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versities to women went on without much comment or agitation, but conservative sentiment in the East was somewhat excited over the question as is indicated by its public discussion in the press and on the platform and by numerous publications, pro and con, which are referred to in the chapter under review. Doctor Clarke's Sex and Education, published in 1873, was the first important contribution to the discussion from the medical standpoint. His objections to coeducation have lost force by reason of the special adjustments to individual conditions which have become a marked feature of school and college life since his book was published. These adjustments, while equally beneficial to both sexes, are largely the outcome of the presence of women both as students and teachers. The discussion which Doctor Clarke's work excited led also to the first systematic endeavor to collect statistics showing the effect of higher education upon the health of women students; it drew forth also important testimony as to the results of coeducation from college presidents, principals of high schools, and public school superintendents of wide experience in the matter. The literature thus accumulated between 1870 and 1875 foreshadowed all subsequent discussions of the subject.
The policy of coeducation, as already stated, was well established in this country by 1870). Since that date its history up to a very recent period has been one of uninterrupted progress. This progress is impressively shown by the detailed statistics presented in Chapter XX pertaining (1) to high schools; (2) to colleges and universities.
The 6,292 high schools reported to the Bureau of Education in 1902, enrolled 550,611 pupils (226,914 boys, 323,697 girls), and of this number 95 per cent, or a total of 523,344 pupils (215,944 boys, 307,400 girls), were in coeducational schools.
By reference to statistics, page 1001, it will be seen that the few instances of separate high schools for boys and girls are found for the most part in cities situated on the eastern border of the country and that even here they form exceptions to the general practice in their own States. The statistics show, further, that the public high schools prepare
the great majority of pupils who enter higher institutions. In 1902 the public high schools reported 58,691 students preparing for college (30,704 boys, 27,987 girls), against 25,574 in private high schools and academies, or a proportion of 24 to 1. Considering the graduating classes alone, the numbers were, respectively, 21,018 and 5,141, or a proportion of 4 to 1, indicating that the public high schools retain a larger proportion of this class of students to the end of the course than the private schools.
The increase of scholastic relations has greatly increased the influence of the high schools upon the universities, and undoubtedly explains in part the rapid spread of coeducation in the higher institutions. Indeed, as stated in the chapter, both on account of the phenomenal ingreana in the number of high schools, the expansion of their curriculums, and their public support, it is safe to assume that a policy adopted by an overwhelming majority of these schools can not be excluded from the higher institutions, which are so largely recruited from them.
The tables relative to colleges and universities (pp. 1064-1066) show at a glance the rapid increase in the number of coeducational institutions and the number of women students in them. In 1873 the number of coeducational colleges reporting to the Bureau of Education was 97 and the number of women students enrolled in their collegiate departments was 1,923; in 1902 the number of coeducational colleges had increased to 330 and the number of women students to 21,151. At the earlier date the coeducational colleges formed 30.5 per cent of the total number of colleges open to men only or to men and women; in 1902, 71 per cent. The ratio of women students to the total number of undergraduates was 7.7 per cent in 1873; in 1902 it was 24.7 per cent. Statistics given on page 1066 show that this increase in the proportion of women students was accompanied by an absolute increase in the number of men students in the colleges admitting both sexes.
Among many interesting facts brought out by the detailed statistics, is that of the increase in the number of coeducational colleges in the North Atlantic division of the country from 13 in 1873 to 37 in 1902, and the increase in the number of women students in the same from 242 in 1873 to 2,629 in 1902.
It is significant also that the coeducational institutions include many of the largest and most richly endowed universities of the country. Of 18 universities in the country which report each more than 900 undergraduate students, 12 are coeducational; and of 15 institutions having each over $2,000,000 productive funds, 7 are included in the same list.
It is noticeable further that while there were few additions to the number of coeducational colleges and universities in the decade 18901900, there was during that period a marvelous expansion in the State universities of the West which, as already observed, admit both men and women (see p. 1066).
Chapter XX shows also the bearing of statistics on several questions that have recently excited much discussion. For example, it appears that the increase in the number of men in the undergraduate departments of colleges and universities during the period 1893–1902 was much greater in the coeducational institutions than in those for men only, the ratios of increase being, respectively, 38.6 per cent and 22 per cent (see p. 1066). From this showing there would seem to be little ground for the opinion sometimes expressed that men students are generally opposed to the presence of women in the college classes.
It is also frequently asserted that a segregation of students by sex is taking place in coeducational institutions through the students' choice of studies. It is true that in the case of the few institutions which give the scholastic classification of their students there is found to be an excess of women students in certain courses of study and of men students in others; but it is equally evident that the choice is determined not by sex, but by the practical consideration of careers that may be followed after graduation. This view is emphasized also by the fact that of the two most largely attended special courses of study organized in universities, pedagogy shows 67 per cent of women, against 33 per cent of men students, and commercial courses 49 per cent of women, against 51 per cent of men. On the whole, it does not appear from the data presented that the separation of men and women students through their respective choice of studies is so decided as to greatly affect the organization of the typical college courses or to be a disturbing influence even in the arrangement of special courses. There are, moreover, indications that the tendency to early specialization in the college course is giving way to the demand for a more unified course of general education while, at the same time, the careers open to educated women are increasing; these two movements must tend to equalize the proportion of men and women in the culture studies as distinguished from those of immediate utility.
The admission of women to the same professional schools as men rests upon different grounds from their admission to general courses of study, and the opposition to this action has not only been much more extreme, but at times there has been a manifest disposition to hinder the opening of separate professional schools for women. For this reason, as stated in the chapter, “professional training for women, whether offered in separate schools or in the same schools with men, is an index of the growth of liberal sentiments in our country rather than, like coeducation in colleges, the outcome of democratic impulses." All orders of professional training are now open to women, and the number availing themselves of the provision increases. They form, however, only a very small percentage of the whole body of professional students; in medicine, for example, which was the first profession to which women aspired, and which leads all others in the number of women students, they form only 34 per cent of the total student body (see p. 1072).
The policy of coeducation derives, also, new force from its steady advance in Europe as the old feudal forms of society pass away. From statistics given in Chapter XX it appears that there are at present 86 universities in Europe to which women are freely admitted, and 26 universities in which they are admitted by special permission to certain lectures and, in some cases also, to examinations.
The Catholic parochial schools of the United States.-In Chapter XXI, pp. 1079-1101, Rev. Morgan M. Sheedy, rector of St. John's Pro-Cathedral, Altoona, Pa., treats of the development of the system
of Catholic parochial schools in this country, their character, methods, and aims. These schools, like all schools under private control, are maintained by voluntary contributions without any aid from public funds, at an estimated annual cost of from $20,000,000 to $25,000,000. A private educational system that has reached the proportions indicated by an expenditure of this magnitude may be expected to have developed, to a greater or less extent, methods in school administration, instruction, and management peculiar to itself, a study of which should afford useful suggestions, and perhaps contribute toward the solution of questions now engaging the attention of school officials and teachers.
The writer gives the reasons for his conviction that the Catholic school system is a permanent feature of American education; its success, in the face of many obstacles, and in competition with the generously supported public schools, he rightly attributes largely to the devotion and self-sacrifice of the thousands of men and women, for the most part members of the teaching orders of the church, who have consecrated their lives to the service in which they are engaged. “The parochial school teacher devotes his whole life to teaching,” and thereby stands in a different relation to his work from one who takes up teaching as a temporary makeshift. The child's future welfare is stated to be the first and great consideration of the Catholic teacher; moreover, increasing care is taken, as is the case with the public schools, that no teacher is employed who is not duly qualified as regards scholarship and professional attainments. In most dioceses there are teachers' examining boards, and in all the novitiates of the religious teaching communities normal schools exist, though many of these do not as yet have a model or practice school connected with them.
A great advance is noted in the matter of parochial school buildings and material equipment. Where formerly a plain and modest structure or the basement of a church served for a schoolhouse in the large towns and cities, a substantial, perhaps imposing, school edifice is now frequently to be met with. The Catholic school authorities fully appreciate the importance of healthful and attractive buildings, Mr. Sheedy says, with approved hygienic and sanitary arrangements.
The management of the school rests ultimately with the rector of the parish. He is aided by a committee of competent laymen, who visit the schools at least once a week and supervise the instruction; once a month, usually, they meet in conference with the rector. The larger schools, of 300 pupils and over, have generally a supervising principal. Specimens of weekly and monthly reports are given, and of school regulations; also the daily programme of exercises of a typical school of eight grades (pp. 1092–1094). The course of study of the third and eighth grades is given in detail, showing the topics covered in the different branches (pp. 1094-1095). Special attention is given to United States history, and a spirit of patriotism is inculcated. Some of the dioceses have a diocesan superintendent, a priest well versed in educational matters and set apart by the bishop especially for this work. He is relieved of other duties and devotes his whole time to supervision of the schools. He makes regular visits, holds examinations, and makes an annual report. In the opinion of Mr. Sheedy, this official has been a powerful factor in the recent great progress made by the parochial schools. According to the most available sources of information these schools now enroll 967,518 pupils; to this number should be added 14,127 in boys' secondary schools, 20,874 in girls' secondary schools, and 4,010 receiving higher education, making a total of 1,006,529.
A computation is made showing that the proportion of the Cathouc population enrolled in the Catholic schools and colleges of the different grades ranges from one-third to one-half the proportion of the total population enrolled in the schools or colleges of corresponding grades in the country at large. The Catholic schools have not as yet, in the opinion of Mr. Sheedy, succeeded in gathering in their full quota of pupils. To what extent this is due to Catholic children attending public or other non-Catholic schools, and to what extent to their not attending any school at all, can not be ascertained. It is the aim of the Catholic authorities to strengthen their high schools for boys and take other steps to institute a “thoroughly coordinated system of Catholic schools, embracing parochial school, high school, college, and university, with an enrollment including practically the whole of the Catholic school population.”
Education in Alaska.—Chapter XLV (pp. 2365–2384) reports the condition and number of reindeer in Alaska for the year ending 1903. The following Table 1 shows the increase from 1892, the first year that a regular herd of reindeer was established in Alaska, down to 1904.4 There were nine successful importations of deer from Siberia, bringing an aggregate of 1,280 in all. It will be seen that (in October) in 1892 the number surviving from the first importation was 143, and in 1904 the number reported in all the herds was 8,189.
The matter of the introduction of reindeer had been brought to my attention in the fall of 1890 by Doctor Jackson on his return from his annual visit to Alaska. He reported that year an increased mortality among the natives due to starvation. The white hunters had driven away the game or destroyed it, especially the caribou and the walrus. The white fishermen had taken with nets the salmon from the rivers. The food of the population was diminishing from year to year, and it threatened with extinction the tribes of Eskimos and Indians, who numbered some 40,000 in the whole Territory of Alaska. Doctor Jackson mentioned that Captain Healy believed that reindeer ought to
a At the time this report goes to press I have received the figures for the year 1904 as well as for the year 1903.