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persons. While the population increased 83 per cent in twenty-eight years, the number of books accessible to the people increased 374 per cent.
The stimulus given to library development by the benefactions of Mr. Andrew Carnegie is recognized in this rapid increase by every one interested in the subject. There are in the United States nearly a thousand libraries which owe their existence in the main or in some part to the gifts of Mr. Carnegie.a
Vormal schools (Chapter XXXVI, pp. 1753-1811). — The number of students pursuing teachers' training courses in the several classes of institutions for the year 1902–3 was 88,003. This was a decrease of 6,143 from the number reported for the preceding year, although there was an increase of 23 in the number of institutions reporting. In all public institutions there were 58,837 normal students, 19,175 of these being in public normal schools. In all private institutions there were 29,166 normal students, 14,939 of these being in private normal schools. Private universities and colleges alone show an increase in the enrollment of normal students over the preceding year. The following table shows the number and classes of institutions offering professional instruction to teachers and the number of normal students in each class for the last four years:
a From the Library Journal for January, 1905, page 23, I copy the following table:
Public appropriations to public normal schools for fourteen years.
a Including public high schools.
Estimated or partly estimated. elnder universities and colleges are included 4,921 professors and instructors in professional departments.
Secondary schools (Chapter XXXVII, pp. 1813-2137).-The aggregate enrollment in the schools and colleges of the United States for the scholastic year ending June, 1903, was 17,539,478. In the elementary schools, public and private, the enrollment was 16,511,024. Of this number the public common schools had 15,417,148, while the estimated number in private elementary schools was 1,093,876. The first eight grades of the common school course in most of the States are known as the elementary grades, and the grades in private schools generally correspond to these. The grades from 9 to 12, inclusive, in most of the State school systems are known as the secondary or high school grades. Private high schools, academies, seminaries, and college preparatory schools maintain practically the same grades. The total enrollment in the secondary or high school grades for the year mentioned was 776,635, or 4.43 per cent of the aggregate, 17,539,478.
Students receiving secondary instruction in public and private high schools and ucademies
and in preparatory departments of colleges and other institutions.
Since 1890 the rate of increase in the number of secondary students from year to year has been greater than the rate of increase in population. The number of secondary students in both public and private institutions in 1890 was 367,003, or about 5,900 to the million of population; in 1895 the number had increased to 539,712, or 7,900 to the million; in 1900 the number was 719,241, or 9,500 to the million, while for the year 1903 the number of secondary students aggregated 776,635, or about 9,700 to the million population, or almost 1 per cent. The enrollment of secondary students in private institutions has scarcely kept pace with the increase in population, while the enrollment in public institutions has increased more rapidly. In 1890 public secondary students constituted 0.36 per cent of the population, while in 1903 the proportion was 0.76 per cent.
There was a small decrease in the number of students preparing for college, the number being 58,140, as against 58,691 the preceding year, the percentage falling from 10.66 to 9.82. The total number of graduates was 69,991, or 11.82 per cent of the total enrollment. Of the graduates 22,887, or nearly 33 per cent, had been preparing for college.
Careful estimates have shown that about 43 per cent of the aggregate high school enrollment will be found in the first-year studies, 26 per cent in the second year, 18 per cent in the third year, and 13 per cent in the fourth-year studies. If the 592,213 public high school students were divided thus, there would be 254,652 in the first year, 153,975 in the second, 106,598 in the third, and 76,988 in the fourth year.
In the synopsis given above it is shown that 297,925, or more than half the students, were studying Latin. There were 12,033 studying Greek, or about 2 per cent of the whole number.
City school systems (Chapter XXXII, pp. 1391-1502). —This chapter contains 17 tables presenting statistics of the various classes of schools maintained in incorporated cities and towns having a population of 4,000 or over. The first nine tables relate to day schools in cities of a population of 8,000 or over; the two tables following to evening schools in the same class of cities; the next three to day schools in cities and towns having a population between 4,000 and 8,000; and the
three tables remaining to public and private kindergartens in all cities having a population of 4,000 or more. It will be noted that there are 587 cities of the first class and 589 of the second, and that these had a combined population, according to the Twelfth Census, of 28,124,407, or 37.3 per cent of the entire population.
It will be noted that the number of cities having a population of 8,000 or more has been increased by 7, and the cities and towns having a population between 4,000 and 8,000 by 130, since the last report. Summary of statistics of cities containing over 8,000 inhabitants, showing increase from
1. 20 2. 38 2.95 2.94
Number of city school systems
tuition Total expenditure
587 4, 174,812 4, 274,071 591, 719, 445 609, 200, 167 3, 159, 441 3, 252, 257 187.3
187.3 877, 210 968, 002 2, 492
2, 663 2,533
2, 716 5, 025
5, 379 6, 969
7, 280 83, 775
86, 856 90, 744
94, 136 9,512
9,853 3,938, 001 4,095, 417 $356,986,076 $380, 437, 679 $66, 561, 505 $70, 252, 274 $111, 159, 665 $122, 353, 007
7 99, 259 17, 480, 722 92,816
0 90, 792
171 183 354
311 3,081 3,392
341 167, 446 $23, 451, 603 $3,690, 769 $11, 193, 342
10. 35 6.86 7. 22 7.04 4. 46 3. 68 3. 74 3.58 4.00 6.57 5. 39 10.07
Charts exhibited by the Bureau at St. Louis. - -Chapter XXIII (pp. 1137–1184) presents the statistics contained on the wall charts of the exhibit of the Bureau at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis. Most of the charts included comparative statistics extending over different epochs. Among them were the following:
Benefactions to different classes of institutions during the year 1902.
institutions, professors, and students.
fessors. graduate students.
PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.
The following tables show the sex of students in the various professional schools, and the number of students at three different epochs from 1880 to 1902:
Professional education in the United States--Growth in twenty-two years, 1880-1902.
The following table shows that the students in the first year of the high-school course equal in number the entire number of students in the second and third years taken together. It shows, moreover, that the number of students enrolled in the fourth year is less than onethird of the number enrolled in the first year's work. Number secondary students in public and private high schools, 1901–2..... 655, 301
43 per cent in first year.
281, 780 170, 378 117,954 85, 189
ILLITERATE NEGROES OF VOTING AGE IN THE SOUTHERN STATES.
The following table shows two epochs, 1870 and 1900, and the percentage of the colored males of voting age who could read and write at each epoch. The increase in Alabama has been from 7 per cent to 40.5 per cent in the thirty years, and the increase in Georgia has been even greater, namely from 6.9 per cent to 43.6 per cent.
In some other States the increase is even greater.