably become wise to salvation. the coming of the Roman armies, which included a period of above forty years.
The Reader is requested to refer to Matt. xxiv. and to Verse 45. Went into the temple] See all this transaction ex Matt. xxv. 14. for more extensive information on the different plained, Matt. xxi. 12–16.
subjects in this chapter, and to the other parallel places Verse 47. And he taught daily in the temple.] This he did marked in the margin. The prophecy relative to the destrucfor five or six days before his crucifixion. Some suppose that tion of Jerusalem, is one of the most circumstantial, and the it was on Monday in the passion week that he thus entered most literally fulfilled of any prediction ever delivered. See into Jerusalem, and purified the temple: and on Thursday he this particularly remarked at the conclusion of Matt. chap. was seized late at night : during these four days he taught in || xxiv. where the whole subject is amply reviewed.
CHAPTER XX. The question concerning the authority of Christ, and the baptism of John, 1-8. The parable of the vineyard
let out to wicked husbandmen, 9—18. The chief priests and scribes are offended, and lay snares for him, 19, -20. The question about tribute, 21---26. The question about the resurrection of the dead, and our Lord's answer, 27—40. How Christ is the son of David, 41–44. He warns his disciples against the hypocrisy of the scribes, whose condemnation he points out, 45–47.
The parable of the vineyard
let out to wicked husbandmen.
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ND it came to pass, that on 12 And again he sent a third : and A.M.4083.
one of those days, as he taught they wounded him also, and cast him An. Olymp.
the people in the temple, and preached out. the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came 13 Then said the lord of the vineyard, What upon him with the elders,
shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it 2 And spake unto him, saying, Tell us b by may be they will reverence him when they see what authority doest thou these things? or who him. is he that gave thee this authority ?
14 But when the husbandmen saw him, they 3 And he answered and said unto them, I will reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the also ask you one thing; and answer me: heir : come, let us kill him, that the inheritance
4 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, may be our’s. or of men ?
15 So they cast him out of the vineyard, and 5 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, killed him. What therefore shall the lord of the If we shall say, From heaven ; he will say, Why vineyard do unto them? then believed ye him not?
16 He shall come and destroy these husband6 But and if we say, Of men ; all the people men, and shall give the vineyard to others. And will stone us : ‘for they be persuaded that John when they heard it, they said, God forbid. was a prophet.
17 And he beheld them, and said, What is 7 And they answered, that they could not tell this then that is written, “The stone which the whence it was.
builders rejected, the same is become the head 8 And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell Il of the corner ? you by what authority I do these things.
18 Whosoever shall fall upon that stone shall 9 Then began he to speak to the people this be broken ; but 'on whomsoever it shall fall, it parable ; " A certain man planted a vineyard, will grind him to powder. and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a 19 | And the chief priests and the scribes the far country for a long time.
same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they 10 And at the season he sent a servant to the feared the people: for they perceived that he husbandmen, that they should give him of the had spoken this parable against them. fruit of the vineyard : but the husbandmen beat 20' And they watched him, and sent forth him, and sent him away empty.
spies, which should feign themselves just men, 11 And again he sent another servant: and that they might take hold of his words, that so they beat him also, and entreated him shame-| they might deliver him unto the power and aufully, and sent him away empty.
thority of the governor.
* Matt. 91.23. Acts 4.7. & 7. 27. - Matt. 14. 5. & 21. 26. ch. 7. 29.
d Matt. 21. 33. Mark 12. 1.
e Ps. 118. 22.
Matt. 21. 42. Dan. 2. 34, S5.
& Matt. 22. 15.
Matt. 21. 44
NOTES ON CHAP. XX.
Verse 16. God forbid.] Or, let it not be, jen ysvoito. Our Verse 1. One of those days] Supposed to have been one of phrase, God forbid, answers pretty well to the meaning of the the four last days of his life, mentioned chap. xix. 47. probably Greek, but it is no translation. Tuesday before the pass-over.
Verse 18. Grind him to powder.] See on Matt. xxi. 44. Verse 2. By what authority, &c.] See the note ôn Matt. xxi. Verse 20. They watched him] ITagatupasaytis, insidiously 23—27.
watching. See on chap. xiv. 1. Verse 9. A certain man planted a vineyard, &c.] See this Spies] Eyraberous, from ey, in, and xabimus, I let down, to set in parable largely explained, Matt. xxi. 33–46. See also on ambush. One who crouches in some secret place to spy, listen, Mark xii. 4-9.
catch, or hurt. lIesychius explains the word by svedkfuorts;,