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that the country at large may, in con “The Dutch, whose bankrupt laws, sequence, not long hence experience are the best calculated in Europe, disthe beneficial effects of their united tinguish bankrupts into four classes. wisdom thereon, through the power. The first, thuse who have failed through ful sanction of some strict and whole- real misfortune in trade, or the failures some law which shall be enacted for of others; the second, such as have shut the above purposes; I beg, by your the third, those who have run

up through weakness and imprudence ; kind leave, Sir, through the medium through extravagance ; and the fourth of any future page, that you may

class are the fraudulent bankrupts, who, have to indulge me with in your widely-circulated Miscellany, inost selves."

as the phrase is, break to make them

These four kinds meet with heartily to second the motion of your very different treatment: the persons who Correspondent Philopatriæ on this cari prove their integrity and their mise public concern, by adding to his own fortune, are constantly restored by their remarks thereon, a short sketch or creditors; those who have acted honestdefinition of the classification of ly but imprudently, either by trading bankrupts, if I may be permitted to beyond their capital, or by giving in, make use of such an expression on proper credit, are adinonished, advised, this occasion, under the existing laws

and set up again in a lower degree, till in Holland, antecedently to the dread their industry advances them; the third ful overthrow of the old constitution class, who, though fair dealers, have of that ill-fated country, which has fixed proportionable term as a puniski

lived extravagantly, are imprisoned for a since, unfortunately, been carried into

ment; and those convicted of fraud, are effect through the irresistible force of condemned to death.” that accursed and all-devouring revo

Buth Herald, May 11th, 1793. lutionary system of French tyranny

Yours, &c. and usurpation, under the vexatious TUOMAS ABRAHAM SALMON. and almost insupportable burden of whose galling and cruel chains, the Mr. URBAN,

March 2. whole continent of Europe, more especially, has for so many years past I SHOULD be much gratified if any of

your numerousReaders would give groaned and been hopelessly tormento, me their sentiinents on the following ed! The skeich alluded to, is taken subject ; viz. in what places do Birds from a fragment of an old newspaper usually die, and what become of the which I have now before me; and bodies of such as die every ycar in a Philopatriæ in particular will, no natural way? doubi, be pleased to find, when he

The question at first sight may apcomes to see it, that the mode of dis

pear puerile; and many will answer, tinction contaived in it, in regard to that as they must die, so they must the differeut specification of bauk- of necessity' decay in common with all rupts, and the consequent treatment the otherworks of Nature. No ouc which each separate class amongst will doubt the truth of this assertion; them respectively received, which was but it is not a sufficient answer to the always in proportion to the real ua- inquirer iuto Nature, and it would be ture and quality, as well as certain satisfactory to have some informaineasure and magnitude of either their tion relative lo the particular places misfortunes or their crimes, as might, in which they perish. Eagles, hawks, jo each individual instance, happen to and others of the larger tribes whose turn out to be the case, falls in ex- period of life is raiber extended, do actly with his owu praise-worthy sen not increase in a great degree ; but of, timents on the subject, and actually the smaller genera the increase is imexhibits, io its executive form, a most

mense ; of course we may inier that complete and perfect model, or, more the annual waste is proportionate; properly speaking, a most complete and yet I never, in my walks or rides, and perfeci precedent, in the legiti. in winter and summer, through every mate and undeniable practice of a description of country, recollect to foreign country in the purest times of have found the body of one single its civilization, of the very plau which bird, which i could suppose diod he himself seems so anxious to have through age orany other natural cause established here, under the authority of death, although such a thing has of the Legislature of our own land. It long been the object of iny search, is as follows:

lo ii that birds are composed of inato.

rials so fragile, that when the spark cacies. Shakspeare playfully gives of bte is extinct, the bodies instantly precisely the same definition : fall to atoms? or are they as quickly

Kate, the prettiest Kate in' devoured by the large birds of prey Christendom,

[Kate, or vermin? On the whole, I am dis Kate of Kate-Hall, my super-dainty posed to think that birds have some For dainties are all Cates secret recesses to which Nature di

Taming of the Shrew. rects them when their dissolution ap I am informed that the words cates proaches, such indeed as seem to baf and acates, perhaps from the French fle our keenest observation.

achat, frequently occur in house acThere is in the East Indies a bird counts of the sixteenth century; and called the Adjutant bi: d, of which de- uniformly distinguish, in such acscription numbers come down every counts, the provisions purchased, day, to all appearance from the sky, among which we may presume to who feed on the meat and offal that is class delicacies or dainlies, from such dailythrown awayby Europeans, in con as were the immediate produce of sequence of the religious notions of the the farm. It does not tben seem natives forbidding them to touch it; reasonable to infer that the adage in when hunger is satisfied, they ascend, question has any relation to eate or and are lost in height, till the calls of cake, or other omelette fried and nature bring them again to the spot turned in a pan.” Proverbial sayings, on the succeeding day. Where the generally speaking, took their rise Adjutant bird comes from, breeds, or from circumstances and occurrences of its natural history, nothing is familiar to those in the lower stations known, nor is it likely we ever shall of life; from common objects, and know, as investigation is attended not from the habits or customs of the there with great difficulty and danger. few in the higher ranks of society, Even in England we may never be able How then is it probable that one of to determine the questionable migra our most common sayings should tion of Swallows, or the disappear allude to a practice, of which the ance of Flies.

great majority of mankind, in all Yours, &c.

JOHANNES ages, may with reason be supposed to

be ignorant? that is to say, the method Mr. URBAN,

Cuckney, Notts. of dressing certain delicacies for the
Feb. 15.

tables of the great. <<

S busy as the Devil in a bigh ber last, page 505) is an adage of pro to shew, that before the invention of bably much greater antiquity than gunpowder, offending dogs as well as the legend of Saint Michael, and origi- cats were customarily destroyed by nated in the generally-received opi- suspension. Since the invention of nion of the Devil being the author of gunpowder, another engine of deall mischief.

struction has superseded the cord of The proverbial saying to turn cat band; and notwithstanding the pracin band, (see Vol. XXIV. pp. 66, tice of shooting the cat * is doubtless 172, 212, and LIII. pp. 926, 928,) has of high antiquity, yet the proverb hitherto been “ obscured by the cor now under discussion did evidently rupt pronunciation” of pan for band; take its rise from the punishment inand notwithstanding, much reading flicted by hanging, as a cat when susand some ingenuity have been exhi- pended by the neck in a band twirls bited by your old Correspondent, in about, and from its rotary motion support of the text to turn cat in pan, and gesticulation, requires, it is said, yet the attempt to prove that cat is more space when undergoing this opea corruption of cate, and that cate is ration of strangulation, than perhaps

an old word for a cake or other any other animal of the same size. omelette usually fried, and conse Swingt and hang are synonymous quently turned in the pan,is very terms; hence the origin of another far from being satisfactory. Indeed, old saying; serving to elucidate it is afterwards observed by the same and confirm the true reading of respectable writer, that “cate is no other but the last syllable of the word * See Grose's Dictionary. delicate, and that cates, signify deli

* Ibid,


A vindals er et go for Decent him, is another old saying, and tends

the proverb in question ; speaking, in and exactly North. What are genederision, of a place of small extent, rally called the Northern powers, even we say there is not room to swing a supposing them included in the procat, meaning there is not room to phecy, are in regard to France hang a cat, or for a cat to turn in North East. Russia indeed, whatever band. JAMES DOWLAND. the situation of its capital, is decid

edly East. Great Britain then inay,

or must, be the king of the North, Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 20.

who, in alliance with the Spanish THE following observations seem kingdom of the South, comes against

to myself interesting ; they are the king, with the usual implements part of what may one day be offered of powerful war, and especially with to the world under the title of “ Eng.

many ships. This last is a very strikland safe and triumphant!"... The at- ing characteristick. The Northern tacks of the most rigid critical exa kingdom, unlike the foe,or the Southmination are not only not deprecated, ernally,

ern ally, is eminently maritime. If but invited.

this be, or be near, the time of the end, I conceive that we live in the time

Britain must be the Northern king; for of the end ;” as I shall largely set forth what other European power, or what on some future occasion. Daniel other power in the world, has,or is likegives us some of the events of the ly to have, I do not say a navy, but a time of the end. Let us, therefore, solitary ileet of ships of war? The king take one remarkable verse of Daniel of the South butts at him. This warxi, assuming what Mr. Faber has fare has been shewn to be very chaably proved ; that the king, who does racteristic; but it is as much so that according to his will, symbolizes the the far more formidable Northern ally new dignity and kingdom of France. comes from a distance against the

“And at the time of the end shall the king to aid the butting in the South. king of the South push at him, and the Except in the puny attempt to avail king of the North shall come against himself of our Irish dissensions, the him like a whirlwind with chariots, and king has never attacked Britain. In with horsemen, and with many ships.” what corner of the world has not

I do not intend a critical disquin Britain come against the king? The sition upon this verse, I shall not ob four quarters of the world have been serve more upon the chariots, than at once the stages of our attack upon that they were the most deadly ma the king. By land and by sea, with chines of antient war, and of course chariots and horsemen, and with many representative of modern.

ships, Britain has attacked him like a As France is the king; which coun whirlwind. try in relation to France is the king Need I then say that France is inof the South ? Italy and Spain are deed a power too worthy of the einithe only countries in Europe, and we nent title of the king ? or that Spain can scarce look across the Mediterra has already butted at him, and is at nean for effective hostility to France, this moment butting? France has The choice then lies between Spain had abundant cause to rue these reand Italy; but Italy is much rather to peated desultory acts of most dethe East than South of France, where structive hostility. Without one grand as Spain is every where decidedly and conclusive effort, in every corner of exactly South. This kingdom of the Peninsula they have butted and Spain is then, at some not distant are butting at him. In strictest alliperiod, to push or butt at him; and ance with the South, we see at this the word seems to imply repeated de moment the far more formidable sultory acts of hostility, rather than British empire of the North. There one great blow and a cessation. is scarce a ship of war upon the wa

As the prophet immediately con-' ters of the whole globe which is tinues that the king of the North not British ; and these floating casshould come against him, there is an tles, these many ships, having always implied league and confederacy be borne the arms of Britain to certain tween these kings of the South and victory in every corner of the world, the far more formidable North against have conveyed our never-conquered the king. The North, in reference to armies to meet the enemy in the PenFrance, must be Great Britain, purely insula of the South. Thus has Britain


come against him like a whirlwind. the unconquerable perseverance of However barren the laurels, laurels the Spaniards, their unextinguishable have been always gained.

hatred of the oppressors, and the unThat this singular and most de- abated magnaniniity which they have structive war against the king, is more hitherto displayed amidst so many worthy of prophetical notice than melancholy reverses of fortune, afford other attacks which bave been made

us strong hope that their efforts will upon him, may already appear. Arnıy not be in vain.". after army have been swallowed up Unless, Mr. Urban, some of your in it, and buman foresight discerns no. Correspondents can convince me of probable termination. If nothing error, i may on some future occasion else, its length has already given it a follow up the further forluues of peculiar importance, and every month Daniel's Infidel King. adds to the amount. Neither is it

C. N. CANTABRIGIENSIS. clear that a revealed liinit is affixed to its continuance. We may alnjost, indeed, conjecture that the ibeme of the Mr.URBAN, Cumbridge, Jan, 4. next verse, bis entrance also into the The following extract will give glorious land, is not altogether succes

, , sive to the Spanish war. The turu of Readers, and great pleasure to R. S. expression at least admits the entrance

ON ARMORIES. mto Judea, if such be the glorious “ - Armes, as en signes of honour laud, u biletbe Southern and Northern among military men, in the generall sig powers are united against him in the nification, have been as anciently used Peninsula, flie countries and kingdoms in this realme as in any other; for, as of which he has entered and cover necessitie bred the use of them in maflowed and passed over.

It should naging of militarie affaires, for order and be observed that as the king of the distinction both of whole companies and North comes against him, it is not the particular persons amongst other nacountries of the Northern hing which tions, that their valour might thereby are to be passed over, but the coun.

bee more conspicuous to others; liketries which the Northern king would

wise no doubt among the inhabitants of defend. The very specification of the martiall as any other people whatsoever.

this island, who alwayes have been as entrance may be expressive; for it is in so much, unlesse we would conceive certain that either the British or their hardly of our own progenitors, we cannot allies might have seized the passes of thinke but that in martiall services they the Pyrenees, so as in all huinan ap- had their conceit sin their ensignes, both pearance to have precluded an ci for distinction, direction, and decency. trance. This, however, may rather “ He that would show variety of readbe in the fact than the prophecy. ing in this argument, might note out of The entrance may rather be the tak the sacred Scripture, that every tribe of ing possession. Whether this entrance Israel pitched under their own standard ; and overflowing and overpassing be

out of prophane authors, that the Camore than temporary; is perhaps left rians who were the first mercenarie souldoubtful by the Prophet. I do not diers, first also bare markes in their feel confident that they signify a final shields; that the Lacedemonians bare

the Greek letter ^, the Messenians and complete subjugation. All the

M, &c. . prophecy seems already fulfilled.

“But to come home, some give the They have entered, overflowed, pass- first honour of the invention of the ed over, and yet Spaio is unsubdued armories in this part of the world to the as at the first butting. The waters ancient Picts and Britans, who, going overflow, pass over; perhaps they do naked to the wars, adorned their bodies not seltle on the land. “ It is true,” with figures and blazons of divers says the writer of one of our daily colours, which they conjecture to have papers," he has over-sun a large tract beene severall for particular families, as of territory; but as fast as he has ad- they fought divided by kindreds *. vanced, the ground he has left behind

«i When this isle was under the comhim has reverted to its former owners,

mand of the Romans, their troupes and and must be re-conquered before it can

bands had their severall signes. As the

Britanniciani in their shield a carbuncle, be said to belong to France."

Britannici a plat party per saltier. Sta“We will not pretend to say what may be the ultimate issue of the struggle in the Peninsula ; but surely * Nutitia Provinciarum,


dlesiani a plate within an annulet, Se- lissimo cuique ademit, Torquato torcundani an annulet upon a crosse. For quem; Cincinnato, crinem." And that particular persons among the Grecians, the house of Flavia was obscure, “ sine Ulysses bare in his shield a dolphin; ullis armorum imaginibus." among the Romans, Julius Cæsar the “ Whatsoever some discourse out of head of Venus; Crixus, a French cap the king's seales of hereditary armes in taine, a man weighing gold; a Sagun, England, certaine it is, that the lyons tine Spaniard, an hundred snakes; so I were the armes of our kings in the time onely reade among the Britans that the of Henry the First. For John of Marvictorious Arthur bare Our Lady in his monstier in Touraine, who then lived, shield, which I doe the rather remember, - recordeth that when the sayd king for that Nennius, who lived not long chose Geffray son of Foulk Earle of after, recordeth the same..

Anjou, Tourain, and Maine, to be his “In the Saxon Heptarchie, I find lit sonne in law, by marrying to him his tle noted of armes, albeit the Germans onely daughter and heyre Mawde, and of whom they descended used shields, as made him knight, after the bathing and Tacitus* saith, “ colore sucata" (scuta other soleion rites, bootes embroidered lectissimis coloribus distinguunt) which with golden lyons were drawne on his I know not whether I may call armes or legs, and a shield with golden lyons no; neither know I whether I may re therein hung about his necke, ferre bither out of Beda, how Edwin “ That king Richard the First his king of Northumberland had alwaies an grand-childe bare lyons, appeareth by ensigne carried before him, called in his seale, as also by his verses in PhilipEnglish a Tuffe, which Vigetius reckon peidos, uttered in the person of Monsieur eth among military ensignes; or how William de Barr * ready to encounter king Oswald had a banneroll of gold and Richard, when as yet hee was but Earle purple interwoven palie or bendie, sct of Poictou : over his tombe at Beardney Abbey; or “ Ecce comes Pictavus agro nos provohow Cuthred king of Westsex bare in

cat, ecce

[Leonum. his banner a goldexi dragon at the bat- Nos ad bella vocat; rictus agnosco taill of Bureford, as Hoveden noteth; Illius in clypeo, stat ibi quasi ferrea as the Danes bare in their standard a


(protervo." raven, as Asserius reporteth.

Francorum nomen blasphemans “ Hitherto of Arnies in the generall “ It is clear also by that author, that signification ; now somewhat of them in Arundell bare then swallowes in his the restrict signification, as wee define, shield, as his posterity in Cornwall doe or rather describe them, yiz. That


at this day. For of him he writeth, when armes are ensignes of honour borne in he was upon the shocke with the said banners, shields, coates, for notice and William de Barr; distinction of families one from the

“ Vidit hirundela velocior alite quæ dat other, and descendable as bereditary to

Hoc agnomen ei, fert cujus in ægide posterity.


(nitenti, “ Here might divers enquiries be made when they began to be hereditary, which Quein sibi Guillelmus læpå prætenderat

Se rapit agminibus mediis clypeoque was very anciently, if we relie upon the


hastam." Poet's credit. For to uverpasse other; Immergit validam præacutæ cuspidis Virgil saith that Aventinus Hercules'

« About this time the estimation of sonneb are an hundred snakes, his father's

armes began in the expeditions to the

Holy Land, and afterwards by little and “ Clypeoque insigne paternum, little becaine hereditary, when it was Centum angues, einctamque gerit ser

accounted most honorable to carry pentibus hydram."

those armes which had been displayed in “ Also whether some t have aptly the Holy Land, in that holy service applied this verse of Lncretius [lib. V. against the professed enemies of Chris1282] to armes of this kinde:

tianity. To this time doth Peter Pithæu

and other learned French men referre the "Arma antiqua, manus, ungues, dentes

originali of hereditary armes in France; “ And whether these places of Sue

and in my opinion without prejudice to tonius I may be referred to armes of this other, about that time we received the sorte, where he sayeth that Caligula hereditary use of them, which was not the emperor Familiar. insignia nobi- fully established untill the time of kind

Henry the Third. For the last Earles of

Chester, the two Quincyes Earles of Germ, & VI.

Winchester, the two Lacyes Earles of + Ph. Moreau. In Caligula, cap. 35.

* Guil, Brit. lib. 3.


armes :

que fuerunt."


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