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Their names


and commission,

A. D. 27.

CCI. 3.

CCI. 3.

A.M. 4031. 3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Tho- 5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, A. M. 4131.
A. D. 97.
Ar. Olymp. mas, and Matthew the

and Matthew the publican ; || and commanded them, saying, “Go An. Olymp. James the son of Alpheus, and Leb- not into the way of the Gentiles, and beus, whose surname was Thaddeus;

into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not: 4 "Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, 6 ° But go rather to the lost sheep of the who also betrayed him.

house of Israel.

Luke 6. 15. Acts 1. 13.b John 13. 26. ch. 4. 15. See

2 Kings 17. 24. John 4. 9, 20.

• Ch. 15. 27. Acts 13. 46.--- Isai. 53. 6. Jer. 50. 6, 17. Ezek. 34.

5, 6, 16. 1 Pet. 2. 25.

scholar, or disciple. These twelve apostles were chosen, 1. Who also betrayed him] Rather, even he who betrayed him, That they might be with our Lord to see and witness his or, delivered him up; for so, I think, o xau nugadous autor, miracles, and hear his doctrine. 2. That they might bear should be translated. The common translation, who also betestimony of the former, and preach his truth to man- | trayed him, is very exceptionable, as it seems to imply, he was kind.

betrayed by some others as well as by Judas. The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his bro- Verse 5. These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded] To ther ; &c.] We are not to suppose that the word newtos, first, be properly qualified for a minister of Christ, a man must be, refers to any kind of dignity, as some have imagined; it 1. filled with the Spirit of holiness ; 2. called to this partimerely signifies the first in order—the person first mentioned. cular work; 3. instructed in its nature, &c. and, 4. comA pious man remarks: “ God here unites by grace those who missioned to go forth, and testify the Gospel of the grace of Here before united by nature.Though nature cannot be God. These are four different gifts which a man must redeemed a step towards grace, yet it is not to be considered as ceive from God by Christ Jesus. To these let him add all always a hindrance to it. Happy the brothers who are joint the human qualifications he can possibly attain; as in his envoys of heaven, and the parents who have two or more arduous work he will require every gift and every grace. children employed as ambassadors for God !

Go not into the way of the Gentiles] Our Lord only inVerse 3. Bartholomew] Many are of opinion that this was tended that the first offers of salvation should be made to the Nathanael, mentioned John i. 46. whose name was probably Jewish people; and that the heathen should not be noticed Nathanuel bar Talmai, Nathanael, the son of Talmui : here, in this first mission, that no stumbling-block might be cast in his own name is repressed, and he is called Bar Talmai, or the way of the Jews. Bartholomew, from his father.

Into any city of the Samaritans enter ye not] The SamariMatthew the publican] The writer of this history. See the tans had afterwards the Gospel preached to them by Christ Preface.

himself, John iv. 4, &c. for the reason assigned above. Such James the son of Alpheus] This person was also called as God seems at first to pass by, are often those for whom he Cleopas, or Clopas, Luke xxiv. 18. John xix. 25 He had has designed his greatest benefits, (witness the Samaritans, married Mary, sister to the blessed Virgin, John xix. 25. and the Gentiles in general) but he has his own proper tinie

Verse 4. Simon] He was third son of Alpheus, and brother to discover and reveal them. of James and Jude, or Judas, Matt. xiii. 55.

The history of the Samaritans is sufficiently known from The Canaanite] This word is not put here to signify a the Old Testament. Properly speaking, the inhabitants of particular people, as it is elsewhere used in the Sacred Writ- the city of Samaria should be termed Samaritans; but this ings; but it is formed from the Hebrew xp kana, which epithet belongs chiefly to the people sent into that part of the signifies zealous, literally translated by Luke, chap. vi. 15. promised land by Salmanezer, King of Assyria, in the year Snimetas, zelotes, or the zealous, probably from his great fer- of the world 3283, when he carried the Israelites that dwelt vency in preaching the Gospel of his Master. But see Luke there captives beyond the Euphrates, and sent a mixed. p. 15.

people, principally Cuthites, to dwell in their place. These Judas Iscariot] Probably from the Hebrew hip UX ish were altogether heathens at first; but they afterwards incorkerioth, a man of Kerioth, which was a city in the tribe of porated the worship of the true God with that of their idols. Judah, Josh. xv. 25. where it is likely this man was born. See the whole account, 2 Kings xvii. 5, &c. From this time

As x950x iscara, signifies the quinsy, or strangulation, and they feared Jehovah, and served other gods till after the Judas hanged himself after he had betrayed our Lord, Dr. Babylonish captivity. From Alexander the Great, Sanballat, Lightfoot seems inclined to believe that he had his name from their governor, obtained permission to build a temple upon this circumstance, and that it was not given him till after Mount Gerizim, which the Jews conceiving to be in oppo

sition to their temple at Jerusalem, hated them with a perfect

his death.

A. D. 27.

They were to provide


nothing for their journey. 7 * And as ye go, preach, saying, || 9 « Provide neither gold, nor silver, A.M. 4961. An. Olymp. • The kingdom of heaven is at hand.

nor brass in your purses, 8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, 10 Nor scrip for your journey, neiraise the dead, cast out devils : 'freely ye have ther two coats, neither shoes, nor yet staves : received, freely give.

" for the workman is worthy of his meat.

A. D. 47. An. Olymp


CCI, 3.

• Luke 9.2.-bch. 3. 2. & 4. 17. Luke 10.9.-- Acts 8.'18, 20.

1 Sam. 9.7. Mark 6. 8. Luke 9.3.& 10.4. & 29. 35.-e Or, Get-- See Mark 6.3.-~5Gr. a staff: Luke 10.7. 1 Cor. 9.7, &c. 1 Tim. 5. 18.

hatrel, and would have no fellowship with them. The Sa- 20. where, if any such power had been given, or erercised, it maritans acknowledge the divine authority of the Law of would doubtless have been mentioned. Hetstein has rejected Moses, and carefully preserve it in their own characters, which it, and so did Griesbach in his first edition; but in the second are probably the genuine ancient Hebrew; the character which (1796) he has left it in the text, with a note of doubtfulness. is now called Hebrew being that of the Chaldeans. The Sa- Freely ye hare received, freely gire.] A rule very necessary, maritan Pentateuch is printed in the London Polyglott; and and of great extent. A minister, or labourer in the Gospel is an undeniable record. A poor remnant of this people is vineyard, though worthy of his comfortable support while in found still at Naplouse, the ancient Shechem : but they exist the work, should never preach for hire, or make a secular in a state of very great poverty and distress; and probably traffic of a spiritual work. What a scandal is it for a man to will soon become extinct.

traffic with gifts, which he pretends at least to have received Verse 6. But go rather to the lost sheep, &c.] The Jewish from the Holy Ghost, of which he is not the master, but the Church was the ancient fold of God; but the sheep bad wandered dispenser. He who preaches to get a living, or to make a from their Shepherd, and were lost. Our blessed Lord sends forlune, is guilty of the most infamous sacrilege. these under-shepherds to seek, find, and bring them back Verse 9. Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass, in your to the Shepherd and Overseer of their souls.

purses] Ess tas (wrots wuws, in your girdles. It is supposed Verse 7. And as ye go, preuch] rogsvojitvos de xnguosite, and that the people of the East carry their money in a fold of as you proceed, proclaim like heralds---make this proclamation their girdles. This is scarcely correct: they carry it in a wherever ye go, and while ye are journeying. Preach and purse in their bosom, under their girdles. This I have often travel; aud as ye travel, preach--proclaim salvation to all you'observed. meet. Wherever the ministers of Christ go, they find lost ruined In a thousand instances an apostolic preacher, who goes souls; and wherever they find them, they should proclaim to the wilderness to seek the lost sheep, will be exposed to Jesus, and his power to save. For an explanation of the word hunger and cold, and other inconveniences—he must thereproclaim, or preach, sce on chap. ii. 1.

fore resign himself to God, depending on his providence for From this commi-sion we learn what the grand subject of the necessaries of life. If God have sent him, he is bound apostolic preaching was—THE KINGDOM OF

to support him, and will do it: anxiety therefore, in him, HAND! This was the great message. “ They preached,says is a double crime, as it insinuates a bad opinion of the master Quesnel, to establish the faith : the kingdom, to animate the who has employed him. Every missionary should make hope ; of heuven, to inspire the love of heavenly things, and himself master of this subject. the contempt of carthly ; which is at hand, that men may Hare no money in your purse, is a command, obedience prepare for it without delay."

to which was secured by the narrow circumstances of most Verse 8. Raise the dead] This is wanting in the MSS. of the primitive, genuine preachers of the gospel. Whole marked EKLMS of Griesbach, and in those marked BHV of herds of friars mendicants have professed the same principle, Mathaï, and in upwards of one hundred others. It is also and abandoned themselves to voluntary poverty; but if the wanting in the Syriac, (Vienna edition) latter Persic, Sa-money be in the heart it is a worse evil. In the former case hidic, Armenian, Slatonic, and in one copy of the Itala; , it may be a temptation to sin; in the latter it must be also in Athanasius, Basil, and Chrysostom. There is no evi- ruinous. dence that the disciples raised any dead person previously to Verse 10. Nor scrip for your journey) To carry provisions. the resurrection of Christ. The words should certainly be This was called saponin tormil, by the Rabbins; it was a omitted, unless we could suppose that the authority now leathern pouch hung about their necks, in which they put given respected not only their present mission, but compre- their victuals. This was, properly, the shepherd's bag. hended also their future conduct. But that our blessed Lord Neither two coats, &c.] Nothing to encumber you. did not give this power to his disciples at this time, is, I think, Nor yet stuves] Podov, a staff, as in the margin; but, pretty evident from verse 1. and from Luke ix. 6, 10. x. 19, ) instead of gardo staff, which is the common reading, all the


How the disciples should conduct


themselves in their preaching.

A.M. 4031.
A. D. 27.

11 · And into whatsoever city or 13 " And if the house be worthy, A.M, 1031. An. Olymp. town ye shall enter, enquire who in let your peace come upon it: 'but if An. Olymp.

it is worthy; and there abide till ye 'it be not worthy, let your peace return


CCI. 3.

go thence.

to you.

12 And when ye come into a house, salute it.

14 + And whosoever shall not receive you, nor

a Luke 10. 8.-Luke 10. 5.

Ps. 35. 15.-_Mark 6. 11. Luke 9. 5. & 10. 10, 11.

following MSS. and versions have çamsous stares, and CEFGKL

Verse 12. Salute it] Asyortes, suprum ey TW OVCW TOUTW, saying, MPS. V. ninety-three others, Coptic, Armenian, latter Syriac, Peace be to this house." "This clause, which, as explanatory one of the Itala, Chrysostom and Theophylact. This reading is of the word asmucacbs, is necessary to the connexion in of great importance, as it reconciles this place with Luke ix. 3. which it now stands, is added, by the MSS. D and L. and and removes the seeming contradiction from Mark vi. 8. forty-three others, the Armenian, Ethiopie, Slavonic, Saron, as if he had said, “ Ye shall take nothing to defend yourselyes Vulgate, all the copies of the old Itala, Theophylact and with, because ye are the servants of the Lord, and are to be Hilary. The clause is also found in several modern versions. supported by his bounty, and defended by his power. In a The modern (Greek, has λεγοντες ειρηνη εις το σκηπτι τουτο.

Thc word, be like men in haste, and eager to begin the impor- Italian, by Matthew, of Erberg, and of Diodati, renders is tant work of the ministry. The sheep are lost, ruined:-|thus: Pace sia a questa casa. Peace be to this house. Satan is devouring them :-give all diligence to pluck them It is found also in Wickliff, and in my old MS. Seyinge, out of the jaws of the destroyer.”

pers be to this hous. Some suppose it is an addition taken from The workman is worthy of his meat.] 795 ago @ms aUTOU, of Luke, but there is nearly as much reason to believe he took it kis maintenance. It is a muintenance, and that only which from Matthew. a minister of God is to expect, and that he has a divine right Peace, Sibu, among the Hebrews, had a very extensive to; but not to make a fortune, or lay up wealth: besides, meaning :-it comprehended all blessinga, spiritual and it is the workman, he that labours in the word and doctrine, temporal. llence that saying of the Rabbins, Sinu 1973 that is to get even this. How contrary to Christ is it for a 12 nossa 19927930 Gadal shalom, shecol Haberacoth culoloth man to have vast revenues as a minister of the gospel, who bo. (treat is PEACE, for all other blessings are comprehended ministers no gospel, and who spends the revenues of the in it. To wish peace to a family, in the name and by the church to its disgrace and ruin?

authority of Christ, was in effect a positive promise on the Verse 11. Into whatsoever city or town ye shall enter] In the Lord's side, of all the good implied in the wish. This was commencement of Christianity, Christ and his preachers paying largely even beforehand, Whoever receives the were all Itinerant.

messengers of God into his house, confers the highest honour Enquire who in it is worthy] That is, of a good character; \| upon himself, and not upon the Preacher, whose honour is for a preacher of the gospel should be careful of his reputa- | from God, and who comes with the blessings of life eternal tion, and lodge only with those who are of a regular life. to that man and his family who receives him.

There abide till ye go thence.] Go not about from house to Verse 13. If the house be worthy] If that fumily be kouse, Luke x. 7. Acting contrary to this precept has often proper for a preacher to lodge in, and the master be ready to brought great disgrace on the gospel of God. Stay in your embrace the message of salvation. own lodging as much as possible, that you may have time Your peace] The blessings you have prayed for, shall come

prayer and stady. Seldom frequent the tables of the upon the family: God will prosper them in their bodies, souls rich and great; if you do, it will unavoidably prove a snare and substance. to you. The unction of God will perish from your mind, But if it be not worthy] As above explained. and your preaching be only a dry barren repetition of old Let your peace] The blessings prayed for, return to you, things; the bread of God in your hands will be like the dry, os veces ersgafntw, it shall turn back upon yourselves. They mguldy, Gibeonitish crusts, mentioned Josh. ix. 3. He who i shall get nothing, and you shall have an increase. knows the value of time, and will redeem it from useless chit- The trials, disappointments, insults, and wants of the chat

, and trifling visits, will find enough for all the purposes followers of Christ become in the hand of the all-wise God, of his own salvation, the cultivation of his mind, and the subservient to their best interests : hence, nothing can happen work of the ministry. He, to whom time is not precious, to them without their deriving profit from it, unless it be their and who lives not by rule, never finds tine sufficient for any

own fault. thing;—is always embarrassed--always in a hurry, and Verse 14. Shake off the dust of your feet.] The Jews conliever capable of bringing one good purpose to proper effect. sidered themsetres defiled by the dust of a Heathen country,

How they should behave themselves Sr. MATTHEW. to those who would not receive them. A.M.1031 hear your words, when ye depart out tolerable for the land of Sodom and A.M. 4031. An Olymp. of that house or city, shake off the Gomorrah, in the day of judgment, An. Olymp. dust of your feet.

than for that city. 15 Verily I say unto you, " It shall be more 16 Behold, I send you forth as sheep in

CCI. 3


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which was represented by the prophets as a polluted land, and heighten its brilliant ornaments. The whole, under surface Amos vii. 7. when compared with the land of Israel, which of the head and body, is of a silver white, separated from the was considered as a holy land, Ezek. xlv. 1. therefore, to shake changing blue of the back by a golden chain on each side, the the dust of any city of Israel from off one's clothes or feet, was whole length of the body. This fine blue and silver, ornaan emblematical action, signifying a renunciation of all farther mented with gold, by no means give a full idea of the beautiful connexion with them, and placing them on a level with the embroidery of the boiga. We must take in all the reflected cities of the Heathen. See Amos ix. 7.

tints of silver colour, golden yellow, red, blue, green, and Verse 15. In the day of judgment] Or, punishment,-xştiw;. black mingled, and changing in the most extraordinary and Perhaps not meaning the day of general judgment, nor the day beautiful manner possible ; so that, when about to change its of the destruction of the Jewish state by the Romans; but a skin, it seems studded with a mixt assemblage of diamonds, day in which God should send punishment on that particular emeralds, topazes, saphirs, and rubies, under a thin transparent city, or on that person, for their crimes. So the day of judg-veil of bluish chrystal. Thus, in the rich and torrid plains of ment of Sodon and Gomorruh, was the time in which the Lord India, where the most splendid gems abound, Nature seems to destroyed them by fire and brimstone, from the Lord out of bave chosen to re-unite them all, together with the noble metals, heaven.

to adorn the brilliant robe of the Boiga. This is one of the If men are thus treated for not receiving the preachers of most slender of serpents in proportion to its length. The the gospel, what will it be to despise the gospel itself—to decry specimens in the royal collection, which exceed three feet in it--to preach the contrary—to hinder the preaching of it - length, are hardly a few lines in diameter. The tail is almost to abuse those who do preach it in its purity-or to render it as long as the body, and at the end is like a needle for fineness; fruitless by calumnies and lies? Their punishment, our Lord | yet it is sometimes flattened above, below, and on the two intimates, shall be greater than that inflicted on the inhabitants sides, rendering it in some measure square. From the of Sodom and Gomorrah!

delicacy of its form, its movements are necessarily extremely Verse 16. Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of agile; so that, doubling itself up several times, it can spring zvolves] Ile who is called to preach the gospel, is called to to a considerable distance, with great swiftness. It can twine einbrace a state of constant labour, and frequent suffering and twist itself, most readily, and nimbly, around trees or Ile who gets ease and pleasure in consequence of embracing other such bodies ; climbing, or descending, or suspending the ministerial office, neither preaches the gospel, nor is sent itself, with the utmost facility. The Boiga feeds on small of God. If he did the work of an Evangelist, wicked men birds, which it swallows very easily, notwithstanding the and dæmons would both


small diameter of its body, in consequence of the great disWise Cogorijos prudent) as serpents, and harmless as dores.] tensibility of its jaws, throat and stomach, common to it This is a proverbial saying: so in Shir hashirim Rabba, | with other serpents. It conceals itself under the foliage of fol. 16. “ The holy blessed God said to the Israelites, Ye shall | trees, on purpose to surprise tlie small birds; and is said to be towards me, as upright as the dores; but towards the attract them by a peculiar kind of whistling, to which the Gentiles, as cunning as serpents."

term of song has been applied : but we must consider this as There is a beauty in this saying which is seldom observed. an exaggeration; as its long divided tongue, and the conforThe serpent is represented as prudent to excess, being full of mation of its other organs of sound, are only adapted for cunning; Gen. iii. 1. 2 Cor. xi. 3. and the dove is simple, producing a hiss, or species of simple whistle, instead of even to stupidity; Hos. vii. 11. but Jesus Christ corrects here forming a melodious assemblage of tones. Yet, if Nature the cunning of the serpent, by the simplicity of the dove; and has not reckoned the Boiga among the songsters of the woods, the too greut simplicity of the dore, by the cunning of the it seems to possess a more perfect instinct than other serpents, serpent. For a fine illustration of this Text, see the account | joined to more agile movements, and more magnificent ornaof the Boiga:

ment. In the isle of Borneo, the children play with the “ This species is remarkably beautiful, combining the Boiga, without the smallest dread. They carry it in their richest colours of the finest gems, with the splendor of bur- | hands, as innocent as themselves, and twist it about their nished gold, mingled with dark brown shades, which contrast | necks, arms, and bodies, in a thousand directions. This

A. D. 27.

Directions for confidence in God

in their trials. A.M.4031. the midst of wolves : be ye therefore and kings for my sake, for a testi- A.M1.1031. An. Olynp. wise as serpents, and harmless as mony against them and the Gentiles.

An. Olymp. doves.

19 But when they deliver you up, 17 But beware of men: ford they will de- take no thought how or what ye shall speak : liver you up to the councils, and they will for "it shall be given you in that same hour, scourge you in their synagogues ;

what ye shall speak: 18 And ye shall be brought before governors 20 · For it is not ye that speak, but the

CCI. 3.


2 Rom. 16. 19. Eph. 5. 15.—1 Cor. 14. 20. Phil. 2. 15 --Or, simple.--ch. 24. 9. Mark 13. 9. Luke 12 11. & 21. 12.-Acts 5. 40.

-Acts 12. 1. & 24. 10. & 35. 7, 23. 2 Tim. 4. 10.

6 Mark 13. 11, 19, 13. Lake 19. 11. & 21. 14, 15,- Exod. 4. 12. Jer. 1.7.2 Sam. 23. 2. Acts 4. 8. & 6. 10. 2 Tim. 4. 17.

circumstance brings to recollection, that fiue emblein of

Verse 18. Ye shall be brought before governors, &c.] “ This Candour and Confidence, imagined by the genius of the affords a striking proof of the prescience of Christ. Who ancients: A child smiling on a snake, which holds him fast, could have thought, at that time, that these despise and in his convolutions. But in that beautiful allegory, the snake illiterate men could excite so much attention, and be called is supposed to conceal a deadly poison; while the Boiga upon to apologize for the profession of their faith, before the returns caress for caress, to the Indian children who fondle it, tribunals of the most illustrious personages of the earth?"and seems pleased to be twisted about their delicate hands. Wakefield. As the appearance of such nimble and innocent animals in the By governors and kings we may understand, the Roman forests must be extremely beautiful, displaying their splendid proconsuls, governors of provinces, and the kings who were colours, and gliding swiftly from branch to branch, without tributary to the Roman government, and the emperors possessing the smallest noxious quality; we might regret that themselves, before whom many of the primitive Christians this species should require a degree of heat greatly superior were brought. to that of our regions, and that it can only subsist near the For a testimony against them and the Gentiles.] That is, to Tropics in Asia, Africa, and America. It has usually a render testimony, both to Jews and Gentiles, of the truth hundred and sixty-six large plates, and a hundred and and power of my Gospel. twenty-eight pairs of small plates, but is subject to consider- Verse 19. Take no thought how or what ye shall speak] M» able variation.

je sgape noite-Be not anriously careful, because such anxiety " According to this representation, the Boiga is not merely argues distrust in God, and infallibly produces a confused to be praised for its beauty, but may be said to fulfill the old nind. In such a state, no person is fit to proclaim or vindimaxim of combining the wisdom of the serpent with the harm- | cate the truth. This promise, It shall be given you, &c. lessness of the dove." Cepede’s Ilist. of oviparous Quadrupeds banishes all distrust and inquietude on dangerous occasions;

but without encouraging sloth and negligence, and without Instead of axtgeno harmless, or as the Etymol. Mag. de dispensing with the obligation we are under to prepare ourfines it, without mixture of evil, the Cod. Bezæ reads arhoUSTATO. selves by the meditation of sacred truths, by the study of the simple-uncompounded-so all the copies of the old Itula, the Holy Scriptures, and by prayer. Vulgate, and the Latin fathers; but this curious and ex- It shall be giren you in that same hour what] This clause is planatory reading, is found in no other Greek MS.

wanting in the DISS. D and L, and several others, some Verse 17. But beware of men:) Or, be on your guard against Versions, and several of the Fathers; but it is found in inen, T24 av@gu mwv These men; i. e. your countrymen ; those Mark xiii

. 11. without any rarious reading; and in subfrom whom you might have reasonably expected comfort and stance in Luke xi. 13. support; and especially those in power, who will abuse that Verse 20. For it is the Spirit of your Father, &c.) This power to oppress you.

was an extraordinary promise, and was literally fulfilled to Councils] Euvedie, sunkedrins, and synagogues. See on chap. those first preachers of the Gospel; and to them it was 1.2.

By synagogues we may understand here, not the essentially necessary; because the New Testament dispensaplaces of public worship, but assemblies, where three magi- tion was to be fully opened by their extraordinary inspiration. strates, chosen out of the principal members of the syna- In a certain measure, it may be truly said, that the Holy gogue, presided to adjust differences among the people : Spirit animates the true disciples of Christ, and enables these had power, in certain cases, to condemn to the scourge, them to speak. The head speaks in his members, by his but not to death. See Acts xxii. 19. 2 Cor. xi. 24. com- Spirit : and it is the province of the Spirit of God to speak pared with Luke xii. 11." See Lightfoot.

for God.-Neither surprise, defect of talents, nor even

and Serpents.

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