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of Equitr, a preparation for tyranny; of the word Liberty, the badge of lavery ; of maxims of morality, a language of hypocrify; of relia gion, an mfult to the Supreme Being; and of the purest blood, the

soit execrable orgies. Political passions, how terrible ye are ! Nothing rettrains you; nothing retards your impetuosity; and you reckon the lives of men but a triffiag sacrifice for the object which you with to attain. Listen to those orators, who, with hands reeking in blood, would inspire a whole nation with their own destroying. fury! One faid, we cannot offer too many victims to Liberty ; another faid, too znany cannot be sacrificed to Equality ; another, to the principles of the rights of man; another, to the mystic dogma of the fovereignty of the people : and, finally, another profefling, from lips foaming with rage, the love with which 'he feels himself inflamed for pofterity, will facrifice to this pretended love, to this hypocritical sentiment, every individual of his contemporaries.' Vol. I. p. 138. .

Nor is it merely in such descriptions, and in the reprobation of revolutionary and political violence, ' quorum pars inagna fuit,' that M. Necker is lively and interesting. There is something very touching in the following defcription of the concluding scene of a young foldier's life:

· Alas, had you seen those young men, ye tender fathers, ye affectionate mothers ! Behold your fons thrown down, and lying trampled in the dult by the hoofs of their comrades' horses : left bleeding amidst furious {quadrons, who pay no attention to their groans : carried at latt to hospitals, where the numbers of the wounded render affistance impracticable ; where novices in surgery serve the apprenticeship of their art, amidit hurry and interruption, and the agonizing cries of their unhappy patients. Your miserable fon wishes he had perished on the field of battle ; regrets the fond tenderness you showed him in infancy: he remembers the last einbraces of the authors of his being : be looks about him, and fees, in the moment that remains of life, the mutilated links of his companions scattered around and that his own grave is preparing.' Vol. I. p. 153.

I M. Necker deserves the censure which has been sometimes paied upon him as a flatterer of the French nation or governmont, it is not, at least, in the following patlige:

• Ah, let us respect the opinions of other nations, not in order to trieve us, but to support our wisdom and our modesty : Let us give no cause to this reproach fixed on us by some. You wished to dictate laws to the universe, and you cannot regulate your own domeftic conceris: You wilhed to give plans of government to all nations, and your own plan, full of the greatest errors and imperfections, is an inexhauftible source of factions : You have indeed shown yourselves abroad as roaring lions, but you have been miserably tame at home, and you · TOL. 111. NO. 5.


crouch under the rod of despotism : You have already called yourselves the Great Nation, and you fee no other people disputing this title : But the extent of a country, and the number of its soldiers, may strike its neighbours with terror, without creating respect.' Vol. I. p. 281.

The following passage describes, in a natural way, the feelings of a man of nice sensibility, immediately upon his fall from a station of high rank and power. To these feelings M. Necker was no stranger : and we pity his misery, when he anfwered Mr Gibbon dans l'état où je suis, je ne puis sentir que le coup de vent qui m'a abbâtu.'

It is to you I address myself--ye who were lately in pofseffion of the sureft means of pleasing, and of captivating men. You were believed to stand on the suinmit of authority ; through you every favour was dis. pensed : You were obje&ts of universal pursuit and attachment; when, all at once, fortune overturned your pedestal : You are cast down into the crowd; you liave neither rank, nor credit, nor power! How do your friends, even your real friends, then act? They come around you, condole with you, and perhaps redouble their cares and attentions :-but there is a correctness in their care, an attentivenefs in their manner, and a measured proceeding in all their conduct. They delicately conceal the idea they have of their generosity towards you: meanwhile, you yourself either discover or suspect it; and you are ftung to the foul. You are conscious that, in the eyes, even of friendfhip, a change has taken place in you; and that you must take care to be cautiously discreet. Sad discovery!' &c. Vol. II. p. 17.

Of M. Necker's present work, the most useful part, in our opinion, is that which treats of irreligious systems. He dwells at con(derable length on the formidable arguments against Chris. tianity, which are supplied by the abiurdities and crimes of its professors. His endeavours to prove, that the abuses of that humane system do not militate either against its beneficent tendency, or its actual good effects, are not deltitute of ingenuity. He had associated long and intimately with freethinkers, and knew the objections to the Gospel, which they urged with most triumph and most baneful efficts on the mirits of the young. There he combats with fome energy; and ho persuades his readers to the reception of Evangelical morality wishi afiectionate earnestness.

. The exaggeration and the abufe of useful truths, can exist only until these truths are profcribed or brought into discredit : but when a poisonous plant attaches itself to a tree which yields abundance of good fruit and Melter, is it the tree we are to extirpate?' Vol. III. p. 262.

We might sclect many other respectable passages from the work before us; but those arcady quoted are a sufficient specimen of

M. Necker's pulpit eloquence. The fermons seem to have cost him little trouble: indeed we were sometimes tenipted to believe that he has only lent his name, or partial aid, to an inferior performer. But whether this be the case, or that M. Necker has written invità Minerva, certain it is, that the discourses before us, while they evidently appear to proceed from the best intentions, and although they contain some scattered fragments of argument and of eloquence, betray a grievous decline of judgment, perfpicacity, and logical discrimination, in their responsible author. We do not hesitate to warn young persons against a partiality for such flimfy compositions. They are very much in the present fashionable and false continental style. An imperfect view of the system of religion is given ; and, instead of a sober elucidation of the evi. dence upon which it refts, or a persuasive enforcement of the moral duties which it recommends, we have exclamations and loud affertions, and strainings after sublimity and pathos, that excite the ridicule of the prophane, and the regret or dilgust of the pious.

This manner of preaching may, like the present terrific mode of novel writing, rouse the curiosity of the idle; but it can neither remove doubt, nor influence conduct: And those who place confidence in the course of religious morality published by M. Necker, in the hope that it can enlighten their reason, or fortify their faith, will foon join in the candid and mortifying confession

• A peine, du limon où le vice m'engage

J'arrache un pied timide. et sors en m'agitant,
Que l'autre m'y reporte et s'embourbe à l'instant.'

Art. IX. A New Anatomical Nomenclature, relating to the Terms

which are expressive of Position and Aspect in the Animal System. By John Barclay, M. D. Lecturer on Anatomy, and Honorary Member of the Royal Phyfical Society, Edinburgh. Longman & Rees, London. 8vo. pp. 182. 1803.

A CHANGE in the language of any science, is rendered necesA fary, either by the sudden acquisition of new information with respect to its fundamental truths, or by the gradual accumulation of various dialects, partly founded upon theories, partly derived from accidental peculiarities in the situation of discoverers, and the consequent introduction of ambiguity and error. Both these circumstances concurred to warrant the great and beneficial alteration which the nomenclature of chemistry has lately undergone ; but it is in the latter, only, that the necessity of a new anatomical vocabulary can be found.

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The The purposes to which a systematic plan of nomenclature is subsetvient, are threefold: It adds to the regularity and beauty of the science; it facilitates the business of instruction; and it allists us in the discovery of new truths. Upon each of these distinct objects, a few preliminary remarks may be permitted, as leading to an illustration of the principles on which all such schemes as the one now before us ought to proceed. - The pleasure derived from the contemplation of abstract relations, forms by far the greatest part of the inducement to scientific research. There is unquestionably a delightful sensation in the discovery of resemblances that are unexpected and not easily perceived sensation entirely unconnected with any view to the useful consequences which may be deduced from the knowledge of the new truth. The perception of the relation between the hypothenuse and the sides of a right-angled triangle, is as agreeable to the mind, as the knowledge that, by this celebrated discovery, we are enabled to guide the course of a hip in the pathless occan. Nay, the perception of unexpected practical utility itself, is plearing to those who have neither any chance of receiving the benefit, nor any capacity to fympathise with others. A man who ludies the laws of the celeftial motions, feldom thinks of the ultimate advantages to which his inquiries may lead the construction of tables useful to the navigator. He is fatisfied, that he discovers the certainty of a simple and easily comprehended relation, which was not previously suppafed to exift.

One great merit of such discoveries, then, is the neatnefs of the form in which they are capable of being presented to the mind. This is, indeed, the greatest excellence of any scientific proposition, if we except the apparent diflimilarity of the objects compared. No plensure would be derived from a demonstration, however clear, that the three angles of a triangle, if cach of them is two thirds of a right angle, are, together, equal to two right angles. The identity is here too obvious, and the discovery of it could give no fatisfaction, unk is to beings of facultis much more vull than the huma. But it would be equally impoffible for us to derive any great pleaiure from the enunciation of a propogtion, however general in which a relation is affirmed, after a variety of atlumptions, and new definirious, and pr vious demonstrations of lemmas. We might be reconciled to the labour of following such a chain of reasoning, by the idea, that it ultimately led to confequences of practical importance; but, for its own fake, we should certainly feel listie intereit in the dilcovery. This neatness, or conciteneis and fimplicity, with which we can enunciate and dononitrate a truth, firpring either by its guerality, or the rur of the steps royumu ter reaching in, conititures what is

calles called the elegance of any scientific discovery; and the elegance of a system is, in like manner, the regularity with which its de partments are ordered, and the similarity of their connexions with the fundamental principles. The concise and simple expression of this regularity, in the itructure of the language appropriated to describe and enumerate those various parts, is productive of the Tame satisfaction, and completes the agreeable uniformity; while it enables us to enjoy the same kind of pleasure in scientific de. tails, that we receive from beauty of style in works of imagination. The pleasure derived from mathematical speculations, is surely in a great measure owing to the fimplicity and uniformity of the nomenclature which the science of neceflary truth-employs. The higher geometry, for instance, would cease to preTent us with so many interesting objects of contemplation, if the analogous parts of different curve lines were known by different names, and parts entirely difimilar were, from certain insulated cafes of coincidence, permanently .confounded under the same appellations ; if (e. g.) the aliymptote were sometimes denominated the focus, or if the tangents of whole orders of lines were called recants, because those of some curves cut the arcs which they do not touch. The pleasure derived from the Itudy of modern chemistry, is, in the same manner, augmented by the syrtematic nature of the new language. With all its faults, that language does not confound fimple and compound bodies, nor distinguish fubftances entirely analogous. Many of its terms have indeed been objected to as changes too violent, upon words meant to denote ideas of very frequent recurrence. Thus, we are told that common falt is a better name than muriate of foda; and surely, in the faine nianner, round would, in ordinary life, be a more convenient, because a more familiar expression than circular, and oval than elliptical. But if the other compound salts are ditiinguished by the union of terms denoting their component parts; an agreeable uniformity, in a scientific point of view, results from the extenfion of the same principle of nomenclature to that falt which is most commonly used, although it may retain its old name on ordinary occasions ; just as it is more agreeable to denominate the ellipfis from the property analogous to those of the other conic sections, although, in common life, we give it a name derived from the elliptical body most frequently met with ; and to talk of the ordinates and assymptote of a conchoid, although masons speak only of the diameter and thaft of a column. In Thort, all science consists of claslification ; and the plans now under consideration, are founded upon verbal arrangement, while chey keep the classification of ideas constantly in view.

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