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À Series of Letters on Acoustics, greater or less, according to the dis.
addressed to Mr. ALEXANDER, Duro position of the reflectiog bodies. Ope ham Place, West Hackney.
tical instruments are disposed in a tube
of such a length, that the rays of SIR, LETTER III.
light which arise from a small portion THE THE qualities which belong to of the visible hemisphere can alone
Sound, may be divided into reach the organ of perception. All different kinds, independent of each the others strike the surface of the other.
tube, and, after one or more refleco 1: “ Pitch, which depends upon the tions, are almost totally absorbed or quickness or slowness of the vibra; lost.' It remains to be ascertained tions. The laws of this velocity, and from reasoning or experiment, how the circumstances which determine it, far the effect may be produced with are well known.” These will be ex. regard to sound. With a cylindrical plained hereafter.
wooden pipe, three inches in diame2. “ Resonunce, which arises out ter, and eight feet in length, at the of the intimate composition of the so distance of two iniles from London, norous body: in it we distinguish dif- I listened to the noises which came ferent tones, as the clear, the soft, from the capital. I think I did not the dull, the crackling, with the laws deceive myself by a prepossession, of which we are yet unacquainted.” when I distinctly heard the noise and
Smooth and clear sounds proceed agitation of wheels on the pavement from bodies, the parts of which are of much more strongly than any other the same kind, and of an uniform kind of sound. Nearer sounds, not figure: and harsh sounds, from such in the direction of the tube, were less as are of a mixed matter, and irregu- perceived ; and such as were loud, lar figure.
afterwards assumed a musical tone; The following are the conclusions most probably upon the reiterated which M. Perolle draws from various reflections under the several angles of experiments:
its reception.” 1. That all substances, which were But to return to the qualities of tried, which possess extended sur Sound. With regard to tones, soine faces, fortify the weak sounds pro are too grave, and others too ucute, duced by bodies which touch them, for the human ear. and modify the tone in a manner pe “ There are degrees of acuteness culiar to each.
and gravity which are beyond the 2. That these effects arise from the powers of apprehension. The wartransmission of sound by solid bodies bling of birds is of this kind. No being in general better than by the birds but the nightingale and cuckoo air, and the peculiar modification of produce musical tones which we can the tone by each.
imitate, or compare with those of 3. That the reson
onance of musical our musical instruments. A bullfinch instruments is more particularly to be and canary bird can be taught by flaattributed to this cause.
geolets aud bird-pipes; bui their na4. The experiments with msnical tural warble is incommensurate with strings afford reason to conclude, that our scale.” the volume of bodies has an influence Dr. Robison found, that
noise in their sounding properties,
whatever, if repeated 240 times in a 6. As marble in some degree extin- second, at equal intervals, produces guishes sound, and bears the same the note C, at the bottom of a treble rank among solid bodies as inflam. voice. If it be repeated 360 times, it mable air ainong Huids, it is not ad- produtes G. It was imagined, that visable to use it in the construction of only regular agitations of the air, such churcbes, concert rooms,
as are produced by the trembling or edifices, in which the propagation of vibrations of elastic bodies, are fitted sound is desirable.
for exciting in us the sensation of a I shall subjow an experiment con musical sound. But he found that tained in Annotations on the above any noise whatever will have the same paper of M. Perolle.
effect, if repeated with due frequency. * Numerous experiments have Nothiog surely can have less pretenshown, that sound can be reflected, sions to the name of a musical sound, and that the impression on the ear is than the solitary snap which a quill Gent. Mag. March, 1812.
of the snaps.
makes, when drawn from one tooth
minor 3d. of a comb to another; but when the
minor 6th. quill is held to the teeth of a wheel, whirling at such a rate that 720
major 6th. teeth pass under it in a second, the I would also observe, that if you insoundG in alt is heard most distinct- vert the foregoing fractions, thus: ly; and, if the rate of the wheel's 1. 3. &c. they will give the propormotion be varied in any proportion, tional length of strings or pipes the noise made by the quill is mixed to produce these vibrations or pulses in the most distinct manner with the in the air ; because, vibrations are note corresponding to the frequency inversely as the length of strings
and pipes; that is, (not in mathemaI shall continue, as I began, to give tical, but in common language) the very long quotations; because, those vibrations will be slow, in proportion for whose use these essays are compil- to the length of the strings, and quick ed, are not likely to have leisure to in proportion to their shortness. consult the original works from which "The above ratios,” says Dr.Hartmy extracts are taken; and I had ra- ley, are very simple. But a note ther that authors should speak for
with its flat or sharp, second or sethemselves, than, by altering their lan- venth, is originally disagreeable." guage, pass off their ideas for my " It may also be observed, that own, which would, in fact, be array
concords seem to be originally pleasing myself in borrowed feathers, and ing, in proportion to the siinplicity endeavouring to conceal the theft, by of the ratios by which they are exhaving theni dyed, and the colour pressed. Hence we may, perhaps, changed for the worse.
suspect, that even the concords were “ All very loud noises," says Dr. originally unpleasant to the ear of a Hartley, " are disagreeable. Now it child, from the irregularity of the viis easy to imagine, that the violent brations which they impress on the agitations of the drum of the ear may
drum of the ear; and that at last they $0 strain that membrane, that it may fall within the limits of pleasure, as be hurt even by gentle sounds. many other pains do.” “Uniform sounds, whether yocal
Such is the manner in which Dr. or instrumental, are pleasant, if their Hartley accounts for the originul degree of loudness be not excessive; pleasure arising from musick. it is, because they fail short of over- however, I believe, acknowledged by stretching the drum of the ear. those best acquainted with the sub
“ Two notes sounded together af- ject, that we are ignorant of the imford a greater degree of pleasure than mediate cause of the pleasure we reone, if the ratio of their vibrations beceive from certain consonances. sufficiently simple.
“ Nature,” says Rousseau,“ which You will, with facility, understand has endued the objects of every sense the nature of ralios, as applied to with qualities proper for flattering it, vibrations of musical sounds, and the has chosen, that one sound, whatever pulses or strokes occasioned by them, it be, shall be accompanied with its if I explain it in the following manner:
agreeable sounds, as she has willed, “ If, in the same time, a second for that one ray of light should always be example, that one sound makes one
formed of the finest colours. But, if vibration, another sound makes two we remove this question, and inquire vibrations; the first sound, with re
whence arises the pleasure which a spect to the second sound, is said to perfect concord causes to the ear, have the ratio, that is, proportion, whilst it is disgusted with the conof 1 to 2. Now this ratio of two vi. course of every other sound, what brating sounds gives the octave, 240 can we answer to that, unless to de; being the number of vibrations made mand, in our turn, why green de by c'in one second. I have only to lights the eye more than gray? and in ultiply this by 2, and it will give why the odour of the rose is pleasing, the octave, 240 X 2=480. These are
whilst the poppy's smell is disgust, the pulses made by C in one second. ing? i gives the 5th.
“ I do not deny that natural philo
sophers have explained all this: and major 3d.
what is there that they do not ex
plain? But bow,much do these ex tion, through faith, which is in Christ planations depend on conjecture; and Jesus. All Scripture is given by inhow little solidity do we find in them, spiration of God, and is profitable for when they are nearly examined.” doctrine, for reproof, for correction,
I will close my present letter with for instruction in righteousness : that some observations on Harmony, by the man of God may be perfect, thoDr. Robison.
raughly furnished unto all, good “We have made numberless trials, works." Thus does St. Paul fully of the different concords with persons declare, that the Bible alone is able altogether ignorant of musick. We to make men wise unto salvation, und never saw an instance of one, who to make them perfect (i. e, as men thought that mere unison gave any can be), thoroughly furnished unio positive pleasure. None of all ull good works. After such a proof, whom we examined had much plea- nothing more is requisite for the sure in the octave. All, without ex refutation of Dr. Marsh's objectious, ception, were delighted with a 5th, than to demonstrate the accordance and with a major 3d; and many of of our Homilies with the word of them preferred the latter. All of God. In the second part of the them agreed in calling the pleasure first Homily we read, “The liumderiyed" from the 5th, a sweetness, ble may search any truth boldly in the aud that from the major 3d, a cheer- Scripture, without danger of error. fulness, or smartness, or by, names And if he be ignorant, be ought the of similar import. Few had much more to read and to search holy, pleasure from the minor 3d, or minor scripture, to bring hiin out of igno. 6th. N. B. Care was taken to sound rance.” And again, “ Concerning the the concords without any preparation hardness of Scripture; he that is so -merely as sounds; but not making weak, that he is not able to brook, a part of any musical passage. This strong meat, yet he may suck the. circumstance has a great effect upon sweet and tender milk, and defer the the mind. When the minor 3d and rest until he wax stronger, and come 6th were heard as making a part of to more knowledge: for God receivthe minor mode, all were delighted eth the learned and unlearned, and with it, and called it sweet and mvurn casteth away none; and the Scripture. ful. In like manner the chord never is full, as well of low valleys, plain failed to give pleasure. Nothing can ways, and easy for every man to walk, be a stronger proof of the ignorance in; as also of high hills and moun of the Antients of the pleasures of tains, which few men can climb unto, harmony."
And whosoever giveth his mind to The subject of vibrations I shall Holy Scripture with diligent study resume in my next letter. C. J. S. and burning desire, it cannot be, saith
St. Chrysostom, that lie should be left Mr. URBAN,
Feb. 18. without help.” And in the second part TH THE arguments of Dr. Marsh of the Homily concerning prayer :
against the Bible Society may “O that all men would studiously readbe briely comprehended in the fols and search the Scriptures! then should lowing syllogism :
they not be drowned in ignorance, but Whatever Brilish institution tends should easily perceive the truth, as to the domestic distribution of the Bi. well of this point of doctrine as of all ble without the Prayer Book, is de- the rest.” Let the reader impartially trimental to the Church of England. compare the above quotations with
The Bible Society is a British insti- the treatise of Dr. Ma sh, and he will tulion, that tends to the domestic dis. readily acknowledge with him, that tribution of the Bible without the the arguments for ihe distribution of Prayer Book: therefore
the Bible alone are so specious, so The Bible Society is detrimental to popular, so apparently in the spirit of the Church of Eugland.
True Protestantism, while the argu. St. Paul, in direct contradiction to ments for the contrary lie so concealed the above, has written, in the third from the public view, &c. 'that they chapter of bis second Epistle to Ti are equally difficult to explain, and mothy, “ And that from a child thou dangerous to propose: hast known the Holy Scriptures, which I am as warm a friend to the Lid are able to make thee wise unto salva turgj' as any inan: I adınire both it's
doctrines and its diction, and think it it his children and dependants, and use should be so plentifully distributed, every proper method in making proas that the want thereof might never selytes to it. Among the Dissenters be felt in our churches ; but to sup- from the Church of England, I trust pose that the same is requisite as an there are many, very many, honest explunatory companion to the Bible, and worthy men; but there is a way is a doctrine repugnapt to common of making proselytes with some of sense, to the constitution of our their professors, which I cannot bat Church, and to the express declaration call a meretricious one. I will instance of the Almighty. But, if even this in three of the different persuasions. be conceded, it by no means follows, The Roman Catholic priests: many of that the Bible Society is therefore these, besides allowing the use of open to detraction; for, whether this force whenever it is in their power, Society existed or not, this same effect say, you must be of our Church; for must still prevail. If a member of the ours is the only true Church ; if you Establishment subscribe to the Bible are not of our Church, you are not a Society, he will, wherever he deems true Christian ; you are a Heretic ; aecessary, distribute the Prayer Book you must come and confess to us to to the poor, in exactly the same num obtain absolution, otherwise you will bers as if he had never subscribed; be damned to all eternity. Thus they and if a Dissenter subscribe, he will lord it over the consciences of their Lomit the Prayer Book, in the saine flock, whom it is their acknowledged manner as if no such Society existed. principle to keep in ignorance. The From this source, then, no blaine can Calvinist represents God as partial, attach to the Society, and to accuse dwells upon God's predestination, and it as being the cause of the perversion tells you, if you are not of the Elect, and wresting of Scripture, is nothing you cannot be saved: now, by the wiser than to blaire the learned Doc. Elect they must mean their own sect, tor for all the fantastical notions and or else they must be wretched ; they, Socinian principles which any of bis therefore, try to win you over to their auditors may choose to ingraft ou his sect, by assuring you that then you excellent lectures, That the Prayer are most likely to be of those favourBook is highly useful as a public for- ed few, aniong whom, if you are not mulary,no Churchman can deny; but, found, you may pray and strive your as neither the Homilies, the Canons, heart out, and yet will not be saved. nor the Articles of our Church, ex The last I allude to, is the sect of the press any necessity for distributing it, Antinomians, who say, your good as an explanatory companion to the works are ot no avait; sin as much as Bible, may the most venerable Seniors you will, come to Jesus, and he will of this University strive, with one save you : the greater sinner, the hund and one heart, to oppose so de- greater saint; only have faith, and lusive and dangerous an innovation;, that will do. This is a very easy reliand by establishing an Auxiliary Bible gion, and in this light I am persuaded Society, may they, as much as in many of the common people embrace them lies, promote the glory of God, it. No wonder people become prose whose they are, and whom they serve. Iytes to such'alluring doctrines. No “ To omit,” says Dr. Johnson, “ for wonder Couventicles are crowded, a year, or for a day, the most effica- while the honest Church of England is cious méthod of advancing Christian- neglected, which tells you, that you its, in compliance with any purposes must be a good man in order to be which lerminate on this side of the saved ; that
you must, while
have grave, is a crime of which I know not opportunity, be faithful in every good that the world h.s yet an ex in pie.” work; that though you rely ou the SCRUTATOR OXONIENSIS. atoneinent of the Saviour, as the me
ritorious cause of your salvation, yet Mr. URBAN, bu ainton, l'éb. 26. sincere endeavours and good works ELIGION is ihe friend of man ; are the condition: that your righteis
ousness must exceed that of the the best friend of iran. Every hon. st Scribes and Pharisees; that it must man will naturally think that which be wrought up to that high strain he professes the best, will be earnest expressed by our Saviour in his divine in the practice of it himself, will teach Sermon on the Mount: that we must
labour as diligentlyasifall depended on no habits of industry which the ourselves, and our labour must be en parents in the poor classes are oblig-' forced and sanctified hy love lo God, ed 'to cultivate in their offspring at an faith in our Redeemer, and the most early period, and that it is supported heartfelt gratitude for his sufferiogs at a comparatively small expence to and expiation.
schools of daily resort; considering We allow with the Roman Catholic also that, in many parts of the Me that theirs was once the true Church, tropolis, scbools on the Lancasterian but we know, alas! also that it has Plan” have been already formed ; it long been, and still is, corrupted with is submitted whether it would not be cruelty, persecution, idolatry, blas more beneficial to the real interests of phemy, and absurdity. We allow the poor, if the “National Society" with the Calvinists, that God, before confioed its object to the establishthe foundation of the world, predes- ment of Sunday Schools and the entined to save his faithful servants and largement of those already formed! true penitents by the death of his Query, what has been the progress of Son; but we cannot think that God the Society for “the support and enwould be partial to any set of men, couragement of Sunday Schools” inbecause he declares over and over in stituted 1785, of which Lord Barham the Scriptures, that He is no respecter is President, and the success attending of persons, but in every nation he its exertions ? that feareth him and workelh righte Mr. Perceval has moved for an aeousness is accepted with bim. With count of the number of Churches and the Antinomians, we believe that our places of worship connected with the good works alone cannot save us ; Establishment, which, it is hoped, is but we cannot be induced to believe preparatory to the supply of Chapels that they are of no consequence.--If I of ease in populous districts. The have mistaken the tenets of any of Bishop of London was furnished with these different professors, I am ready similar accounts by the incumbents in to acknowledge my error; but I must his diocese about two years ago ;-it say it arises from the manner in which is lamentable to assert the fact, that they express themselves, and the in a Parish in this Metropolis,contaiamean, coaxing, insidious manner in ing nearly 50,000 inhabitants, the which they endeavour to gain prose parish church is the only place of worlytes. May the Church of England, ship connected with the Establishment. or any of its preachers, never make use of any such deceitful methods ! Mr. URBAN,
Feb. 6. but let them, in all honesty of heart, “ In every village mark'd with little?" preach the necessity of following our spire,
[to fame, blessed Saviour's example in all godli- Embower'd in trees, and scarcely known ness of living, together with grateful There dwells, in lowly shed and mean and heartfelt reliance on the availing
[name.” atoneinent of his all meritorious sa Amatron old, whom we School-mistress crifice, to render our best work ac
SHENSTONE. ceptable, and to obtain for us eternal N the contemplation of those highsalvation. This is the true orthodox ly laudable efforts, now in agitadoctrine; may
God bless it with His tion, for the better education of the favour among us, Esto perpelua! poor, on the new plans of Bell and Yours, &c.
B, D. Lancaster, I cannot but he struck P. S. If I have not mentioned the with a consideration, wbich, allowing •Unitarian system, it is because I do it to be comparatively of minor weight not consider it as a Christian system. and importance, is surely of too great
moment to be with justice entirely Mr. URBAN, London, Feb. 27. overlooked. I mean the case of a
certain class of persons, hitherto not EING an eye-witness of the exBEING
tensive good afforded by a Sun-, ' without their use in society, on whose day School, where five hundred chil- behalf I would gladly put in a word, dren are educated in the principles of before it be too lale, having the highthe Establisbed Church, consideriog est authority for the goodness of a that such a plan of education is sutfi- word spoken in due season." cient for the purposes intended to the The prevalence of one manufaa lower orders, that it interferes with ture, as an article of general or even