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learned Professor of Germany has actually taken upon him to alter a whole passage in Xenophon's Apologia Socratis, from ignorance of its existence. The words in all the MSS. and printed copies stand as follows; and, from what has been already said, it is evident they stand in need of no emendation : --Pois go juny egyoss XHT&I OGvatos 2006 Standeregoornbolt, Tory wou Xich, ako δραποδισις, πολεως προδοσία, εδ' αυτοι οι αντιδικοι τετων πραξαι τι κατ' εμε Paris. Ap. Soc. ll 25. Now, Profeffor Zeunius, of Wittemberg, in his edition of this part of Xenophon's works, has deliberately turned all these nominatives into datives, that they might agree with spyors in the beginning; and applauds himself very much for the correction ; observing, ' vulgari lectione nihil ineptius fingi poteft.' Such is still the diffidence of these reformers !

Upon the subject of punctuation, Dr Húnter refers, in his Preface, to the following paffage of the First Georgic, which stands thus in ProfesTor Heyné's, and the greater part of the earlier editions :

• Semina vidi quidem multos medicare serentes,

Et nitro prius et nigra perfundere amurca ;
Grandior ut fetus filiquis fallacibus effet :
Et, quamvis igni exiguo properata maderent,
Vidi lecta, diu et multo spectata labore,
Degenerare tamen, ni vis humana quotannis

Maxima quæque manu legeret. ' The fourth line of this passage, which, by this punctuation, is connected with the latter clause of the sentence, has given infinite trouble to the commentators. A verbal critic may indeed be excused for being ignorant of the mysteries of agriculture ; but it is scarcely poflible to repress a smile, when Profeflor Heyné gravely informs us that beans, which have been boiled till they are soft, will grow faster than any other. Dr Hunter removes all this perplexity, by taking away the point from the end of the third line, and putting a full stop at the end of the fourth. When this puzzling verse is connected, in this way, with the three preceding ones, the meaning turns out to be, simply, that beans are thought to require less boiling if the seeds from which they were produced had been sprinkled with nitre before fowing. This interpretation, which the new pointing suggests most obviously, is confirmed, in a very Angular way, by a patlage in Palladius, which seems to have escaped the notice of Profetior Heyne and all the other commentators. This writer, without any allution to Virgil, fays expressly, “ Græci asserunt fabze temina ninata aquà refpertà, cocturanı non habere difficilem.'


We look upon this as a very happy and fatisfactory explication of a passage, which Brunckius thought it necessary to interpolate, before he could make any sense of it whatsoever.

The punctuation of this edition, indeed, so far as we have examined it, appears to be peculiarly judicious and correct. There is only one passage in which we suspect it to be inaccurate. We allude to these lines, towards the end of the Third Book of the Aneid: :

« Praecipires metus acer agit quocumque rudentis

Excutere, et ventis intendere vela fecundis.
Contra jussa monent Heleni, Scyllam atque Charybdimi
Inter utramque viam, leti discrimine parvo,

Ni teneant cursus: certum eft dare lintea retro.' The whole of this paffage, we think, is full of difficulty; and it is one of those upon which we expected some elucidation from Dr Hunter: but, without pretending to reconcile all the parts of it, we are very clearly of opinion, that there ought to have been a comma after contra in the third line, as jusa seems evidently to be the nominative of the subsequent verb monent, and not in construction with contra as a preposition.

In the close of his Preface, Dr Hunter has introduced, perhaps not quite regularly, nor by any very obvious connexion, a short differtation on the ancient form of the genitive case, which he conceives to have terminated, originally, in all the declensions in is. As a specimen of his acuteness and latinity, we shall subjoin this passage in the original.

Genetivus in -, nominum in -Es definentium, in Virgilio frequens eft ; in cujus rei rationem indagandam viri docti, Heynius et Heinfius, fraftra operam suam infumferunt, parum aut nihil proficientes. Itaque genitivi formam antiquiflimam, unde omnes deinceps aliæ quæ in usu {unt, levibus admodum mutationibus, gradatim provenerunt, rem Grammaticis, tam veteribus, quam recentioribus, , adhuc intactam, paucis indicare operæ pretium erit. Hæc igitur genitivi forma antiquissima, quam declinatio tertia adhuc plerumque fervat, definebat in -is ; ut oura, aura-Is ; animos, animo-is; labor, (olim labors) labor-18 ; fructus, frudu-is ; dies, die-is. . Poftea vel duæ vocales in unam fyllabam coibant, vel s elidebatur, vel denique utrumque fimul. lta, ex factum eft vel aur-As, ut paterfamili-As, vel aura.1, et poitremo aur-ae, quod enunciatum videtur aur-ar: ex animo-is, eliso s, anim-oi, quod eft anim-1, ot, in plurali etiam numero, ex argu-01 et aveL-01£ facta sunt anim-s et anim-is. In declinatione tertia s plerumque retinetur ; interdum, ut in Achill.1, Oront-1, &c. eliditur. In quarta cornu facit vel corn.Us, conIraetum pro cornu-19 ; vel, absque s, corn-v, contractum pro cornu l. Eodem modo ex die-is factum vel di-Es, (vid. A. Gell. ix. 14.) vel die-1; et, poftremo, vel di-1, vel di-E, prout vocalis vel prior, vel porteVOL. VI. NO. 5.

rior, rior, ab altera absorpta fuerit. Uniuscujusque autem forma exempla, præter ·Ars, -oïs, et -fis, quarum, quod sciam, exempla non extant, ex Ruddimanno, aut Vossio, petenda relinquimus ; hic enim de hac re fufius agere non patitur inftituti nostri ratio.'

The theory contained in this passage appears to us to be at least very probable. All languages are naturally quite regular and uniform in their structure. The idea of relation, denoted by the genitive case, would therefore be expressed, it is most probable, in every word, by the same adjunct or variation ; and, where varieties exist that cannot be referred to the intermixture of another language, it is most reasonable to ascribe them to some such process of abbreviation as Dr Hunter has indicated in the foregoing passage. There is one form of the genitive, however, which he has omitted to specify, or account for: we mean the termination of Achillei and Ulixei, which occur five or six times in the writings of Horace. It seems easy, however, to reduce this also under the system of Dr Hunter." The original genitive was Achille-is, which, with the s dropt from the end, gave Achille-ï, afterwards contracted into one syllable, Achillei. This is sometimes Latin by the editors of Horace (as in Epist. lib. I. 6. y. 65. and I. 7. v. 40.) Achilli; the i long being the general representative of those dipthongs of which it originally formed a part; derw forming dico, in this way, and arepeous, animis. The ancient Latins, indeed, appear to have had a great partiality for this vowel, as they have made it the common substitute for o also, in words derived from the Greek. Atoldovos, in this way, becomes Apollinis; Aegoules is changed into legimus ; and, according to Dr Hunter, all the Greek genitives in os into the corresponding Latin termination of is.

Upon the whole, we can safely recommend this as one of the most correct editions of Virgil that has yet been offered to the public. We do not know, indeed, that it contains a single typographical error; and in the reading and punctuation of the text, it is sufficient to say, that Profeffor Heyne has publicly declared it to be fuperior to any that he had previously examined. We cannot conclude, however, without again expressing our regret that Dr Hunter did not find it convenient to add to its value, by a more copious collection of those critical remarks, of which his Preface contains so favourable a specimen.


Art. VI. Modern Geography, a Description of the Empires, Kingdoms;

States, and Colonies, with the Oceans, Seas, and Iles, in all parts of the World: including the most recent Difcoveries, and political Altera. tions. Digefted on a new plan, by John Pinkerton. The astrono mical introduction by the Rev. S. Vince, A. M. F. R. S. and Plus mian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philofophy in the University of Cambridge. With maps, drawn under the direction, and with the latest improvements, of Arrowsmith, and engraved by Lowrie. To the whole is added, a catalogue of the best maps, and books of travels and voyages, in all languages. London : Cadell & Davies, and Longman & Rees. 2 vol. 4to. about 1600 pages; and abridged, 8vo. 700 pages.

T'Here is no science so attractive as geography. It requires 1 scarcely any preparation of previous study; and deals in a sort of information so popular and various, as to recommend itself even to those who have but little relish for literary occupations. It is indeed a kind of condensation of books of travels, and exhibits the most captivating collection of marvellous truths that ever yet were assembled, to excite or to gratify curiosity. Of its substantial utility, it is unnecessary to speak. In this country, it is considered as a necessary part of the most common educa tion; the elements of it are taught in our parish schools; and, accordingly, there are scarcely any, except those in the lowest ranks of society, who are not acquainted with the relative posia tion, distance, and comparative size and advantages of most of the nations of Europe ; with the names and situation of some of their principal cities, mountains, rivers, &c.; with their natural productions, and the principal articles of their manufactures and commerce :-and to whom, those parts of the other quarters of the globe, where their own nation has settlements or trade, are totally unknown. On the Continent, however, the case is remarkably different. There, particularly in France, it is not uncommon to meet with persons who have had a liberal education, and who discover conliderable information on other subjects, profoundly and laughably ignorant of countries adjoining to their own, closely connected with it in the annals of history, or allied in commerce or friendship. It is not surprising, therefore, that the continental writers thould have produced but few systeinatic works on geography. If we except d'Anville, there is scarcely one name, in this department of science, of which they are entitled to boast. The French works of La Croix, &c. are too brief, and by no means adequate to convey that portion of geographical knowledge which will rescue that nation from the charge of comparative ignorance. The German works of Bufch


bo difcand laughabled with it ing not surpris but few iy fear

ing, Fabri, Ebeling, &c. are dull and tasteless, and executed too much in the manner of the country in which they appeared, to render the study of geography easy, useful, or interesting. In this country, we have long been possessed of geographical grammars : moft of them indeed differ little more than in name : they have all adopted the same plan ; pursued the fame arrangement; and even copied mutually their mistakes and errors. While many essential and highly useful parts of geography are omitted, or carelessly and imperfectly treated, their pages are filled with a detail of events and circumstances totally unconnected with that science : they seem to have forgotten what the term Geography means and comprehends. We shall in vain look in them for an account and description of the different productions of the earth; of the varied or peculiar appearances of its furface; or even for accurate and scientific information respecting the boundaries and extent of the different countries. On the contrary, we should be inclined, from the perusal of these works, to conclude, that they contained a meagre and ill-digefted history of the world, interspersed with a few incidental patches of geographical information. So little fkill has been exercised in forming the plan, and arranging the materials of thefe grammars, that every addition that successively suggests itself is inferted in the most clumsy and careless manner; and, not unfrequently, the information given in one part, is directly opposite to that which we receive from another.

We have stated the defects of these systems the more fully, because we cannot characterise the modern geography of Mr Pinkerton more precisely, and at the fame time more justly, than by stating it to be free from these defects. The former writings of this gentleman, and the whole course of his reading and studies, had qualified him for the necessary, but inglorious drudgery of laborious compilation. The maps, charts, and books, which he must not only have consulted, but studied and compared, before such a fund of materials could have been collected, must have been very numerous. No expence appears to have been grudged; no pains or labour, however constant or tedious, to have been fpared, in order to render the work a complete fystem of modern geography, according to the plan which, after mature deliberation, the editor thought proper to adopt. According to this plan, os objects most essentially allied with each other, instead of being dispersed as fragments, are here gathered into distinct heads or chapa ters, arranged in uniform progress, except where particular circumstances commanded a deviation : and instead of pretended histories and prolix commercial documents, the chief attention is devoted to objects


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