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Women come to the sepulchre,
and find Christ risen.
A. D. 29. An.Olymp. CCII. 1.
A. D. 29.
N the end of the sabbath, as it 3 His countenance was like light- A. M. 4038. began to dawn toward the first day ning, and his raiment white as snow:
An. Olymp. of the week, came Mary Magdalene, 4 And for fear of him the keepers and the other Mary, to see the sepulchre. did shake, and became as dead men.
2 And, behold, there was a great earth- 5 And the angel answered and said unto the quake: for the angel of the Lord descended women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek from heaven, and came and rolled back the Jesus, which was crucified. stone from the door, and sat upon it.
6 He is not here: for he is risen, as he said.
Mark 16. 1. Luke 24. 1. John 20. 1.- -och. 27. 56. Or, had
4 See Mark 16. 5. Luke 24. 4. John 20. 12.- -e Dan. 10. 6.
& 16. 21. & 17. 23. & 20. 19.
fch. 12. 40.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXVIII.
ed from God, out of heaven, for this very purpose. It is Verse 1. In the end of the sabbath] Ots de caßBatwy. After likely that the angel had descended, rolled away the stone, the end of the week; this is the translation given by several | and was sitting on it, before the women reached the tomb. eminent critics : and in this way the word ofe is used by the Verse 3. His countenance] His appearance, n od'sa autov; most eminent Greek writers. Thucydides, lib. iv. chap. 93. or, his face, for so the word is used in some of the best Greek ons meipas of northe day was ended. Plutarch, ofe twy Baco-writers. It seems from Mark xvi. 5. that this angel had ashfws xpower-after the times of the king. Philostratus, ofs twy sumed the appearance of a young man. Teornwy after the Trojan war. See Rosenmuller. In general the Like lightning] Coruscations of glory continually flaming from Jews divided their natural day which consisted of twenty-four his face. This might produce the confusion mentioned ver. 2. hours, into day and night. Their artificial day began at the His raiment white as snow] He was clothed in garments rising, and ended at the setting of the sun; all the rest of the emblematical of the glad tidings which he came to announce. time, from the setting to the rising of the sun, they termed It would have been inconsistent with the message he brought, night : hence the same word in Hebrew, signifies both evening had the angel appeared in black robes, such as those preposand night, Gen. i. 5. Mark vi. 47. Matthew has employed terously wear, who call themselves his successors in the mithe word in this extensive sense here, pointing out the latter nistry of a once suffering, but now risen and highly exalted part of the Jewish night, that which immediately preceded Saviour. But the world is as full of nonsense as of sin; and the rising of the sun, and not that first part which we call who can correct and bring it to reason and piety? the evening. The transaction mentioned here, evidently took Verse 4. The keepers—became as dead men.] God can by place early on the morning of the third day after our Lord's | one and the same means, comfort his servants, and terrify his crucifixion; what is called our Sunday morning, or first day enemies. The resurrection of Christ is a subject of terror to of the next week.
the servants of sin, and a subject of consolation to the sons Came—to see the sepulchre.] That is, they set out at this of God; because it is a proof of the resurrection of both, the time in order to visit the tomb of our Lord, and also to weep one to shame and everlasting contempt; the other to eternal there, John xi. 31. and to embalm the body of our Lord, glory and joy. Luke xxiv. 1. St. Matthew omits Mary Salome, mentioned Verse 5. I know that ye seek Jesus] Speaking after the by Mark; and Joanna, the wife of Chuza Herod's steward, manner of men, these women deserved to be the first witmentioned by Luke. The other Mary was the wife of nesses of the resurrection of Christ : during life they minis, Cleopas, and mother of James and Joses, mentioned before, tered to him, and in death they were not divided. They atchap. xxvii. 56. Were not Mary and Salome two distinct persons ? || tended him to the cross, notwithstanding their attachment
Verse 2. A great earthquake] Estuos; a shaking or com- to him exposed them to the most imminent danger; and now motion of any kind : probably the word means no more than they come to watch and weep at his TOMB. The common the confusion caused among the guards by the angel's appear- opinion is, that' women are more fickle and less courageous ance; all this had taken place before the women reached the than men. The reverse of this I believe to be the truth, in sepulchre.
those who are thoroughly converted to God; and who, previThe ungel of the Lord descended from heaven] Matthew is ously to conversion, whether man or woman, can be trusted very particular in this, to shew that the word angel is not to in any case ? be taken in the sense of an ordinary messenger, who might Verse 6. Come, see the place] The tomb in which our have come from Joseph of Ariinathea, or from any other; || Lord was laid, was no doubt like the rest of the Jewish burybut in the sense of an extraordinary messenger, who descending places, a receptacle for the several dead of a whole family, They go to tell his disciples,
and Christ meets them.
A. M. 4038. Come, see the place where the Lord | 10 Then said Jesus unto them, Be 4. M. 4055. An. Olymp. lay.
not afraid : go tell my brethren that An. Olymp.
CCII. 1. 7 And go quickly, and tell his dis- they go into Galilee, and there shall ciples that he is risen from the dead; and, be they see me. hold, *he goeth before you into Galilee; there (11 | Now when they were going, behold, shall ye see him: lo, I have told you.
some of the watch came into the city, and 8 And they departed quickly from the sepul- shewed unto the chief priests all the things chre with fear and great joy; and did run to that were done. bring his disciples word.
12 And when they were assembled with the 9 And as they went to tell his disciples, elders, and had taken counsel, they gave large behold, Jesus met them, saying, All hail. And money unto the soldiers, they came and held him by the feet, and wor- 13 Saying, say ye, His disciples came by shipped him.
night, and stole him away while we slept.
a Ch. 26. 52. Mark 16.7.-- See Mark 16. 9. John 20. 14.
See John 20. 17. Rom. 8. 29. Hebr. 2. 11.
divided into separate niches, where each had his place. Come approved by Mill, Bengel, and Schmid. Griesbach leaves it and see the place--was tantamount to, come and see the niche in the text with a note of doubtfulness. It appears to be suin which he was laid—it is now empty-nor was there any perfluons. To connect this with the next clause, the particle other body in the place, for the tomb was a new one, in which xai and, is obliged to be suppressed in all the tran-lations. I no man had ever been laid, John xix. 41. so there could be think the verse should begin with And behold he goeth, &c. no deception in the case.
and the former clause be suppressed. Probabiliter delenda, Verse 7. Go quickly, and tell his disciples) Thus these says Professor White, in his Crisews Griesbachiana, speaking faithful women proclaim the gospel to those, who were of the preceding words. afterwards to be the teachers of the whole human race! Be- Jesus met them] Christ bestows his graces and consolations hold what honour God puts upon those who persevere in his by degrees, first by his angels, and then by himself. He does truth, and continue to acknowledge him before men!
not reveal himself to incredulous and disobedient souls; he apThat he is risen from the dead] There is a remarkable say- || pears not even to those wonjen till he has tried their faith and ing of R. Judah Hakkodesh, which some critics quote on thisobedience by his ministering angels. subject. “ After THREE DAYS the soul of the Messiah shall
Al hail.] Þale pere ge, health be to you! Anglo-saxon. RETURN to its body, and he shall go out of that stone in Xargete, be ye safe, rejoice. which he shall be BURIED.”
Verse 10. Be not afraid] They were seized with fear at Goeth before you into Galilee] As himself promised, chap. || the sight of the angel; and this was now renewed by this unxxvi. 32.
expected appearance of Christ. See the note on ver. 8. Verse 8. They departed quickly from the sepulchre] At the
Go tell my brethren] This is the first time our Lord called desire of the angel they went into the tomb, to have the full- his disciples by this endearing name: they no doubt thought est certainty of the resurrection.
that their Lord would reproach them with their past cowarFear and great joy] Fear, produced by the appearance of dice and infidelity; but in speaking thus, he gives them a full this glorious messenger of God; and great joy occasioned by assurance in the most tender terms, that all that was past, was the glad tidings of the resurrection of their Lord and Master.
as buried for ever. At the mention of unexpected good news, fear and joy are
Verse 11. Some of the watch] Or guards. Probably the generally intermingled.
rest still remained at the tomb, waiting for orders to depart; Vir sum apud me, ita animus commotus est metu, and had sent these, to intimate to their employers the things Spe, gaudio, mirando hốc tanto, tum repentino bono. that had taken place.
TERENT. Andr. v. 945. Verse 12. With the elders] That is, the senators of the " I am almost beside myself, my mind is so agitated with great Sanhedrin or Jewish council of state; elsewhere called fear, hope, and joy, at this unexpected good news.”
the elders of the people; they could now meet, as the sabbath Verse 9. And as they went to tell his disciples] This clause is wanting in the Codex Vatican. and Codex Beræ, and in Verse 13. His disciples came by night] This was as absurd twenty others, and in most of the Versions. The omission is as it was false. On one hand the terror of the disciples, the
He meets his disciples
in a mountain of Galilee. 14 And if this come to the gover- 17 And when they
they saw him, they A. 11.4053. An. Olymp. nor's ears, we will persuade him, and worshipped him: but some doubt. An. Olymp.
CCII, 1. secure you.
ed. 15 So they took the money, and did as they 18 | And Jesus came and spake unto them, were taught: and this saying is commonly re- saying, "All power is given unto me in heaven ported among the Jews until this day.)
and in earth. 16 Then the eleven disciples went away 19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, into Galilee, into a mountain · where Jesus had baptizing them in the name of the Father, and appointed them.
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost :
: Ch. 26. 32. ver. 7.- Dan. 7. 13, 14. ch. 11. 27. & 16. 28. Luke 1. S2. & 10. 22. John 3.35. & 5. 22. & 13. 3 & 17. 4. Acts 2. 36. Rom. 14. 9. 1 Cor. 15. 27. Eph. 1. 10, 21. Phil. 2. 9, 10. Hebr. 1. 2. & 2. 8. 1 Pet. 3.
22. Rev. 17. 14. Mark 16. 15.- d Isai. 52. 10. Luke 24. 47. Acts 2. 33, 39. Rom. 10. 18. Col. 1. 23. Or, make disciples, or, Christians of all nations.
smallness of their number (only eleven) and their almost Verse 17. But some doubted.] That is, Thomas only at first total want of faith. On the other, the great danger of such | doubted. The expression simply intimates, that they did not a bold enterprize, the number of armed men who guarded | all believe at that time. See the same form noticed on the tomb, the authority of Pilate, and of the Sanhedrin, chap. xxvi. 8. and chap. xxvii. 44. must render such an imposture as this utterly devoid of Verse 18. And Jesus came and spake unto them] It is supposed credit.
by some, that the reason why any doubted, was, that when Stole him away while we slept.] Here is a whole heap of they saw Jesus at first, he was at a distance : bul when he absurdities. Ist. Is it likely that so many men would all fall came up, drew near to them, they were fully persuaded of asleep in the open air, at once? 2dly. Is it at all probable the identity of his person. that a Roman guard should be found off their watch, much All power is given unto me] Or, All authority in heaven less asleep, when it was instant death, according to the Ro- and upon earth is given unto me. One fruit of the sufferings man military laws, to be found in this state? 3dly. Could and resurrection of Christ is represented to be, his having they be so sound asleep as not to awake with all the noise authority or right in Heaven to send down the Holy Spiritto which must be necessarily made by removing the great stone, raise up his followers thither—and to crown them in the and taking away the body? 4thly. Is it at all likely that kingdom of an endless glory. In Earth, to convert sinnersthese disciples could have had time sufficient to do all this, to sanctify, protect, and perfect his church; to subdue all. and to come and return without being perceived by any per-nations to himself : and, finally, to judge all mankind. If son? And 5thly. If they were asleep, how could they pos- | Jesus Christ were not equal with the Father, could he have sibly know that it was the disciples that stole him, or indeed claimed this equality of power, without being guilty of imthat any person or persons stole him! for being asleep, they piety and blasphemy? Surely not : and does he not, in the could see no person. From their own testimony therefore, fullest manner, assert his Godhead, and his equality with the the resurrection may be as fully proved as the theft.
Father, by claiming and possessing all the authority in heaven Verse 14. If this come to the governor's ears] Pilate—we and earth? i. e. all the power and authority by which both : will persuade him that it is for his own interest and honour to empires are governed ? join in the deception-and we will render you secure—we will Verse 19. Go ye therefore] Because I have the authority take care that you shall not suffer that punishment for this aforesaid, and can send whomsoever I will, to do whatsoever pretended breach of duty, which otherwise you might expect. || I please :-teach, pa ontevrett, make disciples of all nations,
Verse 15. Until this day.) That is to say, the time in bring them to an acquaintance with God, who bought them, which Matthew wrote his Gospel; which is supposed by some and then baptize them in the name of the Father. It is nato have been eight, by others eighteen, and by others thirty tural to suppose, that adults were the first subjects of bapyears after our Lord's resurrection.
tism; for as the Gospel was in a peculiar manner sent to the Verse 16. Then the eleven disciples went] When the wo-| Gentiles, they must hear and receive it, before they could be men went and told them that they had seen the Lord, and expected to renounce their old prejudices and idolatries, and that he had promised to meet them in Galilee. From the come into the bonds of the Christian covenant. But certainly eleventh to the fifteenuh verse inclusive, should be read in a no argument can be drawn from this concession against the parenthesis, as the sixteenth verse is the continuation of the baptism of children. When the Gentiles and Jews had resubject mentioned in the tenth.
ceived the faith and blessings of the Gospel, it is natural
Christ commissions them to
preach the gospel to all nations. 20 * Teaching them to observe all you alway, even unto the end of the A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. things whatsoever I have com-world.
Amen. manded you :
and, lo, I am with
A. D. 29. An. Olymp. CCI1.1.
enough to suppose they should wish to get their children in “ I. Christ commands them to go and baptize the nations : corporated with the visible church of Christ; especially if, as but how much time was past before such a journey was taken! many pious and learned men have believed, baptism succeeded And when the time was now come that this work should be to circumcision, which I think has never yet been disproved begun, Peter doth not enter upon it without a previous adThe Apostles knew well, that the Jews not only circumcised monition given him from heaven. And this was occasioned the children of proselytes, but also baptized them; and as hereby, that according to the command of Christ, the gospel they now received a commission to teach and proselyte all the was first to be preached to Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. nations, and baptize them in the name of the Holy Trinity, “ II. He commands them to baptize in the name of the Fathey must necessarily understand that infants were included : ther, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; but among the nor could they, the custom of their country being considered, Jews they baptized only in the name of Jesus, see Acts ii. 38. have understood our Lord differently, unless he had, in the and viii. 16. and xix. 5. For this reason, that thus the bapmost express terms, said, that they were not to baptize child tizers might assert, and the baptized confess, Jesus to be the true ren, which neither he nor his Apostles ever did. And as to Messias ; which was chiefly controverted by the Jews. Of the objection, that the baptized were obliged to profess their the same nature is that apostolic blessing, Grace and peace faith, and that, therefore, only adults should be baptized, from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ. Where there is no weight at all in it; because what is spoken of such, then is the Holy Ghost? He is not excluded, however he be refers to those who, only at that period of life, heard the not named. The Jews did more easily consent to the Spirit Gospel, and were not born of parents who had been Chris- | of the Messias, which they very much celebrate, than to the tians ; therefore they could not have been baptized into the person of the Messias. Above all others they deny and abjure Christian faith, for as much as no such faith was at their in Jesus of Nazareth. It belonged to the Apostles therefore, the fancy, preached in the world. That the children, and even more earnestly to assert Jesus (to be the Messias) by how infants of proselytes, were baptized among the Jews, and much the more vehemently they opposed him : which being reputed in consequence clean, and partakers of the blessings once cleared, the acknowledging of the Spirit of Christ would of the Covenant, see proved at large by Wetstein, in his note be introduced, without delay or scruple. Moses (in Exod. vi. on Matt. iii. 16.—See the note on chap. iii. 6. and particularly 14.) going about to reckon up all the tribes of Israel, goes no on Mark xvi. 16.
further than the tribe of Levi ; and takes up with that to which In the name of the Father, &c.] Baptism, properly speaking, || his business and story at that present related. In like manner whether administered by dipping or sprinkling, signifies a full the Apostles, for the present, baptize in the name of Jesus, and and eternal consecration of the person to the service and ho- bless in the name of the Father and of Jesus, that thereby they nour of that Being in whose name it is administered; but this might more firmly establish the doctrine of Jesus, which met consecration can never be made to a creature ; therefore the with such sharp and virulent opposition ; which doctrine being Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, are not creatures. established among them, they would soon agree about the Holy Again, baptism is not made in the name of a quality or Ghost. attribute of the Divine Nature; therefore the Father and the III. Among the Jews, the controversy was about the true Son and the Holy Spirit are not qualities or attributes of the Messias; among the Gentiles, about the true God. It was Divine Nature. The orthodox, as they are termed, have gene- therefore proper among the Jews to baptize in the name rally considered this text a decisive proof of the doctrine of the of Jesus, that he might be vindicated to be the true Messias. Holy Trinity: and what else can they draw from it? Is it pos- || Among the Gentiles, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, sible for words to convey a plainer sense than these do? And, and of the Holy Ghost ; that they might be hereby instructed do they not direct every Reader to consider the Father, the in the doctrine of the true God.—Let this be particularly Son, and the Holy Spirit, as three distinct Persons ? « But noted.this I can never believe.” I cannot help that you shall not “ IV. The Jews baptized proselytes, into the name of the be persecuted by me for differing from my opinion. I can Father, that is, into the profession of God, whom they called not go over to you : I must abide by what I believe to be by the name of Father. The Apostles baptize the Jews into the meaning of the Scriptures. Dr. Lightfoot has some good the name of Jesus the Son, and the Gentiles into the name of the thoughts on this commission given to the Apostles :
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
on the Gospel of Matthew.
« V. The Father hath revealed hinself in the Old Covenant ;|| of copies; and at best, are only to be considered as the pious the Son in the New; in human flesh by his miracles, doctrine, wish of the writer, or of the Church, that the promises conresurrection and ascension; the Holy Ghost in his gifts and tained in the sacred volume may be accomplished. miracles. Thus the doctrine of the ever blessed Trinity grew In the MSS. and Versions there are various subscriptions, or by degrees to full maturity. For the arriving to the acknow- epigraphs, to this Gospel : the following are the principal. ledgement of which, it was incumbent upon all who professed “ The Gospel according to Matthew-written by himn in the true God to be three in one, to be baptized into his name.” || Jerusalem—in Palestine--in the East—in the Hebrew dialect Lightfoor's Works, vol. II. p 274.
in Hebrew-eight years after the ascension of Christ-interVerse 20. Teaching them to observe all things] Men are preted by John---by James the brother of the Lord.” ignorant of divine things, and must be taught. Only those The subscription in some copies of the Arabic version is can be considered as proper teachers of the ignorant, who are very full : “ The end of the copy of the Gospel of Matthew thoroughly instructed in whatsoever Christ has commanded. || the Apostle. He wrote it in the land of Palestine, by inPersons who are entrusted with the public ministry of the spiration of the Holy Spirit, in the Hebrew tongue, eight word, should take care that they teach not human creeds and || years after the bodily ascension of Jesus the Messiah into confessions of faith, in place of the Sacred Writings; but heaven, in the first year of the reign of Claudius Cæsar, king those things, and those only, which Jesus has commanded. of Rome.” And, lo, I am with you alway] και ιδου εγω μεθυμων ειμι πασας
These are sufficient to shew how little credit should be at, mas muigas-literally, Behold, I am with you every day. A tached to the subscriptions found at the end of the sacred minister of Christ should consider, that while his soul simply books, either in the MSS. or in the Versions. and uniformly follows Jesus, he shall be made a constant instrument of bringing many sons and daughters to glory. The 1. In concluding my notes on this Evangelist, I cannot exdark, it is true, must be enlightened, the ignorant instructed, press myself better than in the words of the late Mr. Wakefield, the profligate reclaimed, the guilty justified, and the unholy to whom this Commentary has been in many instances insanctified; and who is sufficient for this work? He, with whom | debted. “ I have now finished my observations on the Gospel of the Son of God is EVERY DAY, and none other.
Matthew: a piece of history, it must be acknowledged, the into the end of the world.] Some translate, Ews TNS OUYTENEDOS most singular in its composition, the most wonderful in its TGV as wros, to the end of this age ; meaning the Apostolic Age, contents, and the most important in its object, that was ever or Jewish Dispensation; and then they refer the promise of exhibited to the notice of mankind. For simplicity of narChrist's presence to the working of miracles, and explain this rative, and an artless relation of facts, without any applause by Mark xvi. 17—19. By my name they shall cast out dæmons, or censure, or digressive remarks, on the part of the his&c. &c. But though the words are used in this sense intorian, upon the characters introduced in it; without any several places, see chap. xiii. 39, 40, 49. and xxiv. 3. yet it intermixture of his own opinion, upon any subject whatis certain they were repeatedly used among the primitive soever; and for a multiplicity of internal marks of credibility, ecclesiastical writers, to denote the consummation of all things, this Gospel certainly has no parallel among human producand it is likely, that this is the sense in which they are used tions.” here, which the Anglo-Saxon has happily expressed: And Ic 2. One thing the pious and intelligent reader has, no doubt, beo mid eop ealle dagar od porulde ge-endunge-- And 1, | already noticed: there is not one truth, or doctrine, in the whole be with you all days, until world ending : and this is indis. oracles of God, which is not taught in this Evangelist. The outpensably necessary, because the presence and influence of lines of the whole spiritual system are here correctly laid down: Jesus Christ are essentially requisite in every age of the even Paul himself has added nothing; he has amplified and ilworld, to enlighten, instruct, and save the lost.
lustrated the truths contained in this Gospel : but even under mise takes in not only the primitive Apostles, but also all their | the direct inspiration of the Holy Ghost, neither he nor any successors in the Christian ministry, as long as the earth shall other of the Apostles have brought to light any one truth, endure.
the prototype of which has not been found in the words or Amen.] This word is omitted by some of the oldest and acts of our blessed Lord, as related by Matthew, in the work most authentic MSS. and by some Versions and Fathers, which has alrearly passed under review. The Gospel by St. When it is considered, that the word amen simply means Matthew is the grand text-book of Christianity : the other so be it ! we may at once perceive, that it could not be added | Gospels are collateral evidences of its truth, and the Apostolic by our Lord. For our Lord could not pray that his own will || Epistles are comments on the text. In the commencement of might be done, or his own promise fulfilled. The word is, || this work, I stated my wish, “ to assist my fellow labourers in therefore, utterly impertinent as a part of the sacred text, the vineyard to lead men to him who is the fountain of all exand could neither have been added by our Lord, nor by the cellence, goodness, truth and happiness :--to magnify his Law, Evangelist. The amens at the end of the sacred books, have and make it bonourable :—to shew the wonderful provision no other authority than what they derive from the transcribers | made in his Gospel for the recovery and salvation of a sinful