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The Tartar inhabitants of the Crimea may be divided into three claffes. The Nagays, or unmixed descendants of the Mongolian tribes, who formed the bulk of the army of Thingis Khan, which invaded Russia and the Crimea. These Tartars differ materially from the wandering Nagays, near the lines of Caucasus and the Akhtouba, who speak a language less correpted by the Turkish dialect, pofsess more activity and vivacity, a greater disposition to plunder and rebellion-in short, exhibit a purer specimen of the genuine Tartar savage, than their brothers of the Taurida, who are emerging from the pastoral to the agricultural state, and unfolding the first germs of civilization.

The second class is the Tartars who inhabit the heaths, or Steppes, as far as the mountains; and who, in the district of Perekop, still retain some traces of the Mongolian countenance. They devote themselves to the rearing of cattle to a greater extent than the mountaineers, but at the same time are husbandmen.

The third class is composed of the inhabitants of the southern vallies bounded by the mountains; a mixed race, which has originated from the remnants of various nations, crowded together in these regions at the conquest of the Crimea by the armies of the Mongolian leaders. They display a very fingular countenance, and are confidered by the other Tartars to potless fo little of the true Tartar blood, that they call them, in derision, Mur Tat, which signifies renegado. They are not unskilful in gardening and vine dressing; but are, upon the whole, unworthy inhabitants of the delicious regions they poffefs. They are so disaffected to the Ruffian government, that they are always the first to rise in rebellion again{t it; and in the last Turkith war, were all ordered to the distance of ten verits from the coast, in order to obviate the danger of their becoming spies and traitors. Profesfor Pallas thinks it would be for che general good, to remove them entirely from these vallies into the interior of the country, and to people their lands with more induitrious settlers. There short and violent abridgements of the progress of amelioration, feldom, however, answer the expectations which they excite : it is like transsufing blood, inftead of strengthening the system, and difpofing it to the process of fanguification.

The Tauridan Tartars, in their love of fplendour, in the exclusion of their women from fociety, and in the unnatural practices which prevail among the other fex, evince some of the most striking features of Oriental nations.

The nobility and the priesthood are highly respected among them; and in former times, frequently made confiderable refiltance to the power of the Khan, who was always chosen from the family of Ghireis ; which family Profeflor Pallas, in oppofi



have he religious cerem agree in everescribed by tray have fuppof

tion to the common notions on ibat subject, will hardly admit tohave been direct descendants of Thingis Khan.

The religious ceremonies, nuptial solemnities, and other cuf. toms of the Tartars, agree in every respect with those of the Turks, which haye been so often described by travellers. The practice, however, of polygamy, which we should have fuppcfed more likely to have been adopted than any other, has never obtained among them. Male and female flaves are not common in the Taurida ; but the nobility support great numbers of idle retainers, who accompany them when they make their entry iqto the towns, and swell the pomp of their retinue.

Europe, compared with the despotic governments of the East, enjoys a great liberty of thinking, acting, and writing. There, the activity of the human mind, long since theroughly roused, is going on and increasing in velocity. Industry is become a paffion; and even pleasure mimics labour in her amusements and relaxations. Tartars and Turks, like all other savages who are not compelled' to toil for their daily support, find their minds and bodies to be mere lumber, and are ignorant how to dispose either of the one or the other. A Tartar will lit for whole hours on the same spot, with his countenance turned in one direction, and with a pipe in his mouth which he has not even energy enough to smoke. Hunting alone roules a Tartar noble from his sloth ; and he gets up to pursue animals that seem (if the question is to be determined by dignity of nature) to have almoit an equal right to pursue him.

In the vocabulary given by Profeffor Pallas, the number of words adopted into the Tartar language from the Genoese, is very remarkable; a still greater pumber of Greek words has found its way into the same language; But the Professor will 110t allow, in conformity with the opinion of Busbek, that any veitige of the Gothic is perceptible in the different Tartar dialects. However savage the ''artars of the Crimea may be in other particulars, in the science of earing they rise above themselves. They have so far relinquished their ancient food of horse-flesh, that they will only feed upon colts ; and to this diet is added forced meat balls wrapt in green vine or forrel leaves, various fruits filled with mince-meat, stuffed cucumbers, and a great variety of learned dainties, which Mrs GlafTe herself would not disdain to add to her high-flavoured catalogue.

The peninsula of the Crimea, is the only region of the Russian empire in which almost all the 'products of Italy and Greece nright be reared with success, and in which many of those products grow fpontaneously. Wine, Glk, sesame, olive, cotton, a great variety oi dyeing drugs, which are at present imported


die flothful and impedimenght be

from the Baltic and the Caspian at a great expence, might be encouraged either in this peninsula or on the banks of the Kuma, and Terek; and by fome obvious improvements in the present breed of sheep, woollen manufactures might be puthed in the Crimea to a great extent. The impediments to the prosperity of the Crimea are, the slothful and savage character of its Tartar inhabitants, their disaffection to a Christian government,—the deficiency even of such bad population as the Tartars might afford, the injudicious conduct of the Rullian government in making the grants of the Crown lands the instrument of court favour and intrigue, rather than the incitements to industry, and increase of numbers ;-to which causes is to be added, the great insecurity of landed property, from the inaccurate specifications of the Crown grants, and the tricks and chicanery to which that inaccuracy has given birth.

The seasons in the Crimea are very irregular. In 1795-6, in the beginning of February, all the spring flowers were every where seen in full bloom, though during the remainder of the month they were buried under a deep snow. The severe winters of 1798-9 and of 1799-1800, continued from the end of October till April, with various degrees of cold, accompanied by dreadful hurricances, such as to sink the thermometer 18° below the freezing point. During the last of these winters, the Sea of Azof, the Bosphorus, great part of the bay of Kaffa, and several creeks of the Euxine, were completely frozen over. The winds are very variable, bringing from the four cardinal points the {ame species of temperature as with us. The climate, however, is so unferried, that the barometer often varies fix or eight times in 24 hours *. The summers are not less inconstant than the winters. The most falubrious of all seasons in the Crimea is the spring, which generally continues from March till the end of May. At that season, every thing in the vegetable world which is grateful in smell, or beautiful in colour, lends its aid to gratify the senses. The weather then is generally settled and terene, the heat moderate and refreshing : numerous flocks of Theep are feen moving in every direction, at the same time that village focks are scattered over the pastures. Amid such peace, and freshness, and tranquillity, mere existence is a pleasure ; and the mind loathes those studied enjoyments which it re



• The Profeffor would perhaps consider this uncertainty of the climate as capable of being remedied, by au increase of cultivation and population. He firmly believes, that the temperature of a country is ma. ierially altered by the number of fires which are lighted in it. This ap. pears to us to be rather too fine a speculation,

of the moff these chat, prevaili at whiche molt

forts to at other periods for amusement and support. The most unhealthy season in the Crimea, is the autumn; at which time, bilious fevers, remittent, or intermittent, prevail to a great extent *. With the exception of these fevers, this country might be considered as one of the most healthy in the world.

The frequent failure of crops would (but for the careless style of cultivation) be a fact totally unintelligible in a country which paid fuch ample tributes, and sent such magnificent gifts of grain at the earliest period in which we are acquainted with its history t. The Crimea has erroneously been considered as the granary of Constantinople; an opinion which must in a great measure be attributed to the constant importation of corn from Little Russia by carriers who take falt in exchange for such commodity. If the native wines of the Crimea were encouraged by the impofition of protecting duties on foreign wines, all the interior governments of the Russian empire might, in the opinion of the Profeffer, be supplied from that province ; and the sum of one million and a half of rubles, now paid for foreign wines, be deducted from an unfavourable balance of trade. The growth of silk has been but faintly attempted in the Taurida, though Professor Pallas thinks it is not only capable of that product, but of the growth of sugar also. In this latter opinion, however, Professor Pallas appears to us a little too fanguine ; it is very inconsistent with all he has previously said of the instability of the climate. The assertion may be true partially, as we say grapes will grow in England, or apples in Scotland-courteously inferring, that what is true of a few select and sunny spots, is true of the whole climate.

By the emigration of the Greeks and Armenians, industry, which had not been very remarkable in Crim-Tartary, under the government of the Khans, was almost extinguished ; and though this country has been subject to the dominion of Russia above fifteen years, there is a deficiency of the most necessary artisans, as well as of manufactures. Among the latter, that of Morocco leather is the most important; of which the red and yellow skins are in no respect inferior to those of Turkey. The cutlery of the Taurida is much esteemed for its excellent temper. Since the year 1795, fome Greeks have employed themselves in burning


* The Profeffor wishes to lay the prevalence of the Itch upon the cli* mate; but this disorder, we have some reafon to think, is by no means confi cd ro hot climates.

+ Pir fiffor Pallas advances occasionally some very fingular opinions: he speaks of the carth being manured in the Crimea by snails crawling upon it. We would not rafhly deny any thing advanced by so great a paturalift ; we only beg leave very humbly to doubt.

lears, the "Winned manufacture coarfe Tinere to be added,
10 500,000 Tub The value of Archipelagoas fick ftufis o Principal

nuinelves of the sign bankers, enlively circula paid in the n

foda. To these articles of exportation are to be added, butter, salt, wheat, hides, and some coarse linen. The principal imports are raw and manufactured cotton, filk stuffs of various patterns, the wines of the Archipelago, brandy, dried fruits, and leaf tobacco. The value of exportations amounts to from 400,000 to 500,000 rubles. The importations fall fhort of that fum by 100,000 rubles; and the balance is principally paid in the base Turkish filver coin which is extensively circulated within the Peninsula. The foreign bankers, indeed, are eager enough to avail themselves of the high estimation in which the Tartars hold a genuine Mahometan coin; so that, even after its value had been raised 22 per cent. under the present Sultan, it still maintained its superiority over the Russian filver money, the intrinsic value of which exceeded that of Turkey in the above mentioned proportion.

Such is the general account which Professor Pallas has given us of this celebrated country; which, though now of small importance, except as a military station, may hereafter become one of the richest appanages of the Russian empire.' It is poor and distressed at present ; because it has not yet recovered the sudden and violent change from a Mahometan to a Christian government, one of the most striking and complete vicissitudes which it is poffible for any country to experience; a vicillitude which has banished the greater part of the inhabitants of the Taurida, and rendered those which remain, incorrigibly disaffected to the Rur. fian government. What the progress of its prosperity may be, when the remembrances of this revolution are softened away, : must depend, of course, upon the wisdom and liberality of that policy which the Russian government adopts in the management of its colonies. It must be notorioully deficient in both these points, if it can prevent that aggrandizemnent which Nature has done so much to produce.

We are under the necessity of saying little of the merits of Profeffor Pallas; because no writer of travels is better known to, or received by the public. With his talents as a naturalist, every body is well acquainted : he is extremely accurate; and yet, though we are perfuaded that he tells nothing but the truth, it is probable that his official situation under the government has prevented him from telling the whole truth. These scientific envoys must have known, as well as if they had read it in their instructions, that they were to bring back no dil. coveries unpleasant to Imperial ears. We rather pity than blame them; and are convinced, in the instance of Profcilor Pallas, that he has struggled hard to be as dutifully tame as he.ought; and that he has a spirit abhorrent of injustice and political abuses. A


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