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ian ?.... I shall not bear Luther's name; for I | ed upon their authors. Then poison and have read but little of his doctrine, and have murder were attempted, but God depurposely abstained from a perusal of his livered him from all. Zwingli was to be books: what, however, of his writings I have

deterred from his purpose neither by seen, in so far as these concern the doctrines and thoughts of Scripture, this, in my opinion, promises nor by assaults. is so well proved and established in them, that

“Being reviled, we bless; being perit will be no easy task for any man to overthrow secuted, we suffer it; being defamed, we it. . . . . For my part I shall bear no other name entreat” - these words, we imagine, often than that of my Captain, Jesus Christ, whose recurred to Zwingli ; and his private letsoldier I am. No man can esteem Luther (ters at this period show to what source he higher than I do. Yet I testify before God and turned for strength to endure the many all men that....I have purposely abstained

trials of his checkered career. “I know," from all correspondence with him, not that I feared any man on this account, but because I he writes to his brother, “ that my own would have it appear how uniform the Spirit of strength is not sufficient, and I know just God is, in so far that we, who are far distant as well how strong they are who contend from each other, and have held no communica- against the doctrine of God. I can, howtion, are yet of the same mind, and this without ever, like Paul, do all things through the slightest concert.”—Christoffel, pp. 73–75. Christ strengthening me. For what is

my speech, how could it avail to bring Still the Romish authorities believed any sinners back to the way of life, if the that they should be able to gain him over, power of the Spirit of God did not work if they only offered a bribe of sufficient with it ?” In a letter to one of whose value. The dictum of Sir R. Walpole Christian sympathy and intelligence he was long anticipated at Rome; for, where was more fully assured—to his friend Myevery thing was venal, it was not likely conius—he thus expressed himself: that a high estimate of the honesty of others would prevail. So late as January, “If I were not convinced that the Lord 1523, the Pope addressed a brief to guarded the town, I had long since taken my Zwingli , in which he expressed his espe- he makes fast the’ ropes, hoists the yards,

hand from the helm; but seeing as I do that

; cial confidence in the priest of Zurich, spreads the canvas, and commands the winds, and his desire to advance him to the high- I were indeed a coward, undeserving the name est honors. This letter was brought by of a man, if I were to leave my post; and, after the nuncio, who was ordered to confer all, I should still, in the end, die a death of with Zwingli in private, and to make the shame. I will, therefore, trust myself entirely most brilliant offers to secure his adhesion to his goodness; he shall lead and guide me; to the Roman pontiff. Another emissary he shall accelerate or procrastinate; he shall who was employed with the same pur. calm or tempest to overwhelm me in the sea.

advance or delay the voyage; he shall send pose, on being asked by Myconius what will not be impatient; I am verily but a weak the Pope would give to gain over his vessel; he can employ me to honor or to disfriend, replied: "Everything, most as honor. I often, indeed, pray to him that he suredly, except the Papal chair itself.” would bring my flesh under his government, Whilst such influences were brought to and destroy its lazy, wayward contradictoriness, bear from high quarters, far baser ones which is ever slow to obedience, and, like a were at work, endeavoring to undermine woman, will ever have the last word, and know his reputation. No calumnies were too Christian Church, originally purchased by the

I still hold that the

the reason of every thing. disgraceful to be vented against him by blood of Christ, can be renewed alone by the the priestly party in Zurich. He had, blood of the witnesses for the truth, and in no they said, dissuaded from payment of other way.”Christoffel, p. 93. tithes as tyranny. He had, in the pulpit, represented adultery as lawful. He want- It would be superfluous to dilate upon ed to be tyrant and Pope in one. He was the complete resignation to God's will, the father to three bastard children. He and upon the noble Christian courage, was to be seen drunk at night in the which this letter displays; but it may be streets of Zurich. He was at once in the well to remark, in passing, that these pay of the Pope and the French king. results were produced in Zwingli from no Of course, these stories had effect in some mere apathetic fatalism, and submission quarters, and alienated those at a distance to an inevitable destiny, but from the firm who could not inquire into their truth. conviction of His love to whom Zwingli But at home these falsehoods only recoil. had committed his soul, and the unfailing


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fidelity of His promises to all them that of God's word. Before this body, then, believe.

and with this standard to appeal to, It was now evident that affairs could Zwingli offered to meet the priestly party, not long be maintained at Zurich in their to defend his position against all comers present posture one party must yield. with the sword of truth. The magistracy had been so far gained as On the twenty-ninth of January, 1523, to appeal to the confederate Diet of the the great Council assembled in their hall Swiss Cantons, and to the bishop of Con- at Zurich. Marx Roist, the burgomaster, stance, for light upon the subjects in dis- a hoary-headed warrior, presided. On pute, but bad failed to gain a hearing in one side were the bishop's representatives, either qnarter. Meanwhile the enemies Von Anwyl, his high-steward, Faber, and of the Reformation began to persecute others; opposed to them were deputies their opponents wherever they could do from Berne and Schaffhausen, and the so with impunity, and the report of their clergy of the town. Zwingli sat alone in proceedings tended to inflame the young the center of an otherwise vacant circle Zurichois that were supporters of the at a table, with open Bibles in the three truth. Disputes were constantly arising. ancient tongues: men of learning, burYoung men challenged the monks in their gesses, and country people, to the number sermons, and proved the falseness of their of six hundred in all, filled the

space, teaching. With these disorders the town great wonderment what would come out authorities tried in vain to grapple, and of this affair." The burgomaster briefly at length, at Zwingli's instigation, they opened the proceedings, and Zwingli fol. determined to hold a public conference on lowed, defending his own teaching, and matters of religion.

declaring that it had been based upon As the Swiss Reformation took its God's word. Then Faber began in reply, peculiar course from the direction given and employed the usual arguments to to it at this period, it may be well suc- evade acknowledging the authority of the cinctly and plainly to enunciate the prin- appointed judges. They were not comciple that guided the Reformers. When petent to decide upon customs which had the light of Divine truth first broke upon been existing for ages, and had been esindividual men in the Romish communion, tablished by the Pope; they had better they were usually fain to content them- postpone the business for the present, as selves with preaching the truc doctrines, the General Council were to meet at and with condemning the corruptions of Nurenberg within a year; they should their time, though they themselves still not interfere in matters which it was their remained within the pale of the Papal prelate's business to adjudicate. To this Church. Such was the case of Savonarola Zwingli answered: “I have lately had and many others. But as the word of letters on the Nurenberg business, but God became more fully known, and gained they contain not a word about a General more numerous adherents, it was felt that Council. It is not custom, but truth, for the rites and ceremonies of Rome, founded which we are inquiring; this we shall find as they were upon her dogmas, were no in God's word, which we are learned longer to be borne. But by what author- enough to read in Hebrew, Greek, and ity were the necessary changes to be Latin.” The disputation then began; but effected ? It was soon manifest that the the condition that the decisive authority Papacy would agree to no proposal for a should be the Bible, rendered the victory General Council tbat should not be under secure. Purgatory, invocation of saints, its own influence and guidance. Nor adoration of the Virgin, the celibacy of could the whole nominally Christian body the clergy, came under review. In vain in each country be at present intrusted Faber pleaded long-established custom, in with such a responsibility : party spirit vain he argued that the Church could not ran too high on either side, and modera- have been in error fourteen hundred years, tion was not to be expected at their hands. in vain he quoted fathers and councils, in At this juncture, then, Zwingli proposed vain he tried to fasten upon Zwingli the to commit the decision of external things odium of heresy. Inexorably Zwingli and of rites to the Council of Two Hun- kept him to the point: “You must prove dred, the supreme authority in Zurich, it to us from Holy Scripture.” “The the condition being that their judgment Council resolved that their parish priest should be guided in all things by the rule should still retain his office, and that all [September,

other preachers should teach nothing from bosom of Rome. Many more, who were the pulpit but that which could be proved careless about religion, but were affected from Holy Writ. Faber, annoyed at his by Zwingli's denunciations of foreign defeat, declared that he spoke in his service, joined the force that was arrayed private capacity, and not as vicar-general. against him. The band was swelled by Then, Zwingli, flushed with victory, no all those whose sins were obnoxious to longer spared him. So ended the first his teaching, by all who preferred exConference; the Reformation was estab. pediency to principle, the fear of man to lished in Zurich, and the body of the the commands of God. Apprehension, people committed to its support. too, for their Canton's security, was now

A number of practical reforms followed. seriously awakened; for the Popish memThe abuses of the ecclesiastical establish- bers of the confederacy ruthlessly punished ment were rectified. The cathedral heretics in their own precincts, and spoke foundation maintained sixty canons and openly of their intentions to march against chaplains, most of whom led lives of idle- Zurich. And now, worse than all, disness, riot, and licentiousness. These were sensions sprang up amidst the Reformers, reduced to a staff that was sufficient to some of whom ran into the most deplorperform the required offices. Exactions able excesses, and brought great odium for various services were abolished, a wise on the cause with which they were idendiscretion being observed in permitting tified. We realize once more the full those who desired certain ceremonies to power of faith in seeing how a single man have them at their demand. Public was enabled to make head against such worship was placed upon a new footing, overwhelming opposition. Zwingli's courwith exposition of Scripture and a sermon. age seems to rise to every emergency. The monasteries were remodeled : their We may not, in the light of subsequent inmates had their choice of leaving, or experience, approve of all his measures remaining under a new régime; their for regulating the Church; we may regret monastic habit was abolished; the that in the heat and bitterness of controyounger monks were made to study or to versy he should have occasionally forgotlearn a trade; for the aged a becoming ten His example who, when he was reprovision was arranged. The funds of viled, reviled not again, and flung back suppressed foundations were applied to withering scorn and contempt upon his the sick and poor, and charities thus despicable foes; but when we regard all established still exist in Zurich. Celibacy the circumstances of his position—when was no longer to be imperative upon the we recollect that the axe and the fire clergy; and Zwingli set the example of were depriving him of some he loved choosing a fitting spouse. By these most dearly we can only admire his changes a wholesome reform was effected, great calmness, his uniform adhesion to and great scandals were removed. But principle, and his unshaken faith. With this point once reached, it was impossible all these troubles at home, he could find to avoid further alterations. A second leisure to advise foreign Churches, and religious discussion was held, at which it the care of all the Swiss Reformed body was finally determined that the mass was for some period came on him. There inconsistent with the teaching of Scripture, were fightings without, fears within ; yet that images should not be used, and that the bold heart held on its way, confiding prayers for the dead were unavailing in the security of his position in the sight These conclusions put a finishing hand to of God. the work of the Reformation.

We can not enter into the particulars Throughout the discussion of the above of the public disputation with the Anaquestions Zwingli had taken a leading baptists, or the arguments by which part, and his constant attention was ne- Zwingli supported infant baptism, whilst cessary to secure a favorable issue: but he denied all virtue to the mere outward although the result had been to establish rite. But the extravagance of his opponthe truth at Zurich, the Reformer's posi ents imperatively demanded the intervention was now full of peril. Many who had tion of the authorities, and Zwingli was

run well” took alarm at the dis- blamed for an intolerant edict which he regard of ecclesiastical authority which had most earnestly deprecated. In truth, the opposition of the Papists rendered | the behavior of these fanatics was an out. necessary, and retreated again into the rage upon the public peace. At the



moment when negotiations were pend- Zurich! Yet forty days and thou shalt ing, with every prospect of a quiet and be overthrown.»* satisfactory arrangement, for the disuse Such disorders were plainly inconsistof images and the suppression of the mass, ent not only with the peace of the Church, the Anabaptist leaders excited the people but with all good government, and would to break in pieces the images, the altars, suffice to relieve Zwingli from the charge and even the baptismal font. The wildest of intolerance in any endeavors to supfrenzy seemed to guide their actions. press them. But the Swiss Reformer opThose who formed their body were re- posed the severe decree that was passed baptized with the baptism of the regen- against them, and soon afterwards he preerate,” as they termed it, and joined in vailed on the Council to grant a safe-conthe celebration of the communion, which duct to those who had been banished, that they degraded into a nocturnal revel, at a second public disputation might be held the houses where they “set up the table to convince them of their errors. We of the Lord.” They rejected all regularly. must refer our readers to M. Christoffel's ordained preachers, maintaining that no pages for the arguments used on either paid minister could preach the truth. side. Each party was only the more obThey denied that any Christian man stinately confirmed in their previous opinought to hold


civil office, and conse- ions, and the Anabaptists became more quently refused to recognize the authority unmanageable than ever. At length a of the state. Finally, they established a terrible deed of blood committed at one community of goods, and even of wives, of their feasts aroused public indignation, and sank into the grossest Antinomianism and the people vehemently called upon and immorality.

the government to interfere. Some of the It was a matter of no small difficulty to ringleaders were executed, others were determine how best to deal with these banished. Thus ended a contest which fanatics. Their leaders were generally Zwingli declared to have cost him more designing men, who had been disappoint- sweat than his fight with the Papacy: nay, ed in their expectations of reaping a har- he said that the latter, in comparison with vest from the spoils of suppressed founda- this, was but child's play. tions; and they led on their more ignorant A far more painful contest, however, followers in avowed opposition to Zwingli's was carried on with Luther regarding the authority. When the council of Zurich Lord's Supper. The great German Resent a new pastor to Zollikon, in the place former appears no where in a more disadof one of their number, Blaurock, a leader vantageous light than in his treatment of of their sect, stood up in the center of the Zwingli. At the beginning of the dispute, church, and cried :

indeed, there is every reason to believe "I am the door; by me if any man enter that Luther was ignorant of Zwingli’s real in, he shall find pasture:...... as it is written, sentiments, and supposed them to be iden“I am the good shepherd, the good shepherd | tical with the views promulgated by Carlgireth his life for the sheep,” so I give my body stadt and the Zwickau prophets; but his and my life for my sheep; my body to the dun- violence abated not one whit when in. geon, and my life to the sword, or the fire, or formed of the great difference between the rack, wherever, like the blood of Christ on them. Storm-tossed and weather-beaten as the cross, it may be drained from the flesh. I am the beginning of baptism and the bread of Luther had been, no wonder if he acquired the Lord, along with my elect brethren in a rough exterior : indeed, he himself adChrist, Conrad Grebel and Felix Manz. There- mits it, but adds: “The heart is tender fore the Pope with his followers is a thief anda and soft.” Unfortunately, he only exposed murderer. Zwingli and Leo Juda too, with to Zwingli the hard rind : and began or their followers, are thieves and murderers, until ended all his disquisitions on the sacrathey recognize this.'”

ment with some reference to the devil, Bands of them, carrying lighted torches, who (he declared) had whispered his docpromenaded the streets of Zurich, shouting trine to his Swiss opponent. Zwingli redark prophetic sayings, and holding noc- plied, with all mildness and love: taral meetings. Whole crowds of deceiv

"You write, dear Luther, that the devil has ers and deceived clothed themselves in taken possession of us; that we have indeed sackcloth, bestrewed themselves with ash- read that Christ has died for us, but that we es, and, girding themselves with ropes, cried in the public places: “Woe to thee,

*Christoffel, p. 253.

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p. 322.

have not received it into our hearts. We do Whilst Zwingli was at Marburg, he had not know what better to say to this, than to re- held important consultations with the ply in the words of Paul : "Who art thou that Landgrave on the political condition of judgest another man's servant?" If we repeat the Reformers. Indications were not to you the sum of what we are to believe and teach, you either say we have learned it from wanting of an intention to suppress at you; and is it not strange that if we learned it once their religious and political liberties; from you, you do not recognize your own doc. for Charles the Fifth regarded with jealtrine ?- --or you say we do not believe our own ousy the freedom of his German subjects, Confessions. What are we to do? We can do and would willingly have embittered the nothing but joyfully bear the reproach, and lay dissensions between Paptists and Protestour case before the just Judge.""--Christoffel, ants, that he might take advantage of

their weakness to subdue them both beIt is with pain that we revert to these neath his power. Divide et impera, was weaknesses in so great a man as Luther, the motto of his policy; and a Spanish but the life of Zwing!i would be incom- force was ready to be marched into Gerplete without some mention of them. many, when the native states had been Fuller evidences of the spirit in which the exhausted in mutual conflict. Zwingli struggle was maintained, are to be found foresaw the impending danger, and had in M. Christoffel's pages, who enters warm- already made some provision to ward it ly into a vindication both of the doctrine off from Zurich. The terms upon which

a and the behavior of his hero. Luther this latter town had entered into the was, we regret to say by no means soft- Swiss Confederacy permitting it to make ened by the meekness of Zwingli's replies; alliances with other towns independently and he applied to his friends in power of the larger body, an alliance, offensive throughout Germany, to suppress by au- and defensive, reserving the rights of conthority the writings of'the Sacramentalists, science and liberty to preach the Gospel, as the Swiss Reformers were termed. was made with Constance. This treaty was “Now,” he wrote to Philip, Landgrave called “the Christian Burgher-Rights." of Hesse,“ it is war to the knife with these Berne, Basle, Mulhouse, Biel, and Schaff

Meanwhile, thoughtful men on hausen, were subsequently admitted. It either side bewailed this schism in the Re- was now proposed to make "the Burgerformed body, whilst their enemies were Rights” the basis of a general league beplotting to take advantage of its existence tween Protestant states, and ambassadors to effect the ruin of both parties. It was were dispatched to the towns of Northern determined, accordingly, to make an at- and South Germany. Strasburg had been tempt at union; and Philip, Landgrave already enrolled, and great hopes were of Hesse, exerted his influence to effect a entertained that Venice would be gained. reconciliation. Ruchat gives a full account Nor was the adhesion of France despaired of the arguments employed and the rea- of, the jealousy of Francis the First against sons urged on either side ; but from the the Emperor giving stronger grounds to very commencement success was hopeless. hope for his accession than any proofs The Lutherans desired to impose their which he had given of regard for the Gosown terms, which were to be accepted by pel. Such was the comprehensive scheme their opponents with an interpretation of which Zwingli had devised: its execution their own. Then an endeavor was made was prevented by a variety of circumstanto devise a formulary sufficiently ambigu- ces. Venice, although disposed to lend a ous to include both parties. But Zwingli favorable ear, had but just come to terms expressed his dissatisfaction at such a with the Austrians. Francis the First

He suggested that it would be dared not take any decisive step whilst far better to draw up a confession of the his sons remained as hostages in the hands fundamental doctrines on which they were of his great rival. Meanwhile no such all agreed, and to tolerate differences on hindrances presented themselves to the the sacramental question. This, indeed, union of the different Popish states; and was done on the sudden breaking up of the the Catholic Cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unassembly at Marburg. It is gratifying to terwalden, Lucerne, and Zug, called the remember, that on his death-bed Luther Five Places,” bad contracted a treaty with charged Melancthon to make further con- Austria, and with the Pope. Every thing cessions, and regretted the obstinacy he portended that a collision was inevitable. had displayed in this matter.

Zwingli saw this, and calmly estimated



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