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B. C. 5.
of Jesus Christ. A.M.4000. begat Eliakim ; and Eliakim begat | begat Matthan ; and Matthan begat A.M.4000. An. Olymp. Azor ;
An. Olymp14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sa- 16 And Jacob begat Joseph, the doc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud ; husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, 15 And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar who is called Christ.
1 Jechonias wbichever is preferred, the demonstrative article should never 2 Isaac
2 Rehoboam 2 Salathiel be omitted. 3 Jacob 3 Abia
3 Zerobabel Priests, prophets, and kings, among the Jews, were anointed 4. Judah 4 Asa
4 Abiud in order to the legitimate exercise of their respective offices. 5 Pharez 5 Josaphat 5 Eliakim
Hence the word Xpsotos Christ, or n'un Mashiach, became a 6 Esrom 6 Joram
name of dignity, and often signified the same as king. See 7 Aram 7 Ozias
Isai. xlv. 1. Psal. cv. 15. Lev. iv. 3. vi. 20. 1 Sam. ii. 10. 8 Aminadab 8 Joatham
8 Achim The words n'vn Massiach and 73 melec, Xpsotos and Bar 9 Naason 9 Achaz
9 Eliud Cideus, Christ and king, are frequently interchanged. 1 Sam. 10 Salmon 10 Ezekias
ii. 10. Psal. ii. 2, 6. Luke xxiii. 2. and see the Schulia of Ros 11 Booz
11 Manasses 11 Matthan senmuller on this place. The reason of this may be seen in 12 Obed 12 Amon
12 Jacob the following note, which I extract from the comment on 13 Jesse 13 Josias
Exod. xxix. 7. 14 David 14 Joachim 14 JESUS
“ It appears from Isai. lxi. 1. that anointing with oil, in In all forty-two generations.
consecrating a person to any important office, whether civil
or religious, was considered as an emblem of the communiVerse 12. Jechonias begat Salathiel] After Jechonias was cation of the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit. This cerebrought to Babylon, he was put in prison by Nebuchadnez- mony was used on three occasions, viz. the installation of zar, where he continued till the death of this prince, and the prophets, priests, and kings, into their respective offices. But accession of Evilmerodach, who brought him out of prison, why should such an anointing be deemed necessary? Because in which he had been detained thirty-seven years; and re- the common sense of men taught them, that all good, whether stored him to such favour, that his throne (seat) was exalted spiritual or secular, must come from God, its origin and cause. above all the kings which were with him in Babylon : Jerem. Hence it was taken for granted, 1. That no man could forelii. 31, 32. But though he thus became a royal favourite, he tell events, unless inspired by the Spirit of God. And therewas never restored to his kingdom. And according to the fore the prophet was anointed, to signify the communication prophecy of Jeremiah xxii. 30. no man of his seed sat upon of the Spirit of wisdom and knowledge. 2. That no person the throne of David; yet the regal line was continued through could offer an acceptable sacrifice to God for the sins of men; his son Salathiel, who died in Babylon : but Zorobabel, his or profitably minister in holy things, unless enlightened, influson, returned from captivity, and by him the race of Davidenced, and directed, by the Spirit of grace and holiness. was continued, according to Matthew, by. Abiud ; and, ac- Hence the priest was anointed, to signify his being divinely cording to Luke by Rhiesa. See on Luke iii. 23, &c.
qualified for the due performance of his sacred functions. 3. The term carrying away to Babylon, petoixista, from petoixew, That no man could enact just and equitable laws, which should to change a habitation, or place of residence, would be more have the prosperity of the community and the welfare of the properly translated by the word transportation, which is here individual continually in view, or could use the power conpeculiarly appropriate : the change was not voluntary; they fided to him, only for the suppression of vice and the encou. were forced away.
ragement of virtue, but that man who was ever under the Verse 16. Jesus, who is called Christ.] As the word Xp-cros, inspiration of the Almighty. Hence kings were inaugurated Christ, signifies the anointed or anointer, from xgw, to anoint ; by anointing with oil. Two of these offices only, exist in all it answers exactly to the Hebrew piwn mashiach, which we civilized nations, the sacerdotal and regal; and in some counpronounce Messiah of Messias ; this word comes from the tries, the priest and king are still consecrated by anointing. root nun inashac, signifying the same thing. As the same In the Hebrew language, nwn mashuch signifies to anoint; person is intended by both the Hebrew and Greek appellation, and n'un mashiach, the anvinted person. But as no man was it should be regularly translated The Messiah, or The Christ; ever dignified by holding the three offices, so no person ever had
1. JI, 1000
B. C. 5.
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Number of generations.
The conception of Christ. 17 So all the generations from A- | ther, she was found with child of A. M. 4000. An. Olymp. braham to David, are fourteen gene- the Holy Ghost.
An. Olymp. rations; and from David until the car- 19 Then Joseph, her husband, being rying away into Babylon, are fourteen genera- a just man, and not willing to inake her a tions; and from the carrying away into Babylon public example, was minded to put her away unto Christ, are fourteen generations.
privily. 18 Now the birth of Jesus Christ was
as 20 But while he thought on these things, beon this wise : When as his mother Mary was hold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him espoused to Joseph, before they came toge in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David,
the title Mashiuch, the anointed one, but Jesus, The Christ. not been consummated, was considered as perfectly legal and He alone is King of kings, and Lord of lords : the king who binding on both sides ; and hence, a breach of this contract, goterns the universe, and rules in the hearts of his followers; was considered as a case of adultery, and punished exactly in the prophet, to instruct rnen in the way wherein they should the same way. See Deut. xxii. 25, 28. Nor could a contract go; and the great high-priest, to make atonement for their of this kind, though there was no cohabitation, be broken but sius. Hence he is called the Messias, a.corruption of the word by a regular divorce, as Mr. Selden, in his Vxor Hebraica, Truri hu-mushiach, The anointed ONE, in llebrew; which gave has proved at large from the Jewish Rabbins. birth to 6 Xarros no Christos, which has precisely the same She wills found with child] Her situation was the most dissignification in Greek: of him, Melchisedech, Abraham, tressing and humiliating that can be conceived. Nothing but Aaron, David, and others, were illustrious types. But none the fullest consciousness of her own integrity, and the strongof these had the title of the MESSIAH, or THE ANOINTED of est confidence in God, could have supported her in such tryGod. This does, and ever will, belong exclusively to Jesus,ing circumstances, where her reputation, her honour, and her The Christ.”
life, were at stake. What conversation passed between her Verse 17. Fourteen generations] See the note on ver. 11. i and Joseph, on this discovery, we are not informed; but the The Jews had a sort of technical method of summing up gene-issue proves, that it was not satisfactory to him : nor could he rations in this way. In Synopsis Sohar. p. 132. n. 18. we have resolve to consider her as his wife, till God bad sent his angel the following words : “ From Abraham to Solomon were fif- to bear the most unequivocal testimony to the virgin's innoteen generations; and then the moon was at the full. From cence. His whole conduct on this occasion, was exceedingly Solomon lo Zedekiah were other fifteen generations; the moon || benevolent and humane. He might at once have taken the was then in the wane, and Zedekiah's eyes were put out."- advantage of the law, Deut. xxii. 23, 24. and had her stoned That is, the regal state came to its zenith of light and glory in | to death. the time of Solomon ; but decreased gradually, till it became
Verse 19. To make her a public example] Ilagadzonjection, nearly extinct in the days of Zedekiah. See Schoctgen. to expose her to public infamy; from mage, near, and deixouuat
Verse 18. Espoused to Joseph] The word dyno tev Turms, from I shew, or expose. Though Joseph was a righteous man, doxanos, UINITIVw, to contract, or betroth, refers to the previous mar- and knew that the law required that such persons as he supriage agreement, in which the parties mutually bound them- | posed his wife to be, should be put to death ; yet as righteousselves to each other ; without which, no woman was ever ness is ever directed by mercy, he determined to put inarried among the Jews.
or divorce her prirately, i. e. without assigning any cause, Before they came together] The woman was espoused at her that her life miglit be saved : and as the offence was against own, or her father's house ; and generally, some time elapsed, || bimself, he had a right to pass it by if he chose. Some have before she was taken home to the house of her husband: Deut. | supposed that the term dizalos should be translated merciful, xx. 7. Judg. xiv. 7,8. This custom has been immemorially and it certainly often has this signification, but here it is not observed among the inhabitants of Ireland, who have not only necessary. this, but many other Asiatic customs, which, added to various Verse 20. That which is corceived (or formed) in her] So authentic historic proofs, are collateral evidences, that they I think yeynder should be translated in this place: as it appears received the Christian religion, not from the popes of Rome, that the human nature of Jesus Christ, was a real crcution in but through the means of Asiatic missionaries,
tbe womb of the virgin, by the power of the Holy Spirit. Among the Jews, the espousal, though the marriage had the angel of the Lord mentioned here, was probably the an
B. C. 5.
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The prophecy concerning
the miraculous conception. A. 11,4000. fear not to take unto thee Mary thy shall save his people from their sins. A.N. 4000. An. Olymp. wife: a for that which is conceived 22 Now all this was done, that it An. Olymp.
CXCIII. 4. in her, is of the Holy Ghost. might be fulfilled which was spoken of 21 · And she shall bring forth a son, and the Lord by the prophet, saying, thou shalt call his name "JESUS : fore he 23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child,
a Luke 1. 35.- Gr. begette.--. Luke 1. 31.--"That is, Saviour, Heb.
• Acts 4. 12. & 5. S1. & 13. 23, 38.- Isai. 7. 14.
gel Gabriel, who, six months before, had been sent to Zacha- row and by unbelief, in order to assure him, that the counsels of rias and Elisabeth, to announce the birth of Christ's fore- his enemies should not stand ; and that they should be utterly runner, John the Buptist. See Luke i. 36.
discomfited. To encourage Ahaz, he commands him to ask Verse 21. JESUS] The same as Joshua, punYehoshua, || a sign or miracle, which should be a pledge in hand, that God from pui yasha, he saved, delivered, put in a state of safety. should, in due time, fulfil the predictions of his servant, as Sce on Exod. xiii. 9. Num. xiii. 16. and in the preface to Joshua. related in the context. On Ahaz humbly refusing to ask any
He shall save his people from their sins.] This shall be his sign, it is immediately added, Therefore the Lord himself shall great business in the world : the great ertaned on which he is give you a sign : Behold, a virgin shull conceive und bear & come, viz. to make an atonement for, and to destroy, sin : son; and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall deliverance from all the power, guilt, and pollution of sin, is he eat, &c. Both the divine and human nature of our Lord, the privilege of every believer in Christ Jesus. Less than this, as well as the miraculous conception, appear to be pointed out is not spoken of in the gospel : and less than this, would be iu the prophecy quoted here by the Evangelist :-He shall be unbecoming the gospel. The perfection of the gospel system called 58-WAY IM-MENU-El. ; literally, The STRONG GOD WITH is, not that it makes allowances for sin, but that it makes an Us : similar to those words in the New Testament—The word atonement for it :--not that it tolerates sin, but that it destroys which wus God—was made flesh, and dwelt among us, full of it. In ver. 1. he is ealled Jesus Christ, on which Dr. Lightfoot grace and truth : John i. 1, 14. And, God was manifested in properly remarks, “ That the name of Jesus, so often added to the flesh : 1 Tim. iii. 16. So that we are to understand, God the name of Christ in the New Testament, is not only that Christ with us, to imply, God incarnated-God, in human nature. might be thereby pointed out as the Saviour, but also that This seenis farther evident from the words of the prophet, Jesus might be pointed out as the true Christ, or Messiah, ver. 15. Butter and honey shall he eat—he shall be truly man, against the unbelief of the Jews.” This observation will be grow up and be nourished in a human, natural way; which of great use in numberless places of the New Testament. See refers to his being with us, i. e. incarnated. To which the Acts ii. 36. viii. 35. 1 Cor. vi. 22. 1 John ii. 22. iy. 15, &c. prophet adds, That he may know to refuse the evil and chuse
Verse 22. By the prophet] Isatau is added here by several the good :--or rather, According to his knowledge, inoob ledaMSS. Versions, and Fathers. The prophecy is taken from ato, reprobating the evil, and chusing the good :-this refers to Isaiah vij, 14.
him as God; and is the same idea, given by this prophet, Verse 23. Behold, a virgin shall be with child). We have chap. liii. 11. By (or in) his knowledge (the knowledge of already seen from the preceding verse, that this prophecy is Christ crucified, wyra be daâto) shall my righteous serount taken from Isai. vii. 14. but it may be necessary to consider justify many; for he shall bear their offences. Now this union the circumstances of the original promise, more particularly. of the divine and human nature, is termed a sign or miracle, At the time referred to, the kingdom of Judah, under the ni& oth, i. e. something which exceeds the power of nature to government of Ahaz, was reduced very low. Pekah, king of produce. And this miraculous union was to be brought about Israel, had slain in Judea 120,000 persons in one day; and in a miraculous way: Behold a VIRGIN shull conceive: the carried away captives 200,000, including women and children, word is very emphatic, apyyn ha-álmah, The virgin; the only together with much spoil. To add to their distress, Rezin, one that ever was, or ever shall be, a mother, in this way. king of Syria, being confederate with Pekah, had taken Elath, But the Jews, and some called Christians, who have espoused a fortified city of Judah, and carried the inhabitants away | their desperate cause, assert, that “the word naby almah docs captive to Damascus. In this critical conjuncture, need we not signify, a VIRGIN only; for it is applied Prov. xxx. 19. to sigwonder that Ahaz was afraid that the enemies who were now nify a young married woman.” I answer, that this latter text united against him must prevail, destroy Jerusalem, end the is no proof of the contrary doctrine : the worus nobya 33 797 kingdom of Judah, and annihilate the family of David ? To || derec geber be-álmah, the way of a man with a maid, cannot meet and remove this fear, apparently well grounded, Isaiah be proved to mean that for which it is produced : besides, one is sent from the Lord to Ahaz, swallowed up now both by sor- of De Rossi's MSS. reads bya be-álmaiv, the way of a
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Christ, why called
Emmanuel and Jesus, A. M. 160. and shall bring forth a
bring forth a son, and || as the angel of the Lord had bidden A. M. 4000. An. Olymp. they shall call his name Emmanuel, || him, and took unto him his wife : An. Olymps. which being interpreted is, God with 25 And knew her not till she had
brought forth her first-born son: and he called 24 Then Joseph, being raised from sleep, did his name JESUS.
* Or, his name shall be called.
• Exod. 13. 2. Luke 2, 7, 91.
strong, or stout, man (703 geber) IN HIS YOUTH; and in this And hence, the lext in Genesis speaks as fully of the reading the Syriac, Septuagint, Vulgate, and Arabic agree ; || virgin state of the person, from whom Christ, according to which are followed by the first version in the English language, | the flesh, should come, as that in the prophet, or this in the as it stands in a MS. in my own possession—the teie of Evangelist. According to the original promise, there was to a man in his waring youthe: so that this place, the only be a seed, a human being, who should destroy sin ; but this one that can with any probability of success, be produced, seed, or human being, must come from the woman ALONE ; were the interpretation contended for correct, which I am and no woman Alone, could produce such a human being, by no means disposed to admit, proves nothing. Besides, without being a virgin. Hence,. A virgin shall bear a son, is the consent of so many versions in the opposite meaning, de- || the very spirit and meaning of the original text, independprives it of much of its influence in this question.
antly of the illustratior given by the prophet : and the fact The word naby almah, comes from Sby alam, to lie hid, recorded by the Evangelist, is the proof of the whole. But be concealed; and we are told, that “virgins were so called, how could that be a sign to Ahaz, which was to take place so. because they were concealed or closely kept up in their fathers' || many hundred of years after? I answer, the meaning of the houses, till the time of their marriage." This is not correct : prophet is plain : not only Rezin and Pekah should be unsucsee the case of Rebecca, Gen. xxiv. 43. and my note there : cessful against Jerusalem at that time, which was the fact; but: that of Rachel, Gen. xxix. 6, 9. and the note there also : and | Jerusalem, Judea, and the house of David, should be both pre-see the case of Miriam, the sister of Moses, Exod. ii. 8. and served, notwithstanding their depressedl state, and the multialso the Chaldee paraphrase on Lam. i. 4. where the virgins tude of their adversaries, till the time should come, when a are represented as going out in the dance. And see also the VIRGIN should bear a son. This is a most remarkable circumwhole history of Ruth. This, being concealeil, or kept at home, stance—the house of David could never fail, till a virgin should on which so much stress is la d, is purely fancifal ; for we conceive and bear a son--nor did it : but when that incredible find, that young unmarried women drew water, kept sheep, and miraculous fact did take placė, the kingdom and house of gleaned publicly in the fields, &c. &c. and the same works David became extinct! This is an irrefragable confutation of they perform among the Turcomans to the present day. This | every argument a Jew can offer. in vindication of his opporeason, therefore, does not account for the radical meaning of sition to the gospel of Christ. Either the prophecy in Isaiahı the word ; and we must seek it elsewhere. Another well has been fulfilled, or the kingdom and house of David are yet known and often used root in the Hebrew longue, will cast standing. But the kingdom of David, we know, is destroyed : light on this subject. This is nba galah, which signifies to and where is the man, Jew or Gentile, that can shew us a teteal, make manifest, or uncover, and is often applied to ma- || single descendant of David, on the face of the earth? The trimonial connections, in different parts of the Mosaic law : prophecy could not fail—the kingdom and house of David sbg alam, therefore, may be considered as implying the con- have failed—the virgin, therefore, must have brought forth cealment of the virgin, as such, till lawful marriage had taken
Thus Moses, place. A virgin was not called. ngoby álmah, because she was Isaiah, and Matthew concur; and facts the most unequiconcealed by being kept at home in her father's house, which vocal, have confirmed the whole! Behold, the wisdom and is not true, but literally and physically, because, as a woman, providence of God! she had not been uncovered-she had not known man. This Notwithstanding what has been said above, it may be asked, fully applies to the blessed. virgin, see Luke i. 34. “ How can In what sense could this name Immanuel be applied to Jesus this be, seeing I know no man?” and this text throws much | Christ, if he be not truly and properly GOD? Could the Spirit light on the subject before us. This also is in perfect agree
of truth ever design that Christians should receive him as an anment with the ancient prophecy,
“ The seed of the woman gel or a mere man, and yet, in the very beginning of the gospel shall bruise the head of the 'serpent," Gen. iii. 15. for the history, apply a character to him, which belongs only to the Most person who was to destroy the work of the devil, was to be High God? Surely no. In what sense then, is Christ GOD WITH the progeny of the woman, without any concurrence of the us? Jesus is called Immanuel, or God with us, in his incur
Chapter the first
nation: --God united to our nature-God with man- —God in when he first began to shed that blood, without which there man.—God with us, by his continual protection.--God with || could be no remission of sins. us, by the influences of his Holy Spirit--in the holy sacrament, -in the preaching of his word--in private prayer. And God The goodncss of God is manifested, not only in his giving with us, through every action of our life, that we begin, con- his son to save a lost world; but also in the choice of the tinue, and end in his name. He is God with us, to comfort, || persons who were his progenitors : among whom we find, enlighten, protect, and defend us in every time of temptation First, Saints, to excite our conrage: Abraham, remarkable and trial, in the hour of death, in the day of judgment; and for his faith ; Isune, for his obedience; and Jacob, for his God with us, and in us, and we, with and in him, to all fervour and constancy. eternity.
Secondly, Penitent sinners, to excite our confidence : such Verse 25. Her first-born son] Toy vlov OUTNS TOY TEWTOTOKOY. as David, Manasses, &c. Literally, That son of her's, the first-born one. That Mary Thirdly, Sinners, of whose repentance and salvation we might have had other children, any person may reasonably hear nothing ; to put us on our gnard. Who can read the and piously believe ; that she had others, many think exceed- | account of idolatrous Solomon, who, from the whole eviingly probable, and that this text is at least an indirect proof dence of the sacred history, died in his sins, without of it. However this may be, the perpetual virginity of Mary trembling ? should not be made an article of faith. God has not made it Four women are mentioned in this genealogy : two of these one-indeed it can hardly bear the light of several texts in were adulteresscs, Tamar and Bathsheba ; and two were Genthe Gospels.
tiles, Rahab and Ruth, and strangers to the covenant of proHe knew her not] Had no matrimonial intercourse with mise; to teach us, that Jesus Christ came to save sinners; and her-Till she had brought forth that son of her's, of whom that though strangers to his people, we are not on that account, the Evangelist had been just speaking, the first-born, the || excluded from a salvation which God has designed for all men, eldest of the family, to whom the birth-right belonged, and He is not the God of the Jews only; he is also the God of the who was miraculously born before she knew any man, be- || Gentiles. ing yet in a state of virginity. See on chap. xiii. 55. The The state of the royal family of David, the circumstances virginity of Mary, previously to the birth of Christ, is an of the holy virgin and her spouse Joseph, the very remarkarticle of the utmost consequence to the Christian system ; | able prophecy of Isaiah, the literal and circumstantial fuland therefore it is an article of faith : her perpetual virginity filment of it, the games given to our blessed Lord; the geneais of no consequence; and the learned labour spent to prove it, | logical scroll of the family, &c. &c. are all so many proofs has produced a mere castle in the air. The thing is possible; of the wisdom, goodness, and providence of God. Every but it never has been, and never can be proced.
occurrence seems, at first view, to be abandoned to fortu. He called his name JESUS.) This name was given by the itous influence, and yet the result of each, shews, that God command of God, see ver. 16. and was imposed on Christ | managed the whole. These circumstances are of the greatwhen eight days old ; for then, according to the Jewish law, est importance; nor can the Christian Reader reflect on he was circumcised : thus he had the name of Saviour given, | them without an increase of his faith and his picty.
CHAPTER II. Mise men come from the East to worship Christ, 1, 2. Ierod, hearing of the birth of our Lord, is greatly
troubled, 3; and makes enquiry of the chief priests and scribes, where the Christ should be born, 4. They infarul him of the prophecy relative to Bethlehem, 5, 6. The wise men, going to Bethlehem, are desired by Herod to bring him word when they have found the child, pretending that he wished to do him homage, 7, 8. The wise men are directed by a star to the place where the young child lay, adare him, and offer him gifts, 9-all. Being warned of God uot to return to Herod, they depart into their own country another way, 12. Joseph and Mary are divinely warned to escape into Egypt, becanse IIerod sought to destroy Jesus, *13, 14. They obey, and continue in Egypt till the death of Herod, 15. Ilerod finding that the wise men did not return, is enraged, and orders all the young children in Bethlehem, under two years of age, to be massacred, 16—!8. Ierod dies, and Joseph is divinely warned to return to the land of Israel, 19–21. Finding that Archelaus reigned in Judea in place of his father Herod, he goes to Galilee, and takes up his residence at Nazareth, 22, 23.