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Chap. III. verse 2. “ Beware of dogs." The champion of Gath enquired of David, “ Am I a dog?” And David, when pursued by the infatuated and cruel Saul, asked, “ After whom dost thou pursue ? after a dead dog." The term NI, i. e. dog, is an expression of sovereign contempt for the faithless, the ignoble, and the outcasts.

« Never more will I go to the house of that dog.” “You call me a dog! then (running at him) I will bite thee.” “ Here, dog, are some bones for thee.”

“ Yes, yes, he will be a dog in the next birth."

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19. — “ Whose god is their belly.” When a pandārum is reproved and told to serve the gods, he exclaims, “ What! is not the belly the god ?”

66 I will tell you all about him, his god is in his belly.” “Belly, belly, nothing to the belly,” bawls the beggar at your door.

A Hindoo was once beating his dog most unmercifully, but when he was reminded his grandfather (alluding to the metempsychosis) might be in the animal, he immediately desisted. The Pariah dog is much like the jackal in his appearance and habits: they abound in every village; for there is scarcely a family without a dog to bark at you as you pass the door: the whelps are never destroyed. Hence the British government in large towns have always one or two days in a year for killing dogs. At that time the low castes, the Malays, and the Africans, parade the streets, or lurk in the corners with large bludgeons, to kill the stray animals, and may be seen dragging them by the legs to the office of the magistrate, where they receive a few fanams as a reward.


Chap. VI. verse 7. — “ We brought nothing into this

world, and it is certain we can carry nothing out.”

(Ps. xlix. 17.) My friend, why are you so anxious after this world ? How much did you bring into it? How much will you take out?" “ Ah! my son, be charitable to all; recollect, you brought nothing into the world, and be assured

you will take nothing out.”

6. That wretch would like to carry his money and lands into the other world.”

Tamby, did you bring these fields into the world with you? No; and they will remain when you are gone.”


Chap. XI. verse 37. — “ They were sawn asunder.” This dreadful punishment is said to have formerly existed in India; but, like many other cruelties, it has, I believe, entirely disappeared. After all that has been said to the contrary, the people of the East owe much to Britain.

XII. 6.-"For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth,

and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.” It is said of a truly good father, when he is obliged to punish his son,

Adikam, oru ki;

Anikam, oru ki.
One hand, chastises;
One hand, embraces.

Showing, that though he is obliged to inflict punishment with one hand, yet in his heart he embraces him with the other.


Chap. IV. verse 13. — “ We will go into such a city,

and continue there a year, and buy, and sell, and

get gain,” The merchants of the East have ever been famous for their trading peregrinations; and often are we reminded of the “company of Ishmaelites (who) came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spicery, and balm, and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt.” See the young adventurer; he has received a certain sum from his father, and goes to another town, where he has relations or friends, and he cautiously commences his business; he never loses sight of frugality, and should he, in the course of a few years, have gained a competency, he returns to his native place, there to husband out his days. But should he not prosper he goes to another town, for his affairs are so arranged in reference to rents and other matters, he finds no difficulty in removing. But another trader will not thus settle; he carries in two or three bags various spices (which are needed by every family), and gums, and drugs, or cloth and silk, and muslins, or jewels, or precious stones, and after a year or so he returns with the proceeds of his journey.

* Gen. xxxvü, 25.


Chap. III. verse 10. — “ But the day of the Lord will

come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat; the earth also, and the works that are therein, shall be

burned up

The Hindoos call the present age the Kali-yugam, which is the last and the worst; the Kreatha-yugam, the age of innocence and universal happiness, is fast approaching. But there must first be a general destruction of the present state of things. The lightnings and rains of brimstone will blast and burn up all created things; the sun will fall like the red lotus, and the moon like the white; the stars will drop like the illupi flowers, and then shall the end be. See Scanda Purāna and Koorma Purana.


Chap. II. verse 16.-" The lust of the flesh, and the

lust of the eyes, and the pride of life.” Christians speak of their enemies as being threefold, the world, the flesh, and the devil. In the Scanda Purāna it is recorded, “ The soul is entangled in three kinds of snares; it has no beginning, and is infinite.” The snares are,

women, gold, and the earth.”


VERSE 12. “ Clouds they are without water; trees

whose fruit withereth.” (Proverbs xxv. 14. “ Like

clouds and wind without rain.") “ Alas, alas, my days of pleasure have passed away, my prosperity has gone, and I am now like the white cloud(i. e. without rain). “ Poor Kandan has lost all his property, and he is now like the cloud without a womb." (" From the womb of the morning thou hast the dew of thy youth.” Psalm 3.)

" Trees whose fruit withereth.” “ That wretch is like the poison tree." 66 You resemble the male palmyra tree, which bears no fruit.” “ Who will go near that fellow ? he is like the fruit-bearing palmyra in the place of burning *, no one will ascend it."



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Chap. I. verse “ I saw seven golden candlesticks.” The lamps in temples and houses are always in unequal numbers. In giving areca nuts, or beetle leaves, care is always taken to deal out an uneven number. In calling a medical man one, or three, or five messengers will be sent, and, in taking the medicine, the hours of one, three, five, seven, nine, or eleven will be selected. The Brahmins in giving a feast always take care to have an unequal number of guests. +

* Where the bodies are consumed on the funeral pile.

+ " The gods delight in an uneven number.” — See the 8th Eclogue of Virgil.

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