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The captious question of the

St. MATTHEW. Sadducecs concerning the resurrection, AN..498he unto them, * Render therefore un- his wife, and raise up seed unto his A. M. 48 An. Olymp. to Cæsar, the things which are Cæ- brother.

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25 Now there were with us seven

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brethren : and the first, when he had married 22 When they had heard these words, they a wife, deceased ; and, having no issue, left his marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

wife unto his brother: 23 | 5 The same day came to him the Saddu- 26 Likewise the second also, and the third, cees, which say that there is no resurrection, unto the seventh : and asked him,

27 And last of all, the woman died also : 24 Saying, Master, "Moses said, If a man 28 Therefore, in the resurrection, whose wife die, having no children, his brother shall marry shall she be of the seven? for they all had her.

• C1. 17. 25. Rom. 13. 7.-- dark... 18. Lube 20. 97.- Acts 23. 8.

d Deut. 25. 5.

Tob. 3. 8.-Gr, seven.

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head of the emperor ; the superscription, his titles. Julius these things Cesar is not to be obeyed'; he is taking the things Cesar was the first, who caused his image to be struck on of God, and he must not get them. Give not therefore God's the Roman coin. Tiberius was emperor at this time. things to Cæsar, and give not Cæsar's things to God. That

Kender therefore unto Casar] The conclusion is drawn from which belongs to the commonwealth, should, on no account their own premises. You acknowledge this to be Cæsar's whatever, be devoted to religious uses; and let.no man think coin; this coin is current in your land, the currency of this he has pleased God, by giving that to charitable or sacred coin shews the country to be under the Roman government; uses, which he has purloined from the state. The tribute of and your acknowledgment that it is Cæsar's, proves you have half a shekel, which the Law (Exod. xxx. 13, 14.) required submitted. Don't therefore be unjust

, but render to Cæsar | every person above twenty years of age to pay to the temple, the things which you acknowledge to be his : at the same was, after the destruction of the temple, in the time of Vestime, be not impious, but render unto God, the things wbich pasian, paid into the emperor's exchequer. This sum, Mebelong to God.

làncthon supposes, amounted annually to THREE TONS OF This answer is full of consummate wisdom. It establishes the limits, regulates the rights, and distinguishes the juris- "Verse 22. When they had heard these words, they murdelled] diction of the two empires of heaven and earth. The image And well they might--never man spake like this man. By of princes stamped on their coin denotes, that temporal things this decision, Cæsar is sutished—he gets his own to the utterbelong all to their government. The image of God stamped | most farthing. God is glorified—his honour is in every reon the soul denotes, that all its faculties and powers belong to pect secured. And the people are edified-one of the most the Most Iligh, and should be employed in his service. difficult questions that could possibly come before them, is

But while the earth is agitated and distracted with the answered in such a way, as to relieve their consciences, and question of political rights and wrongs; the Reader will na- direct their conduct. turally ask, What does a man owe to Cæsar ? to the ciril Verse 23. The same day] Malice is ever active, let it be government under which he lives? Our Lord has answered defeated ever so often, it returns to the charge. Jesus and the question-- That which is Cæsar's. But what is it that is his gospel give no quarter 10 vice; the vicious will give no Cæsar's? 1. Honour. 2. Obedience. And 3. Tribute. 1. The quarter to him or it. civil government under which a man lites, and by which he The Sndducces] For an account of these see on chap. is protected, demands his honour and reverence. 2. The lurus xvi. 1. which are made for the suppression of evil doers, and the Verse 24. Raise up seed unto his brother.) This law is menmaintenance of good order, which are calculated to promote tioned Deut. xxv. 5. The meaning of the expression is, that the benefit of the echole, and the comfort of the individual, the children produced by this marriage should be reckoned should be religiously obeyed. 3. The government that charges in the genealogy of the deceased brother, and enjoy his estates. itself with the support and defence of the whole, should have The word seed should be always translated children or posits unatoidable expences, however great, repaid by the peo- terity. ple, in whose behalf they are incurred : therefore we should Verse 25. Seven brethren] It is very likely the Sadducees pay tribute. But remember, if Cæsur should intrude into increased the number, merely to make the qu-stion the more The things of God, coin a new creed, or broach a new gospel, difficult. and affect to rule the conscience, while be rules the state ; in Verse 28. Ikose wife shall she be of the sete'?] Ilze Rab

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The resurrection proved from the Law, CHAP. XXII.

and the Sadducees confounded. 29 Jesus answered and said unto them, il of Isaac, and the God of Jacob ? God A.M. 403. An. Olymp. Ye do err, "not knowing the scriptures, is not the God of the dead, but of the An Olymp. CCII.1. nor the power of God.

living. 30 For in the resurrection, they neither marry, 33 And when the multitude heard this, « they nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels were astonished at his doctrine. of God in heaven.

34 | . But when the Pharisees had heard that 31 But as touching the resurrection of the he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were dead, have ye not read that which was spoken gathered together. unto you by God, saying,

35 Then one of them, which was a lawyer, 32 I am the God of Abraham, and the God asked him a question, tempting him, and saying,

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bins have said, That if a woman have two husbands in this Verse 32. I am the God of Abraham] Let it be observed, that world, she shall have the first only restored to her in the | Abraham was dead upwards of 300 years before these words world to come. Sohar. Genes. fol. 24. The question put by were spoken to Moses : yet still God calls himself the God of these bad men is well suited to the mouth of a libertine. | Abraham, &c. Now Christ properly observes, that God is Those who live without God in the world, have no other God not the God of the dead, (that word being equal, in the sense than the world—and those who have not that happiness which of the Sadducees, to an eternal annihilation) but of the living ; comes from the enjoyment of God, have no other pleasure it therefore follows, that if he be the God of Abraham, Isaac, than that which comes from the gratification of sensual appe- and Jacob, these are not dead, but alire ; alive with God, tites. The stream cannot rise higher than the spring : these though they had ceased, for some hundreds of years, to erist men, and their younger brethren, atheists, deists, and libertines among mortals. We may see from this, that our Lord comof all sorts, can form no idea of heaven as a place of blessed bats and confutes another opinion of the Sadducees, viz. that ness, unless they can hope to find in it the gratification of there is neither angel nor spirit; by shewing that the soul is their sensual desires. On this very ground Mohammed built not only immortal, but lives with God, even while the body his paradise.

is detained in the dust of the earth, which body is afterwards Verse 29. Ye do err] Or, Ye are deceived — by your im- to be raised to life, and united with its soul, by the miracupure passions : not knowing the scriptures, which assert the | lous power of God, of which power they shewed themselves resurrection :—nor the miraculous power of God, (one ouvee- to be ignorant, when they denied the possibility of a resurPSY FOU @tou) by which it is to be effected. In Avoda Sara, rection. fol. 18. Sanhedrin, fol. 90. it is said, “ These are they which

Verse 33. The multitude-were astonished at his doctrine.] shall have no part in the world to come: Those who say, the God uses the infidelity of sume, for the edification of others Lord did not come from heaven : and those who say, the re- Had no false doctrine been broached in the world, we had not surrection cannot be proved out of the Law.”

seen the full evidence of the true tcaching. The opposition Their deception appeared in their supposing, that if there of deists and infidels has only served to raise up men in bewere a resurrection, men and women were to marry and behalf of the truth of God, who not only have refuted them, given in marriage as in this life ; which our Lord shews is but shewn at the same time, that the sacred testimonies are not the case: for inen and women there, shall be like the infinitely amiable in themselves, and worthy of all acceptaangels of God, immortal, and free from all human passions; tion. Truth always gains by being opposed. and from those propensities which were to continue with

Verse 34. They were gathered together.] ET TO AUTO---they them only during this present state of existence. There, there cume together with one accord, or, for the same purpose ; i. e. shall be no death; and consequently no need of marriage to of ensnaring him in his discourse, as the Sadducees had done, maintain the population of the spiritual world.

ver. 16. The Codex Bezæ and several of the Itala have Verse 31. Have ye not read] This quotation is taken from ET'auto, against him.

Camen tegicrz into con--Old MS. Exod. iii. 6, 16. and as the fire books of Moses were the only Eng. Bib. part of scripture, which the Sadducees acknowledged as di- Verse 35. A lawyer] Nousxas, a teacher of the law. What rine; our Lord, by confuting them from those books, proved is called lawyer in the common translation. conveys a wrong the second part of his assertion, “ Ye are ignorant of these idea to most readers : my old MS. renders the waid in the very scriptures, which ye profess to hold sacred."

same way I have done. These teachers of the law were the

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Lore to God, the great

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commandment of the Law. 36 Master, which is the great com- ' love the Lord thy God with all thy 443 An. Olymp. mandment in the law ?

heart, and with all thy soul, and with - An. Olymp

. 37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt all thy mind.

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2 Deut. 6. 5. & 10. 12. & 30.6. Luke 10, 27. 1 Sam.7. 3. | 2 Kings 10. S1. Psal. 119. 2. 1 Tim. 1.5. 1 Jolin 4. 7, 8, 17, 18, 20, 21.

same as the Scribes, or what Dr. Wotton calls letter-men, who know what love means, that they throw much light upon whom he supposes to be the same as the Karaites, a sect of the subject, and manifest it in a variety of striking points of the Jews who rejected all the traditions of the elders, and ad-view. The ancient author of a MS. Lexicon in the late mitted nothing but the written word. See Wotton's Mislina, French king's library, under the word ayunin, has the folloirvol. i. p. 78. These are allowed to have kept more closely to ing definition :- AOTasos apoderos eti in ponoce tou qohoupsiou the spiritual meaning of the law and prophets, than the Pha- Evjetuxta. “A pleasing surrender of friendship to a friend : risees did ; and hence the question proposed by the lawyer, --an identity or sameness of soul.” A sovereign preference (Mark xii. 28. calls him one of the Scribes) or Karaïte, was given to one above all others, present or absent : a concenof a more spiritual or refined nature than any of the pre- tration of all the thoughts and desires in a single object, which ceding

a man prefers to all others. Apply this definition to the love Verse 36. Which is the greut commundment] We see here which God requires of his creatures, and you will have the three kinds of enemies and false accusers of Christ and his most correct view of the subject. llence it appears, that by disciples; and three sorts of accusutions brought against them. this love, the soul eagerly cleares to, affectionately admires, and 1. The Herodians, or politicians and courtiers, who form their constantly rests in God, supremely pleased and satisfied with questions and accusations on the rights of the prince, and him as its portion : that it acts from him, as its author ; for matters of state,' ver. 16. 2. The Sadducees, or libertines, him, as its muster; and to him, as its end. That by it, all who found theirs upon matters of religion and articles of the powers and faculties of the mind are concentrated in the faith, which they did not credit, ver. 23. 3. The Pharisees, | Lord of the universe. That by it, the wliole man is willingly Inuyers, Scribes, or Karaïtes, hypocritical pretenders to devo- surrendered to the Most High: and that through it, an idention, 'who found theirs on that vital and practical godliness, tity or sumeness of spirit with the Lord is acquired—the man (the love of God and man) of which they wished themselves being made a partaker of the divine nature, having the mind to be thought the sole proprietors, ver. 56.

in him which was in Christ, and thus dwelling in God, and Verse 37. Thou shalt lore the Lord] This is a subject of God in him. . the greatest importance, and should be well understood, as

But what is implied in loving God with all the heart, soul, our Lord shews that the whole of true religion is comprized mind, strength, &c. and when may a man be said to do this? in thus loving God and our neighbour.

1. He loves God with all his heart, who loves nothing in comIt may not be unnecessary to enquire into the literal mean- parison of him, and nothing but in reference to him :-who is ing of the word love. Ayann, from ayawaw, I love, is sup- ready to give up, do, or suffer any thing in order to please posed to be compounded either of ayar and try, to act te- and glorify him :-who has in his heart neither love nor hemently or intensely: or, from ayt xata Tav, because love is hatred, hope nor fear, inclination nor aversion, desire nor dealways active, and will act in every possible way; for he who light, but as they relate to God, and are regulated by him. loves, is with all his affection and desire carried forward to

2. He loves God with all his soul, or rather, y oan Thi Tuxen, the beloved object, in order to possess and enjoy it. Some with all his life, who is ready to give up life for his sake; derive it from ayar and have Jav, to be completely at rest, or,

to endure all sorts of torments, and to be deprived of all kinds to be intensely satisfied : because he who loves is supremely con- of comforts rather than dishonour God :-who employs life, tented with, and rests completely satisfied in that which he with all its comforts and conveniences, to glorify God in, by, loves. Others, from and because a person eagerly

and through all :—10 whom life and death are nothing, but embraces, and vigorously holds fast, that which is the object as they come from, and lead to God. From this divine prinof his love. Lastly, others suppose it to be compounded of ciple sprang the blood of the martyrs, which became the seed ayaw, I admire, and mavoues, I rest, because that which a of the Church. They overcame through the blood of the Lamb, man loves intensely, he rests in, with fixed admiration and and loved not their lives unto the death. See Rev. xii. 11. contemplation. So that genuine love changes not, but always

3. He loves God with all his strength, (Mark xi. 30. Luke abides steadily attached to that which is loved.

x. 27.) who exerts all the powers of his body and soul in the Whatever may be thought of these etymologies, as being service of God :-who, for the glory of his Maker, spares either just or probable ; one thing will be evident to all those neither labour nor cost-who sacrifices his time, body, health,

ayan

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ease, for the honour of God his divine Master :—who em- 8. In extent ; leaving nothing to the creature, which it does ploys in his service, all his goods, his talents, his power, cre

not refer to the Creator. dit, authority, and influence.

9. In necessity; being absolutely indispensable. 4. He loves God with all his mind, (intellect_deavora) who

10. In duration ; being ever to be continued on earth, and applies himself only to know God and his holy will :-who never to be discontinued in heaven. receives with submission, gratitude, and pleasure, the sacred Verse 39. Thou shalt love thy neighbour] The love of our truths which God has revealed to man :-who studies no art neighbour springs from the love of God as its source; is nor science, but as far as it is necessary for the service of God; found in the love of God as its principle, pattern, and end; and uses it at all times to promote his glory :--who forms no and the love of God is found in the love of our neighbour as projects nor'designs, but in reference to God, and the inter- its effect, representation, and infallible mark. This love of osts of mankind :—who banishes from his understanding and our neighbour is a love of equity, charity, succour, and benememory, every useless, foolish, and dangerous thought, to volence. We owe to our neighbour what we have a right to gether with every idea, which has any, tendency to defile his expect from him—" Do unto all men as ye would they should soul, or turn it for a moment from the centre of cternal re- do unto you,” is a positive command of our blessed Saviour. pose. In a word, he who sees God in all things—thinks of By this rule, therefore, we should think, speak, and write, him at all times—having his mind continually fixed upon God, concerning every soul of man :--put the best construction acknowledging him in all his ways :-who begins, continues, upon all the words and actions of our neighbour, that they and ends all his thoughts, words, and works, to the glory of can possibly bear. By this rule we are taught, to bear with, his name—this is the person who loves God with all his love, and forgive him; to rejoice in his felicity, mourn in his keart, life, strength, and intellect. Ile is crucified to the adversity, desire and delight in his prosperity, and promote world, and the world to him :-he lives, yet not he, but it to the utmost of our power: instruct his ignorance, help Christ lives in him. He beholds as in a glass the glory of him in his weakness, and risk even our life for his sake, and the Lord, and is changed into the same image from glory to for the public good. In a word, we must do every thing in glory. Simply and constantly looking unto Jesus, the author our power, through all the possible varieties of circumstances, and perfecter of his faith, he receives continual supplies of for our neighbours, which we would wish them to do for us, enlightening and sanctifying grace, and is thus fitted for every were our situations reversed.

. good word and work. O glorious state! far, far beyond this This is the religion of Jesus ! how happy would society be, description ! which comprizes an ineffable communion be- were these two, plain, rational precepts properly observed ! tween the ever-blessed Trinity and the soul of man!

Love me, and love thy Fellows! Be unutterably happy in Verse 38. This is the first and great commandment.] It is ine, and be in perfect peace, unanimity, and love, among So, I. In its antiquity, being as old as the world, and engraven yourselves. Great Fountain and Dispenser of love! fill thy originally on our very nature.

creation with this sacred principle, for lis sake who died for 2. In dignity; as directly and immediately proceeding the salvation of mankind ! from, and referring to God.

On the nature of self-love, see chap. xix. 19. 3. In excellence ; being the commandment of the New Co- Verse 40. On these two-hung all the law and the prophets.] veriant, and the very spirit of the divine adoption.

They are like the first and last links of a chain, all the inter4. In justice ; because it alone renders to God his due, mediate ones depend on them. True religion begins and prefers him before all things, and secures to him his proper ends in love to God and man. These are the two grand links rank in relation to them.

that unite God to man, man to his fellows, and men again to 5. In sufficiency ; being in itself capable of making men holy in this life, and happy in the other.

Love is the fulfilling of the law, says St. Paul, Rom. xiii. 10. 6. In fruitfulness ; because it is the root of all command for he who has the love of God in him, delights to obey the ments, and the fulfilling of the law.

divine precepts, and to do all manner of kindness to men for 7. In virtue and efficacy; because by this alone, God reigns God's sake. in the heart of man, and man is united to God..

Verse 41. While the Pharisees were gathered together) Jesus

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The question concerning the

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genealogy of the Messiah. 42 Saying, What think

on my right hand, till I make thine A. M.1038. of Christ? ye

An.Olymp An Olymp. whose son is he? They say unto him, enemies thy footstool ?

45 If David then call him Lord, how The son of David.

is he his son ? 43 He saith unto them, How then doth Da

46 And no man was able to answer him a vid in spirit a call him Lord, saying,

word, neither durst any man from that day 44 • The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou forth ask him any more questions.

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• Ecclas. 51. 10.- Ps. 110.1. Acts 2. 31. 1 Cor. 15. 25. Hebr. 1. 13.

& 10, 12, 13.

. Luke 14. 6. Mark 12. 31. Luke 20. 40.

asks a question in his turn, utterly to confound them, and to cause them to acknowledge thee as their sovereign and Lord. shew the people, that the source of all the captious questions This quotation is taken from Psal. cx. 1. and from it, these of his opponents, was their ignorance of the prophecies rela- | two points are clear, 1. That David wrote it by the inspirative to the Messiah.

tion of God; and 2. That it is a prophetic declaration of the Verse 42. What think ye of Christ ?] Or, What are your Messiah. thoughts concerning the Christ—the Messiah : for to this Verse 45. How is he his son ?] As the Jews did not attempt title, the emphatic article should always be added.

to deny the conclusion of our Lord's question, which was, Whose son is he?] From what family is he to spring ? the Messiah is not only the son of David according to the

They say unto hin, The son of David.] This was a thing flesh, but he is the Lord of David according to his divine well known among the Jews, and universally acknowledged: nature, then it is evident they could not. Indeed there was see John vii. 42. and is a most powerful proof against them, no other way of invalidating the argument, but by denying that the Messiah is come. Their families are now so per- that the prophecy in question related to Christ : but it seems, fectly confounded, that they cannot trace back any of their the prophecy was so fully and so generally understood to begenealogies with any degree of certainty : nor have they been long to the Messiah, that they did not attempt to do this: capable of ascertaining the different families of their tribes, || for it is immediately added, No man was able to answer for more than sixteen hundred years. Why then should the him a word—they were completely nonplused and conspirit of prophecy assert so often, and in such express terms, founded. that Jesus was to come from the family of David; if he should Verse 46. Neither durst anyask him any more questions.] only make his appearance when the public registers were all“ Thus," says Dr. Wotton, “our Lord put the four great demolished, and it would be impossible to ascertain the fa- | sects of the Jews to silence in one day, successively. The mily? Is it not evident that God designed that the Messiah Herodians and Pharisees wanted to know, whether they might should come at a time when the public genealogies might be lawfully pay tribute to Cæsar or not? The Sadducees were inspected, to prove that it was he who was prophesied of, inquisitive to know, whose wife the woman should be of the and that no other was to be expected ? The Evangelists seven brethren, in the resurrection, who had her to wife? Matthew and Luke, were so fully convinced of the conclu- || Then comes the Scribe, (or Karaïte,) who owned no authority siveness of this proof, that they had recourse to the public beyond or besides the written law, and asked which was the registers; and thus proved to the Jews from their own re- 1 great commandment in the law ? This lawyer deserves to be cords, that Jesus was born of the family rnentioned by the mentioned here, because he not only acquiesced in, but comprophets. Nor do we find that a Scribe, Pharisee, or any mended what our Lord had said in answer to his question.” other, ever attempted to invalidate this proof, though it would Wotton's Miscellaneous Discourses, vol. i. P.

78. have essentially subserved their cause, could they have done The Pharisees and Herodians were defeated, ver. 15–22. it. But as this has not been done, we may fairly conclude The Sadducees were confounded, ver. 29–33. The lawyers it was impossible to do it.

or Karaïtes nonplused, ver. 37–40. And the Pharisees, &c. Verse 43. How then doth David in spirit (or, by the spirit finally routed, ver. 41–46. Thus did the wisdom of God -by the inspiration of the Spirit of God) call him Lord ? || triumph over the cunning of men. saying,

From this time, we do not find that our Lord was any Verse 44. The Lord (71979 Yeve or Jehovah) said unto my more troubled with their captious questions: their whole Lord, (°378 Adni or Adonai, my prop, stay, master, support) || stock, it appears, was expended, and now they coolly delibeSit thou on my right hand] Take the place of the greatest rate on the most effectual way to get him murdered. He eminence and authority. Till I make thine enemies thy foot || that resists the truth of God, is capable of effecting the worst stooltill I subdue both Jews and Gentiles under thee, and purpose of Satan.

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