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warm corners and dark recesses of Milford, as a trophy of that everbuildings, and survive our coldest memorable action. This groupe is winters ; and are, at the opening of surmounted upon a pedestal of stacach spriog, the prolific 'parents of tuary marble. A circular form has our numerous swarins, which, though been selected as best adapted to the in

some instances annoying and situation. troublesome, are needful in the scale ; To personify that affectionate reand their busy hum, in the shady co- gard which caused the present patriverts of woods and green hedges, is a

otic tribute to be raised, the Town of pleasing accompaniment of the varied Birminghans, murally crowned, in a sounds and circumstances of an au- dejected attitude, is represented tumnal evening's walk.

mourning her loss.

She is accomOf Swallows much has been said and panied by groupes of Genii, or Chil. written ; little doubt remains of their dren, in allusion to the rising race, annual migration, exceptiog a few in

who offer her consolation by bring. stances of late batches.' On the 30th ing her trident and rudder.' lu the of March last, mid-day, I observed a front of the pedestal is an inscription. single house martio,hawking apparent- (See Plate 11.) ly after its prey, ra her irregular in its Yours, &c. JOSEPH WILDAY. motions—a moist gloomy day, moderate in temperature; this was in Nor

Mr. URBAN, Chelsea, May 3. bury Park, near Box-bill, Surrey.

OGER ASCHAM was born at Yours, &c.

R. C.

Kirby-weik in the county of York, and was buried in St. Sepulchre's

church in London. His wife, whose Mr. URBAN, Birmingham, Jan.l. maiden name was How, is also interINGLOsepedto the chemorth of the red there becues to be a bit memono moimmortal Nelson, in the centre of

In answer to your Correspondent B. the market-place of this town, exe- Stephen Gardiner was supposed to cuted in bronze, by Westmacott, a be the illegitimate son of Dr. Lionel statuary of the first eminence. For Woodville, Bishop of Salisbury, brothis patriotic testimony of grateful ther to Elizabeth, Edward the Fourth's veneration, a subscription of up- Queen ; he went by the name of Stewards of 30001. was raised among the phens till after he became Bishop of inhabitants, at the period when the Winchester, when he assumed the glorious victory of Trafalgar animat

arms and naine of bis reputed father ed the breast of every Briton with joy (Gardiner), whom his mother niarried, and gratitude.

though in a menial situacion, to conTo this work, intended to perpetu- ceai the incontinence of the bishop, ate the greatest example of Naval He is said to have died abo ye half a genius, Simplicity has been the Protestant, though the promoter, if chirf object in the arrangement. The not abettor, of the many and cruel Hero is represented in a reposed and sanguinary acts in the reign of Queen dignified attitude, the left arm reclin

Mary. ed upon an anchor. He appears in a He died at Whitehallof thegout,and costume of his country, invested with

we must suppose unmarried, since he the insignia of those honours by which refused to subscribe to the lawfulness his Sovereign and distant Princes dis- of clergymen's marriage, when urged tinguished him. To the right of the

so to do with other articics by the Statue is introduced the grand symbol Lord Protector, afer two years conof the Naval profession : Victory, the finement in the Tower. constant leader of her favourite Hero,

A ConsȚANT READER. embellishes the prow. To the left is disposed a sail, which, passing behind the statue, gives breadth to that view “ Ætas parentum pejor avis tulit of the composition. Above the ship

Nos nequiores, mox daturos is the fac-simile of the Flag Staff

Progeniem vitiosiorem,"--Hor. truck of the l'Orient, tished up by Mr. URBAN,

April 15. Sir K. Hood the day following the F4wy, in a greater or less degree, battle of the Nile, presented by him to Lord Nelson, and now deposited at bolds powerful sway; but in none perGent. Mag. May, 1812,

haps

haps is it listened to with more reve scale of wisdom and morality. But rence than in our own; for here the this is not the worst of the maiter; we fickle goddess is attended with a pu are not considered inen of spirit unmerous train of iofatuated votaries, less we bet, learn the slaug, and be who wait but to obey the mandates of able to “mill, fih, or give a cross buther will, and though they be ever so tock,” with the best of them, and in absurd, they are received with joy, and time this disgraceful mania grows on performed wilh alacrity. And were us, we neglect our occupations, and she salisfied in making us " the go, become associated with some of the the gape, the stare, the gaze" of the most worthless of society. multitude, by the singularity of our As some proof ihat these are some appearance, or the notoriety of our thing more than bare assertions, I have manners, way, even did she allow us to

to relate, that the swarthy champion be sincere though servile imitators of of Pugilism, Molyneux, and the spar. our stage coachmen in dress, and of ring Powers, have been exbibiting the our stable-boys in language, no great noble art of self defence, as they term harm would be done ; inasmuch as it, in Salisbury and its vicinity; the conwe should then be but our own dupes, sequence of which bas been that not a and the irumpeters of our own folly, night elapsed, but the house the and serve but to sbew the frivolity of champions took up as their abode, the times in which we live, and “ How arts increase in this degenerate levee had been held there, and happy

was besieged as though the Regent's age,

[the stage,

and proud was that man, who had Peers mount the box, and horses tread Whilst waltzing females, with unblushing

the honour of sparring with these

men of wonder and admiration ; pay face, Disdain to dance but in a man's em

not even the Persian ambassador brace."

SHERIDAN.

himself had more respect shewn him,

ihan have these fashionable nuisances. But pow-a-days,and I glow with shame as I record it, Fashion has conspired The result of all this has been, and with Folly in making us brutish and

will be, the neglect of business; every cruel-I am alluding to the rage for

one, in the hopes of becoming an amaraces against time, and the disgrace- teur, has become a bruiser, and the ful mania for boxing matches." The glovers have already reaped a golden first may be very fairly classed as a

harvest, through the foily of their species of cool and deliberativecruelty,

townsen, in supplying the numeand to serve the worst of. purposes,

rous demands for those necessary avarice and pride. When we are stak. badges of the art, Boxing-gloves. ing large sums on the speed of our

Surely then it will not now be urghorse, and back him to go a distance

ed that this is an amusement worthy greater than nature can sustain ; does

of Englishmen, or that it becomes us it not shew a mind devoid of the feel

to patronize that as a manly and useing of humanity, which bliudly sacriful science, which undoubtedly shews fices the life of au useful animal (for

the depravity of our taste, or to enthey frequently have died in the trial) courage that as useful which will as for the petty pride of proving he is undoubtedly prove a misfortune. fleet of' foot, and of filling your

I have, I perceive, now to beg parpo kets with the gold his exertions don to a numerous party of the sons have earned for you.

“ 'The butcher

of Folly, whom I have passed by withrelenteth not at the bleating of the

out mention ; I allude to the Don lamb; neither is the heart of the Whiskerandos of the day; but as sicruel moved with pity."-But the

lence has ever been a mark of conboxing m:nia is, if poss ble, wore dis- tempt, and as they have very lately graceful, and more dangerous in its

sustained a defeat in losing their leaconsequences. When wt not only

der Baron Geramb, I will not uow toleraie, but with feelings of delight glory over their misfortunes — sed gu aliy distance to behold, two cham tamen in pretio-as they still have a pions of the fistic art, bruise eacı other value in serving as land-inarks to with the inveteracy of sworn foes,

warı, the upwary to steur clear of the we cannot say much for our taste;

shoals of folly, foppery, and impubut, on the contrary, cannot lut allow

dence. it to be sunk very, very low, in the

Yours, &c.

OBSERVATOR.

LETTER

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LETTER IV:on ACOUSTICS. this appellation, because it contains Addressed to Mr. ALEXANDER, Dur a greater number of tones gia the oc

ham-place, West Hackney. tave than the Chromatic, which proIN

ou Experimental Philosophy, the and a minor third; or the Embarinolecturer illustrates his principles by nic, which consisted of three dreses example. 'Words .convey a very in or quarter tones, after a wide gap, to adequate idea of the sensation expe a similar arrangement. rienc d by an electric shuck: and in The modern Diatonic scale conMusick, to give one, who has never sists of the elements (or component heard the result, any clear idea of the parts) tone greater, tone less, and effect of an interval a comma out of semitone. It is the collocation of tune, is impossible. Wishing, there the two semitones in the octave fore, to unite practice with theory, I which constitutes the mode of the would advise

yoll,
before

you read the key; that is, whether it is a major or observations I am going to offer on minor key ; in other words, a key the diatonic scale, to tune fifteen with a major or minor third. notes of your piano forte, by making In perfect tune, or the Diatonic the chords of C, F, G, with a major Scale perfectly in tune, there is no third, perfect; and comparing, dur- such thing as a semitone ;

ecause ing the process of tuning, the inter-14, the ratio of the semitone, is neither vals with each other ; and tune the re the half of tone grcater, the ratio of maining notes of the scale to the which is , or tone less, the ratio of notes already obtained. This will an which is 4* swer a valuable purpose; because, But, as you, Sir, are not a Mathemawhen you come afterwards to alter tician; before we proceed, I will again the arrangement of the intervals, or advert to ratio or proportion. change the pitch of a string previously I said above that the ratio of tone tuned, you will hear how much it de- greater was . Now if in the same viates from the pitch required; and time that the lower sound makes 8 thus be convinced, for example, that vibrations, the upper sound makes 9 if A vibrates only 400 times in a se- vibrations, these sounds will be in the cond as major sixth above C, and ratio of 8 to 9. must-vibrate 405 times to make a per The Diatonic major scale requires fect fifth above D, how very great an

the following arrangement of the alteratiou is produced in pitch by so tones greater and lesser and semismall an increase of vibrations, as the tones. The upper line gives the proadding of 5 to 400.

portional length of a string, and the Of the Diatonic Scale.

lower the vibrations of each interyal, The scale called by the Greeks the assuming 240 vibrations for C, at * Diatonic Scale, probably received concert pitch.

}
Ć D

A
B

с
Кеу Tone Tone Sem. Tone Tone Sem. Octave
Note Grea'er Lesser

Greater Lesser 240 270 300 320 360 400 450 480 Now suppose, instead of taking the fraction) into each other, and multithird tone less from the second of the plying the denominators (or lower key, we take it tune greater; see figures of the fractiov) into each what will be the consequence.

others x = Now does uot I must observe, Sir, by the way, equal $, the ratio of C major third. It that the addition of musical intervals must, therefore, be greater or less. is effected by multiplying the nuine The difference is found by substrace rators (that is, the upper figures of the tion; and substraction of musical in

* It hath long since been demonstrated, that there is no such thing as a just hemitone practicable in musick, and the like for the division of a tone into any - number of equal parts; three, four, or more. For, supposing the proportion of a tone to be as 9 to 8, the half of that note must be as 9 to the ✓8, that is, as 3 to 8, or as 3 to ✓2, which are incommensurable quantities; and that of a quarter note V9 to V8, which is more incommensurate; and the like for any number of equal parts; which will never fall in with the proportions of number to number. Smith's Harmonics.

tervals

8 15

tervals is performed by division Mr. URBAN, Bath, April 6. of the ratio which HASubscriptions to a proposed reduced to its lowest terms gives ff Two tones greater, therefore, Translation of Strabo, I think it canexceed a perfect major third by did to acquaint any literary person, the ratio i, a deviation from perfect who may be disposed to undertake an tune exceedingly offensive to a mo English version of the Geography of derately correct ear.

Strabo, that I lately committed to the But this famous comma is of too flames the whole of my

labours; and, much importance to be passed over therefore, the enterprize is again open without explanation.

Indeed you

to any adventurer. I add, also, that will hereafter find that the tempera- my late accomplished friend, Dr. Leyment of the musical scale is mea den, had translated several books of sured by fractions of this interval. Strabo, of which he gave me a list,

If in the same time as a second for distinguishing them into those written instance, the lower sound 'makes 80 vin in short hand, and those written at brations, the upper sound makes 81, or length. I never, however, saw any vice versa, these two sounds are a part of Dr. Leyden's translation. comma out of tune. One of them is Yours, &c. Thos. FALCONER, a comma sharper than the other, and consequently they are not unisons. Mr. URBAN,

May 1. But to relurn to the Diatonic scale Mucited by the disputes between Now the seven liotes in the Diatonic scale are noi in tune with respect to Churchmen and Methodists. No each other. The fourth, though it is doubt the progress of the latter is perfectly in tune with the key note, more extensive than any friend of the is not in tune with the second of the Establishment can approve; but I key ; and the second of the key is not wish it to be candidly considered, in tune with the sixth of the key. whether we ourselves (I speak as a

We will prove this. The fourth of Minister of the Establishment) are enthe key makes a minor third to the tirely free from blame in this matter? second of the key. Now the ratio of Let us examine, for a moment, how a minor third is . And the vibra we stand in the affair. tious of D were 270 ; of 270 = 324 : We are already in possession of the but the vibrations of P were only ground, as Defenders of the Faith; and 320 ; consequently they are not quick have the Scriptures, I think, in oor enough to give a perfect minor third favour. The people, for the most above D. 320. 324 : ; 80: 81. To part, are born and brought up in the he read thus : as 320 is to 324: : so is bosom of the Church. Their tenden80 . 81. D and F, the second and cies, and first impressions, are favourfourth of the key, are a comma tou able to the Church, and to her Minisflat.

ters. We have the advantage of edu. Let us try the second and sixth of cation and connexions on our side, of the key, riž. Đ and A. The vibrations property and consideration in the of D are 270. } of 270 are 405. But State. the vibrations of A in the Diatonic Whence then, I ask, does it arise, scale are only 400. 400: 405 :: 80.81. that, with these advantages, so many, A, therefore, is a comma too flat for particularly among the lower classes, D. Hence it frillows that the Dia. fall off from the Church: The love tonic scale, for perfect tune, requires of novelty, although a strong princinine instead of serien sounds in the ple of action, can scarcely be a cause octave. The voice and instruments adequate to such an effect. Besides, capable of altering the pitch of sounds if novelty were the principal cause, at pleasure, make such alterations as that cause must every day decrcase. may occasionally be requisite. But In my opinion, the Methodists, as a in instruments of fixed sounds, as the sect, arc an inconvenience naturally organ and piano forte, no such requi- arising out of the relaxed state of dissite alterations for perfect tune can cipline amongst ourselves ; and until take place ; hence the necessity for a that can be corrected, in all probabitemperament: a subject hereafter to lity the evil will increase rather than be discussed.

diminish. Yours, &c. C. J. S. Non-residence amongst the Paro

a new one.

chial Clergy is, I apprehend, a leading come now to that which I have cause of the increase of the Metho- chiefly in view in this address,-namedists. And I am confirmed in this ly, to shew the absolute pecessity of opinion from observing, that in those Residence, and in what mánger it may Country Parishes where the Minister best be effected. is resident and active amongst his It is admitted universally, I believe, people, the Methodists rarely attain that many evils result to the Church to such influence, as to become for- from Non-residence; and if there be midable to the Church.

that intimate union that is generally The lower classes of the people, supposed to exist between Church Mr. Urban, are not insensible to the and State, many evils must result to attentions of their Minister, nor un the State also. The root of the mis. grateful for them. If he reside among chief, however, lies deep; for, in conihem, and is punctual in discharging sequence of a long neglect of resithe duties of his Church ; if he pay dence, in many parishes ihere is not them occasional visits of friendship, at even the vestige of a Parsonagetheir houses, and enter into religious house ; in others, the Parsonageconversation with them; if he attend house is so dilapidated and ruinous, their sick, and shew a disposition to that it would take nearly as much assist them in their temporal as well money to put it in repair, as to build as spiritual necessities; if he catechise

Without houses then to their children ; send soine of them to live in, and without money to build school, according to his ability; and for to repair, which I believe to be the prevail with his more opulent parish case with many of the Parochial ioners to assist in sending others; the Clergy; how are the Incumbeuts to Minister of a parish so treated, need reside? not be afraid of Methodism*, nor any It may be said, perhaps, that the other species of religious dissent. Incumbent can borrow for this pur

All this, you will say, is nothing 'pose on the living, and pay by instal. more than our duty; and nothing menis. more, I am persuaded, than '

numbers But this method has already been of our brethern would gladly perform, tried, and found to be nearly impracif they had it in their power ; I will ticable. Few people chose to lend also add that it is nothing more than their money on such terms; and few was originally intended, when Parishes incumbents can afford to draw so were first set out, and liberally en- largely from their incomes, without dowed with Tithes and Glebes. But distressing both themselves and fami. how, I ask, is all this to be performed lies. Again, the evil of Non-residence by a Clergyman, even with the best is urgent, and becomes every day intentions, residing at a distance from more apparent, whilst the remedy of his Parish ?

building, in this way, is slow; and at I am so thoroughly convinced of best uncertain. the necessity of a more general Resi I shall offer no apology, therefore, dence of the Clergy in their respec. for considering this as a question in tive Parishes, in the present state of which the publick bave an interest ; things, that, without it, all the Socie- and that it ought to be argued on pubties we can form for preventing defec- lic grounds. tion from the Church (not excepting If we wait till the Parochial Clergy the Society for the Education of the can build or repair Parsonage-houses Poor in the principles of the Esta on an extended scale, I am afraid we blishment, which I think by far the must wait ad Græcas Kalendas ; best) will, I fear, fall short of their and shall never obtain Residence ; and object. Such Societies may be power without Residence there are many ful allies in this a good fight of faith;” and encreasing dangers, to which our but they are weak principais.

Establishment is exposed. Having made these observations, I In this state of the question, I sec * When I speak of the effects of Residence, in counteracting the attempts of the Methodists ; 1 allude principaliy to Country Parishes'; and suppose that the mindo of the lower classes have not previously been bias-ed against the Church. In popu. lous Parishes, where there are a variety of interests; or in smaller Parishes, where the Methodists have already obtained a footing; no doubt the difficulty is increased to the Minister. Yet even here, Activity, combined with Residence, would operate 28 a powerful check.

but

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