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This fum of the defence · twice laved M. Baudry's
; loss peculiarly connected
uits; as, a Congo vocabu-
imps respecting regimen, the Picpical countries. In a scien
entitled to notice. It presents
in, at one period of the year, at-
quisition to those plantations which at
the vulgar, for giving the phenomenon .' fee only one difference between the phlo.
Tvitem of chemistry, viz. the lubititution r phlogiston. itter worth attending to in this work, ia ntains of the colonial chambers of agriculta ble consular government. The object
provement of the whole body of colonial. corresponding with their deputies at Paris , the minister of marine, are authorise s who in the administration of the settlements
s. itions on the institution are likely to
That We do not deny. But it would be 21 | advantages from this svitem of effione
1uril to wh Board are effectively named by the > when pointed to watch.
body of colonial affairs.
ne are authoriled
med by thoie
vernmend both from "pretted by luch'n view. If the
He thinks, that all free negroes, and free people of colour, should, if not possessed of some property, be reduced to the state of daylabourers or soldiers; and proposes, that no mulatto nearer the negro than child of a quarteroon, should be allowed to learn reading and writing. All these plans of restriction appear to us utterly inconsistent with the idea of free negroes and mulattoes : nor can we imagine the pollibility of ameliorating the state of society in those parts, without keeping the gradual abolition of Navery, and amalgamation of colours in view. If the free people of colour are to be oppreffed by such regulations, while they are separated both from the whites and the Naves, the colonial government must expect a renewal of the scenes which first arose from this very quarter.
The plan of prohibiting taverns, at least for the slaves, seems liable to no objection. The evils of intoxication are certainly augmented by those places of resort ; and when we are considering the remedies for abuses in a system of slavery, such an argument as this may be deemed sufficient of itself. It would, however, be difficult to suppress taverns for slaves, without also suppreiling those for the free orders; and this unquestionably leads to many complicated ditcullions, the very existence of which M. Baudry seems not to have fufpected.
The neceility of attending to the state of the highways is enforced with some strength. It is farther proposed, that there 1hould be planted with fruit-trees for the refreshment of the parsenger, who would be prevented from abusing this indulgence, by the constant fear of the patroles. Our author's whole policy, indeed, is a strange mixture of liberty and restraint, derived apparently from the unnatural Itate of society in thote slave colonies where he has relided. His ideas of commerce are fometimes fingularly unfortunate. He is for the Legislature interfering with what he calls the ' niorality of trade;' alleging that he has observed avarice prevail very generally, both among the merchants and the ihopkeepers of the colonies. In another part, he ferioully proposes, that the number of printers thould be limited by law, in order to render them lets needy, and prevent them from being such bloodsuckers to poor authors. We have here, at leatt, one instance of the restraints of the mercantile system, fupported by those whote interests they attack; for the railer of the commodity is actually abfurd enough to defire that his market thould be contracted, and his fales fubjected to a monopoly. In one of his three sets of notes (popierieures, ulterieures, and paralipomenes), our author attacks Brvan Edwards with great vehemence for his imputations upon Citizens Ailhaud and St Leger. He appears to have fucceeded in freeing the former of thete men from the hatty
allegations of the English writer: But the sum of the defence urged for the latter seems to be, that he twice saved M. Baudry's life in the West Indies.
The second volume is, if possible, less peculiarly connected with Louisiana than the first; but it contains some information of considerable value to West Indian colonists ; as, a Congo vocabulary; a list of medicines, with notes of their properties ; a Botanical manual, and a variety of directions respecting regimen, the fruit of our author's experience in tropical countries. In a scientific point of view, this volume is also entitled to notice. It presents us with a very curious account of the infect which produces the animal-cotton. The process is singular: A worm of considerable fize, which our author calls Porte-mouches, (well known to planters as the Manioc or Indigo worm), is, at one period of the year, attacked by swarms of the Ichneumon fly. They deposit their eggs in every pore of the unfortunate worm, which now becomes a hot-bed for hatching them. The infects, produced all at once, immediately spin each a very minute white cod, which envelopes it. The manioc worm is now covered with a white pod, which he, with confiderable difficulty, Thakes off; and, in a few days, the mfects are again hatched from it, but in the forın of flies, leaving the animal-cotton behind them. Our author describes this production as very abundant in all the colonies, and as poflessing great advantages over the vegetable cotton. It would undoubtedly be a most valuable acquisition to those plantations which at prctent suffer so much from the ravages of the manioc worm. M. Baudry's scientific observations, however, are not always so happy. He talks of the parabola described by falling stars, though with fome contempt of the vulgar, for giving the phenomenon that name; and he can fee only one difference between the phlogistic and the modern system of chemistry, viz. the substitution of the term caloric for phlogiston.'
The only other matter worth attending to in this work, is the account which it contains of the colonial chambers of agriculture, as new-modelled by the consular government. The object of this institution is the iniprovement of the whole body of colonial affairs. Thele Boards, by corresponding with their deputies at Paris, who form a council to the minister of marine, are authorised to denounce every abuse in the administration of the settlements. That some of the alterations on the inftitution are likely to produce beneficial effects, we do not deny. But it would be absurd to expect any material advantages from this syiten of efpionage, when the members of each Board are effectively named by those whose conduct they are appointed to watch.
M. M. Baudry does not appear quite so constantly in the second, as in the first volume; but we have been malicious enough to derive some amusement from the frequent recurrence of his lamentations over a Colonial Encyclopædia, in twenty-five volumes quarto, which he had toiled at during eighteen years, and which he lost in the troubles of St Domingo. His argument, in favour of establishing a Board of ruined Planters (ces êtres interesans), to assist the government of the mother country with advice upon colonial affairs, is also somewhat original : IF I (says he) alone, in the midst of my own ideas, without assistance from any other without the least communication with a living foul-have been furnished with so many materials by my imagination, and my other intellectual faculties, what might not government expect from a whole commission of advisers !! vol. ii. p. 345.
Agt. yill. Cours de Morale Religieuse. Par M. Necker.
3 vol. 8vo. Paris. 1800. M NECKER's former publications are very well known : though
. the attention they have excited is rather to be referred to their connexion with his short and eventful political career, than to their own intrinsic excellence. The fingular title of the volumes now before us, led us to suppose that a considerable analogy might subsist between the author's former work on the importance of religious opinions, and the prefent course of religious morality. We have not been mistaken. The similarity in style, and in fentiment, is indeed very great; although it must bé confefled that the former is entitled to take the precedence on a more subitantial ground than mere priority of date,
The man, however, who acted so conspicuous a part at the commencement of the French revolution, and who may reasonably flatter himself that his opinions must still have some weight with the people whom he once governed, is certainly entitled to attention; especially when he speaks upon a subject of incontestible importance, and which he seems to have had very much at heart. M. Necker, we believe, still resides at Copet, near Geneva ; but the discourses here offered to the public are not addreiled to his immediate countrymen the Swiss. He supposes luifelf placed in the heart of France; and it is to the peculiar circumstances of that country that this publication is accommodated, (Prel. Refl. p. 44. vol. i.) France, indeed, exhibits at present an aspect altogether new among civilized nations. From the beginning of the revolution to the year 1802, France may be said to have had no religious education, and fi ny education whatever within
the reach of her youth. The consequence is, that the most active part of her population, and nearly three fifths of her soldiers and failors, have attained the maturity of bodily strength, without any moral, and with very little intellectual culture. Inheriting all the advantages which are derived from the successful cultivation of the arts, and poflefling every imaginable physical capability, a numerous nation of this description would be an cbject of terror, under any degrees of latitucle or longitude; but' nust excite ftill greater alarm in the centre of the civilized world! That such men may gain battles, and, when flimulated by the hope of plunder, may astonish or overwhelm other nations, has been sufficiently proved. But whether they can enjoy rational freedom at home, and discharge, in times of tranquillity, the duties of good citizens, is yet to be tried. Constitutional liberiy, indeed, is now out of the question : and M. Necker seems to have had a prophetic intimation of the state of the government, when, in the year 1798, he declared
" It is not, indeed, the reestablishment of our ancient slavery in its former shape which we have now to dread, but the approach to it in a disguised form, as soon as it shall he dilcovered that the most vigorous exercise of authority is unable to restrain a people who have shaken off all religious controul. The filence and subordination of slavery will be attained, by raising and maintaining immense armies ; by filling up their ranks with our young men; by making those young men exchange the conflict of other passions for the rigour of military discipline ; and by employing those armies, in all their violence and energy, to inspire unio versal terror. What a sad substitute for religious morality! What an exchange for that authority, of which the injunctions were so mild, and the exercise fo indulgent! How dreadfully have we been deceived !' Prelim. Refl. p. 24. vol, i.
The avowed design of M. Necker's work, therefore, is to coun. teract the operation of this tremendous evil, and to revive religious impressions in France, by an appeal to the united powers of reason and revelation. In this design, every good man will wish him success, though many will doubt if he be qualified to obtain it. He divides his course of religious morality into five fections ; in all, containing twenty-nine fermons. The first section has four sermons, which treat of the bases of natural religion and morality. These sermons are on the existence of a God; the union of morality with the divine perfections; the doctrine of a Providence; and the immortality of the soul. The fecond section discusles the duties common to all men, such as truth, justice, charity. The third section is taken up with the relative duties of the different ages and situations of social life;