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but it must be remembered, that the defects of a work, of such sterling merit, are of extensive and formidable operation. Errors which might have passed without observation in an ephemeral pro'duction, call for serious reprobation when they appear incorporated with a system which promises to effect a change in the sci. ence of which it treats. We should be glad, indeed, that this disagrreable part of our talk might terminate with these animad--versions ; but, however we may admire the fagacity and precision , with which M. Haüy has discussed individual species, we cannot
yield the same unqualified approbation to his geological specuJations. A light examination of them will convince our readers, that M. Haüy is merely a mineralogist of the cabinet ; that he is unacquainted with the magnificent arrangement of mountains; and that, from inexperience, he is incapable of comprehending the vast details of their construction, of developing their relations, and tracing the transitions which form the links of their union.
The geologist who is accustomed to the examination of mountains, who is informed of the variety of ftructure which is exhibited, and the complexity of gradations that may be traced ia examining the grand features of the constituent masses of the earth, will not be a little astonished to find all rocks huddled into an appendix. Overpowered by the immensity and novelty of these - contemplations, and bewildered by diversities of aspect, M. Haüy has lost light of the order which pervades the arrangement of mountains; he has perplexed himself with ideal irregularities, and has introduced into his descriptions of rocks, a confusion which only exists in his oyn ideas. Aware of his own inexperience in this department of the science, M. Haüy solicited the aid of the illuftrious Dolomieu, and informs us, that he bas been guided by the lights of this fagacious observer. In this part of the work, however, we have found errors and incontistencies, that cannot potlibly be imputed to that eminent geologiit, so diftinguished for accuracy of obtervation, and luminous arrangement of facts.
In the examination of their structure, rocks may be divided into ample and aggregate. Simple rocks have generals been con. didered a ipecies in mineralogical systems, and the components of aggregates have been individuaily examined. A with to render all the fpecies he permitted to hold a place in his fuitem, as preclie as pouble, has induced Mi. Haüy to react every thing that appeared il defined; and, imagining timpie rocks to be suicep
Die of great varies in their comportion, he has almost entirely exciuded them. It appears to us, that, in fome instances, he has alieved this principle is conduct ham 100 121; and that, in others, jie has fliruna from the coniec to acc's which muit are reiulted so its rigorous citonton. hind this rule beeu inictly ad.
hered to, limestone must have been excluded from the systers, as its contaminations are numerous and variable; yer we find all its combinations admitted, and their compolition detailed wih, congderable accuracy. Jasper ought to have been equally pics jected; since it is only a contamination of quartz, and coniticutes. rocks, as irregular in compofition, and as much perplexed with, transitions, as any rock M. Haüy has placed in his appendix. It is difficult to conceive, on what principles thote have been ada; mitted, when firpentine was excluded; especially as M. Haüy expressly says, it has the same relation to talc, that limellone has to calcareous spar. We find petrofilex in the appendix of substances imperfectly known, and there it is perhaps properly enough placed; for we believe there is no one substance whose composition is more various. The Germans have confounded a variety of quartz with petroflex, under the name of hornstone. This association is most improper. The first is found in mineral veins, and forming bands, veins, and nodules, in secondary limeftone: it is totally infuGble. The other forms veins and strata in primitive rock, is frequently the basis of porphyry, and is always more or less fusible. We are obliged to M. Haüy for carefully avoiding to confound these substances, though we are far from agreeing with him in the supposed identity of petrosilex and compact feldspar.
We searched through the collection of rocks, in vain, for the Gilicious schistus, or lapis lydius of the Germans, which seem to have been totally overlooked. To make amends, however, we are presented with a rock under the denomination of roche cornéenne, a name which is perfectly inadmillible on the principles of nomenclature laid down by M. Haüy, as it is founded on a vague analogy. We are informed that trap is a variety of this cornéenne; and afterwards we find basalt considered as a lava. The old, French mineralogists pretended to have discovered some unin. telligible difference between trap and basalt; but though this is roundly assumed in M. Haüy's creatise, we are provided with no means of distinguilhing the basaltic lava from the cornéenne dure, or trap, unless it be the prismatic form; on which, it is well known, no dependence can be placed. After the affumption of basalt as lava, we need not be surprised to find obsidian pearlftone, and various other substances, forcibly associated in the same class. This, however, will not be conceded without a contest, which M. Haüy seems wholly unprovided with arguments to maintain. Substances of ro dubious a nature ought to have been examined with peculiar care, to detect, if possible, some latent character which might lead to the determination of their origin. We find them, to our mortification, hurried over with extreme
negligence, without even a notice of their most obvious characters. It would seem, that the magic word lava is considered as containing the effence of all description. Though swelled by several minerals of at least dubious origin, the catalogue of volcanic substances is very imperfect. It is followed by a notice of the minerals' which it is affirmed are formed in lava fublequent to its cooling. This catalogue is also imperfect in extent; and the very principle on which it is founded is objectionable, as several of these substances are discovered in the more recent lavas immediately after their eruption.
It appears unnecessary to extend these observations any farther. We conceive, the instances we have adduced will warrant us in asserting, that this portion of M. Haüy's valuable work falls far below the general tenor of its excellence. The divisions of rocks are arbitrary and indiftin&t; the descriptions are imperfect; and the theoretic assumptions very frequently unwarranted. The candour of M. Haủy, however, we are persuaded, will prevent him from being mortified by our observations; for in this part of his fubject he does not pretend to excel. His dexterity in mechanical division can here no longer avail him; and he is even precluded from drawing benefit from his mathematical science. He has generally risked his well-earned reputation, to render his treatise more complete ; and we feel grateful for his efforts, even while we criticise what appears to us their erroneous direction.
At the same time that we have endeavoured to expose his apparent errors and inconfftencies, we gladly express our admiration of his various merits, of the genius which has inspired his performance, and the indefatigable exertions which have realized his scientific views. His style is invariably elegant and perfpicuous, his arrangement luminous, and his illustrations ample. The candour and philosophic moderation which is maintained through the whole work, reflect an additional luftre on the talents and industry of the author. We cannot close the article, without bestowing just praise on the subordinate embellishments. The work is extremely well printed, and the volume of plate's is exe. cuted in a very superior manner.
Art. IV. The Works of Richard Owen Cambridge, Esq. including
several Pieces never before published: Witb on Account of his Life and Chara&ter. By his Son, George Owen Cambridge, M. A. Prebendary of Ely. London: T. Cadell & W. Davies, and T. Payae.
4to. 1803. "This is one of the many luxuries and superfluities of modern literature ; a book which we are glad to have, but could
bained admiffig that he could poress; and live
have done very well without; containing nothing very new, or striking, or important; but innocent upon the whole, and re. fpe&able, and affording a very laudable recreation for those whose curiosity is rather the desire of amusement, than of knowledge.
Mr Cambridge seems to have been one of those persons, of whom poverty would have made a very popular author; but, being unfortunately born to a considerable fortune, and having gained admission to a very large and distinguished circle of society, he found that he could pass his time more agreeably than in preparing volumes for the press; and lived a long time in perfect health and tranquillity, without exercising his genius in any thing of greater magnitude than a few periodical papers, and fome occasional little poems and differtations. He was one of those characters, in short, that seem destined rather to delight their contemporaries, than to attract the admiration of posterity. With the happiest temper, and the most amiable manners, Mr Cambridge appears to have united the refined wit and acccomplishments of a gentleman, to the learning and information of a scholar, and to have been contented with the pleasure and the reputation that he derived from the colloquial display of his various talents and information. His biographer, indeed, has informed us, that he was remarkably exempt from those pallions which usually incline men to exchange domestic enjoyments for the toil of public busness; that his love of fame was limited to a desire of being respected and beloved by those in whose society he wished to live ; and that his natural disposition and talents were peculiarly adapted to the cultivation of polite literature, and the charms of familiar conversation.'
Such men, though extremely respectable and praiseworthy, and though their multiplication may, indeed, be considered as the best indication of a refined and enlightened state of society, generally receive their whole portion of fame in their life, and but feldom obtain any reversion of posthumous celebrity. Few are so fortunate as to have their scattered pieces collected into a handsome quarto, and to have their lives and characters transmitted to posterity by a biograher who joins perfect candour and information to the amiable partiality of affection. The incidents of Mr Cambridge's life are, as might have been expected, neither numerous nor extraordinary; and they are not commemorated as such by his biographer. The only thing that provoked a smile in the whole narrative, was to find it carefully recorded, that' when every necesary arrangement was made for Mr Cambridge setting out on his travels, he was stopped by the bard frost of the year 1739, and his plan was never resumed.' As to the rest of his history, it is very short and barren of inci
dent, dent. He was educated at Eton, where he acted plays in Latin and English; and at Oxford, which he left without a degree. He entered the Society of Lincolns Inn, but was never called to the Bar. After his marriage, he readed in Gloucestershire, where he wrote the Scribleriad, built boats upon the Severn, and adorned his estate with piantations. He afterwards removed to Twickenham, where he continued to refide, till death put a period to a life that extended through no less than eighty-fix years of innocence and enjoyment. He rode a great deal on horseback, drank water, and was remarkable for uninterrupted and equal cheerfulness, great urbanity of manners, and the ut. most tenderness and indulgence to his family. He lived in great intimacy with all the literary characters of the age, and seems to have been universally beloved and respected as a delightful companion, and a man entitled to distinction both for his talents and his virtues.
The pieces contained in this volume, are chiefly republications of those compositions which appeared in Mr Cambridge's own life. His principal performances were, the Scribleriad, which was published in 1751, and 'the history of the war on the coait of Coromandel,' which appeared in 1761. The former of these works is reprinted in this compilation, of which it occupies about one half: the other is omitted. The rest of the volume is made up of little poetical pieces, chiefly playful and satirical, and of about twenty papers publiched in the World,' and fully as remarkable for politeness and vivacity, as any that appeared in that popular publication.
It would be absurd in us to enter into any criticism upon works which have been published for more than half a century. The Scribleriad was read, at one time, by all the polite scholars in the country, but never found its way to popularity, and is now almost entirely forgotten. It is a continuation of the adventures of Scriblerus, in the form of a mock heroic poem, and is written throughout with great learning, elegance, and judgement. The subje&, however, is by no means interesting; and the compoGtion has a certain uniform mediocrity of merit, that is usually found to sink faster in the stream of time, than substances of a more unequal contexture. “The history of the Coromandel war' is simply and clearly written, though the subsequent publication of Mr Dowe's work has, in a great degree, superseded the use of it. There is a pleasing anecdote with respect to this publication, in a note to the account of Mr Cambridge's life. ,
M. Lally Tolendal, the son of M. Lally who commanded the Fiench force in India in the war of 1756, happening to meet my, father at a friend's house, eagerly inquired if he was the author of a