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Roman Catholicism in Great Britain and Ireland
Sea-Lion, the Old-Dublin University Magazine, 110
Stuart, Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia - North
Teutonic Tribes in England, the - London Re-
The Worn Wedding-Ring, (Stanzas).
436 Thunder-Storms, Marvels of- Eclectic Review, 216
563 Truth, Impediments to the Progress of—ROBERT
Vienna Death-Bringer, the Chambers's Jour-
133 What Knowledge is of Most Worth-Westmin-
Wife's Distresses, a-Chambers's Journal, 556
408 Woman's Sacrifice, a-Dublin University Maga-
Latimer, Knox-Blackwood's Magazine, 500 view,
The first of the above series of works of Zwingli's works. However, the task is an act of somewhat tardy justice to the has now been competently performed ; great national Reformer of Switzerland. and although we could have wished for a It was hardly to have been anticipated Latin translation of the two volumes of that three centuries should pass before the German writings, so that the entire porappearance of a really complete edition tion might be intelligible to those who
could read three quarters of the whole,
we are bound to speak in favorable terms * Hulderici Zwinglii Opera Omnia. Completa Editio Prima, curantibus M. SCHULERO et Jo.
of the manner in which Messrs. Schuler SCHULTHESSIO. 8 vols. 8vo. Turici. 1828–42.
and Schulthess have performed their Ulrich Zwingli et son Epoque. Par J. F. Hot- office. The introductory notices are at TINGER. Traduit de l'Allemand. Lausanne. 1844. once terse and full of information; and Zwingli: or, the Rise of the Reformation in Swit
. the collection, especially under the head zerland, etc. By R. CHRISTOFFEL. Translated from the German by John COCHRAN. Edinburgh: T. of Epistolo, has been enriched with many &T. Clark. 1858.
additions. It was in this latter most Zwinglii Vita. A. MYCONIO. Berolini. 1841. unpretending portion of the volumes that Précis Historique de l'Abbaye et du Pélerinage de the greatest amount of research was in. Notre Dame des Ermites, etc. Einsiedeln et New- volved; and M. Schulthess did not live
Le Pélerin de Notre Dame des Ermites ou Instruc- to see the issue of the last volume from tion sur le Pélerinage. Einsiedeln.
It is a favorable sign that VOL. XLVIII.-NO. I.
there should exist so great a demand for | In the summer season its inhabitants drive the writings of the Protestant champion their cattle to the loftiest regions, and, as to authorize such an undertaking. leaving them under the charge of a few
It is of no small moment to the know- attendants, hasten to gather in their ledge of any important epoch, that we scanty harvest. In the winter, round the should be thoroughly acquainted with the blazing log-fire, they recount the perils lives of the principal actors on the scene. borne in defense of their freedom, or Great and energetic men give an impulse while away the long dark hours with the to the events of their times; and this was strains of rustic music. Such was the especially true in the case of Zwingli. mode nearly three hundred years ago, Yet although he commenced preaching such is their habit at the present day. the Gospel at so early a period as to make The effects of such an early Training may it doubtful whether he or Luther sounded be traced in Zwingli's career. the first note of war against Rome--al- told that when he heard how their liberty though his views on the sacraments, and had been won against the hosts of Charles other most important subjects, are iden- the Bold, the young child eagerly seized tical with those held by a vast body a weapon, and vowed to fight for home amongst ourselves — and although the and freedom: we know that he never town of Zurich, of which he was pastor, showed any lack of boldness; that his became united to the English Reformers heaviest cares in future life were soothed by closer ties than any other city on the by his great musical skill; and we may continent of Europe, we believe that the readily believe that, as he owed these facts of Zwingli's life are very little known traits to his early associations, so also, as in this country, as compared with the Oswald Myconius writes,) from those fame of Martin Luther. "It will be from sublime mountain hights, which stretch no lack of interest in the mode of treat- upwards towards heaven, he took somement, or in the subject-matter itself, if thing heavenly and divine. Certain it is, this reproach be not largely remedied by that at an early age the boy showed a Messrs. Clarks' edition of Christoffel's great aptitude for learning.
He soon memoir. But other lives of Zwingli are surpassed his fellows at the village school not wanting: there is one by M. Schul- at Wesen, and was thence sent to Basle, thess, the same (unless we are mistaken) where he was placed under the care of who was joint editor of the works; an- George Binzli, a man remarkable for the other, by Hess, had been given in an sweetness of his disposition, and one who English dress; Hottinger's admirable soon became attached to his young pupil. volume, perhaps even now the most popu- After a three years' residence at Basle, lar of all in Switzerland, is a third; whilst Zwingli was removed to Berne, to attend the short sketches of Myconius, Zwingli's the lectures of Henry Lupulus. intimate friend, and that of Melchior The scholastic establishments of that Adam in the Vitæ Germanorum Theologo- period were not of a very satisfactory rum are now lying before us.
character. The masters roamed about as Zwingli was born at Wildhaus, in the vagabonds, settling at any place where valley of Toggenburg, on the first of they could obtain permission from the January, 1484. His father was Ammann authorities; and, for the most, were themor magistrate of the village; his mother, selves grossly ignorant of the topics they Margaritha Meili, came of an honorable professed to teach. In an inscription on family. Eight sons and two daughters a painting of such a school still preserved sprang from this worthy pair, of whom at Basle, the master gives the following Úlrich was the third in order of birth. advertisement of his powers: “Is there The house of Zwingli was in good repute any one here who wants to learn to read amongst its neighbors, and to their free and write German in the most expeditious election the Ammann owed his magis- method imaginable? You need not know terial rank; whilst two uncles, whose a single letter of the alphabet, but in less kindness greatly influenced Zwingli's than no time you shall be able to keep future career, were respectively dean of your accounts: and if any one is unable Wesen and abbot of Fischingen, in the to learn this, I agree to give him my Canton Thurgau.
lessons for nothing, and to make him a The little village of Wildhaus lies high present besides of whatever he may debeneath the summit of the snow-clad Alps. mand. Any shopkeeper or apprentice, married woman or maiden, who needs went in a body to the woods, and, having instruction, let him knock and enter; he there cut plants of birch rods, they reshall be faithfully cared for, and at a fair turned with their spoils, singing a song, price. But boys and young girls must the burden of which was, that the birch write down their names to begin their was the appointed means of directing lessons at the Ember Fast-days, since it is children in the right path, and that they the custom. 1516." It was in classes accordingly presented a voluntary offerformed under such instructors as these, ing of this necessary and useful implewhere children and grown-up persons ment. were intermingled, that the great mass of But, despite this seeming severity, a the people were instructed.
frightful laxity prevailed in the manageAbove these, were the Latin colleges ment of most schools. The scholars such as that to which Zwingli resorted at wandered from place to place under the Basle. The masters were for the most pretext of seeking for instruction, but part priests, whose remuneration was pro- really in order that they might lead a vided for by some religious foundation, dissolute and vagabond life. In these or from the scanty payments of the wandering troops the eldest and strongest scholars. The educational curriculum ruled; and often, after having induced embraced Latin grammar, music, and some younger children to join them under dialectics; the latter being especially a promise of aid in their studies, no sooner valued as accustoming to a distinctive had they crossed the frontiers of their mode of expression, but which constantly canton than the latter were compelled to degenerated into the most pompous become the servants of their teachers, and verbiage. The most explicit instructions beg or steal provisions for them. Hot. were laid down by the local governments tinger mentions the diary of a young for the guidance of the master, and the Valaisan, who in his ninth year so attachbehavior of his pupils. He was to use his ed himself to an older student, and was utmost diligence to get each one forward; compelled to follow him through Germany was to examine them at convenient inter- and Poland, without learning even how vals; was to commence work at five in to read; and who did not find any opporsummer, six in winter; to have from ten tunity to teach himself for nine years. to eleven for dinner, and to continue This person describes the miseries he teaching from thence to four o'clock, ex- endured, sleeping in winter on the bare cept on saints' days, when there might boards of a school-house, and in summer be a half-holiday; was to teach psalms, in the long grass of the church-yards. chants, canticles, intonations, hymns, and When a band of scholars passed by, woe requiems; and was to see that his pupils to the fowls, and eggs, and fruit trees in went quietly home, and did not become the neighborhood. Sometimes the peasquarrelers, bravadoes, or turbulent. The ants let loose their dogs upon their heels; pupils were to speak Latin only, save in sometimes they entertained them, listened case of necessity, in and out of school; to the story of their adventures, and they were to behave with decency and joined in their debaucheries; sometimes reverence in the church, belfry, cemetery, a pedagogue appeared, strongly supported etc., and were not to touch or climb upon by a body-guard of attendants, who drove any of these ecclesiastical appurtenances. them into the school-room: in this latter To fight with their book-bags, or to tear case, the rebels would load their pockets their clothes, or to throw stones, was with stones, and commence such an attack strictly forbidden. For disobedience they upon the enemy, that the police had to might be birched; but the master was interfere. forbidden to hit them on the head, be- Such were many of the schools of cause, since they were young, it might Switzerland in the day of Zwingli's childinjure their memory.
hood; but, by his uncle's care in the selecIn those days the rod was the essential tion of a master, he was preserved from instrument of discipline. There was no such evil influence. His mind was soon sparing it and spoiling the child. There so imbued with a passion for study, that was an annual fète observed even some when he passed from Berne to Vienna, time after the period of the Reformation, and at the latter place gained his first called the “procession of the rods.” On knowledge of Greek literature, (though a fine summer's day, the school children at present only through the medium of a translation,) his enthusiasm knew no the position which they have from time bounds. At Vienna he first met with i to time been called upon to fill, than to Vadian and Florian, who were so long his any fortunate concurrence of events intimate friends, and with Faber and John which has afforded an opportunity for the von Eck, the future bitter enemies of the display of their abilities. Great men, it Reformation : for the present, however, has been well said, do not wait for opporthe young men were all cordial enough tunities—they make them. We are not, to one another. We are told, that from of course, denying that God fits his the excesses and immoralities of Vienna instruments for the purposes which he Zwingli and some of his friends were kept intends to carry out through their agency, by their passion for music, in the study and that he can effect this fitness in a and practice of which they passed their brief season ; but this is not God's general evenings together. From Vienna, and mode of dealing with mankind. At the the fruitless study of the scholastic philo- feet of Gamaliel, instructed in all the sophy, Zwingli returned once more to learning of the Rabbis, after the strictest Basle, where new life and energy were sect of the Pharisees, as well as thoroughly beginning to spring up under the teaching imbued with heathen literature, such was of Wittenbach. From him probably the preparatory training that fitted the Zwingli first learned to turn from the Apostle of the Gentiles for his future barren deserts of the scholastic wisdom career. Brought up from his childhood to the living fountain of God's word. until forty years old in the court of Pha“The time is not far distant,” the master raoh, learned in all the wisdom of the used to cry,“ when the scholastic philoso. Egyptians, and then with abundant opporphy will be swept away, and the old doc- tunity to meditate and digest his knowtrine of the Church established in its room ledge in the land of Midian—thus it was on the foundation of holy writ. Absolu- that a legislator was provided to lead the tion is a Romish cheat, the death of Christ children of Israel into the promised land. is the only payment for our sins.” Such So too, the year before Zwingli's call to words sank deep into the heart of more Glarus, Luther had entered the cell of the than one hearer; at any rate they had Augustine monastery at Erfurt, and in his their effect on Zwingli, and on Leo Juda. long internal struggle with the sin of his True it is, that Zwingli was as yet ignor- own heart, in the constant study of God's ant of saving truth ; but there were not revealed truth, and in the duties of pastor wanting fine features in his character at and vicar-general of his order, went this period. He took the degree of Mas- through a novitiate of fourteen years' ter of Arts out of deference to common duration, before he came forth to defy prejudice, but he would never employ the Romish authority by burning the Pope's title. “ One,” he was wont to say, is our bull. And we may trace a like course of Master, even Christ.”
previous drilling for his future warfare in In the year 1506, being then twenty- Zwingli's career. Although he had little two, Zwingli quitted Basle a second time. taste for its barren subtleties, Zwingli had The Independent community of Glarus painfully and accurately mastered point claimed the right of electing their own by point all the minutiæ of the schools, minister, and although Zwingli was not whilst at Vienna, so as to be a fit match yet in priest's orders, they chose bim to for the acutest dialectician; and now he this important post; his election being in entered on his new sphere with a like all probability due to the influence of his energy, determined not to be contented uncle, the dean of Wesen, and to that of with a mere perfunctory performance of his friends at Glarus. He was accordingly the duties of his office, but in all things, ordained by the bishop of Constance; as far as man could, to prove himself a and, after preaching his first sermon at pastor that needed not to be ashamed. Rapperschwyl, whose name is rendered He now, therefore, applied himself intently familiar to tourists by its long bridge to study, with a view to improvement in across the Lake of Zurich, he entered upon preaching - especially to the study of the duties of his office.
Holy Writ, which as yet he only read in It may be remarked of almost all great the Latin version : he labored diligently men in the world's history, that they have to develop his powers as a public speaker, owed their renown more to their energy and to have an adequate knowledge of and untiring application to the duties of sacred things, on which those powers