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the general adoption of sound and practical gymnastic instruction in all grades of the public schools has not been attained. Still much has been gained in the field of discussion and of experiment. Not only more people, but more kinds of people, feel that no hopeful means of combating the untoward effects of school life upon the normal growth and development of the rising generation should be neglected. Consequently both the general and the educational public are disposed, as never before, to consider and even to admit the claims of physical training to a larger and more influential place in the public school system. Thus the way is being opened for clearer ideas as to the value and capabilities of the various forms of physical training, the character of the measures requisite to effectuate their ends, and the obstacles in the way of such measures.
Although discussion is less general and lively than it was ten years ago, it has improved in tone and become more intelligent, discriminating, and profitabletheories and practical measures are subjected to more patient and searching criticism than at any previous time. Then, too, experimentation in this field is more general and better directed than hereto ore, and a greater readiness to ascertain and apply the teachings of experience is apparent both among school officials and teachers of gymnastics. Discussion and experiment are proceeding so soberly, patiently, and fruitfully that (though there has been little of startling or dramatic progress in the field of pedagogical gymnastics recently) there is no ground for apprehension lest there should be a reversion to the condition which was generally prevalent prior to 1885. The problems of the education of the city school child and the problems of physical training are inextricably connected and interrelated, and must be met. The penalties of avoidance and inactivity are so sure and speedy that hereafter complete or long-continued neglect of physical training in the leading cities of America may be looked cn as an improbable event.
When we consider the progress made since 1880 and the characteristics of the present time, there seems a fair prospect that when the next tide of keen and general interest in popular education begins to flood the cause of sound physical training in both of its principal departments will be so quickened and advanced as to enter upon the stage of constructive development.
PUBLIC, SOCIETY, AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES.
References to preceding Reports of the United States Bureau of Education, in which this subject
has been treated: In Annual Report, 1870, pp.541, 54.2; 1871, pp. 668-677; 1872, pp. liii-Ivii, 820-887; 1873, pp. Lxxxviii sciv, 729-763; 1874, pp. lxxxvii-xcii, 753–793; 1875, pp. (iv-cvii, 797-883; 1876, pp. exxii-cxxv, 777-779; 1877, pp. cxxxi-cxlii, 583-585; 1878, pp.cxxii, 599-600; 1879, pp.clvii-clviti, 618-619; 1890, pp. clxvi-clxvii, 738-741; 1881, pp. cei-criv, 068-671; 1882–83, pp. clxxxv-clxxxviii, 694 699; 1883-94, pp. clxxxiii-clxxxiv, 724-737; 1884-45, pp. ccxxix-CXXX, 691-782; 1885-86, pp. 716-719; 1886–87, pp. 901-972; 1887-88, pp. 1031-1039; 1892-93, pp. 575-583, 691-1014; 1893-94, pp. 1503
1501; 1895-96, pp. 339-590; 1897-98, pp. 673-692; 1899 1900, pp. 633-719, 923-1165. In special reports and circulars of information: 1876, Public Libraries in the United States of
America, their history, condition, and management, Part I, edited by S.R. Warren and S. N. Clark, pp xxxv, 1187; Rules for a printed Dictionary Catalogue, Part II, by C A. Cutter, pp. 89; Circular of Information No. 1.1880, College Libraries as Aids to Instruction, by Justin Winsor and Otis H. Robinson, pp. 27. Circular of Information No. 1, 1881, Construction of Library Buildings, by William Poole, pp. 28; 1381, Library Aids, by Samuel Green, pp. 10; 1846. Statistics of Public Libraries in the United States, pp. 98, reprinte 1 from 1884-85 Annual Report; 1886, Special Report New Orleans Exposition 1854-55, pp. 050-657; 13.1, Cutter's Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue, pp. 140; third edition, with corrertions and additions, reprinted from the 1876 special report; Circular of Information No.7, 1893, Statistics of Public Libraries in the United States and Canada (in 1891), pp. 213; 1893, Catalogue of A. L. A. Library of 5,000 volumes, for a popular library, pp. 592; 1896, Papers prepared for the World's Library Congress, held at the Columbian Exposition, pp. 691-1014, reprinted from Annual Report, 1892-93; 1897, Statistics of Public, Society, and School Libraries in the United States, and Library Legislation in the United States, being chapters viii and ix reprinted from the Commission r's Report for 1895-96; 1901, Public, Society, and School Libraries, reprint of chapter xvii, Report for 1899-1900; 1903, Public, Society, and School Libraries, and Library Legislation, being reprint of chapter xvii, Report for 1499-1900, and chapter ix, Report for 1895-96.
STATISTICS FOR 1903.
Statistics collected by this Bureau in the latter part of the year 1903 show that there are in the United States 6,869 public, society, and school libraries having each 1,000 volumes or over. This is an increase of 1,486 in the number of libraries since 1900. The 6,869 libraries have an aggregate of 54,419,002 volumes, an increase of 9,827,151, or 22 per cent, since 1900.
The statistics of the 6.869 libraries will be found summarized in Tables 1 to 9 in the beginning of this chapter. Table 10 is a summary of the returns from 2,243 libraries of less than 1,000 but more than 300 volumes each, the aggregate number of volumes in these small libraries being 1,215,695.
Tables 11, 12, 13, and 14 are historical, showing the growth of public, society, and school libraries since 1875.
Public libraries are supported wholly or partly by public funds and are generally free to the public. Society libraries are maintained by societies, corporations, or associations, and derive their support from membership fees and dues, book rents, and donations. School libraries include all connected with public or private schools and colleges. These are varionsly scipported, as may be seen by reference to the general list. Libraries owned by individuals and strictly private, not being in any way accessible to the public, are not included in the list. Libraries of private schools are generally free to the public for reference.
Table 1 gives by States and geographical divisions the number of libraries of 1,000 volumes and over reporting to this office in 1903, also the number of bound volumes and unbound pamphlets. The last three columns show the increase since 1900 in the number of libraries and the number of volumes and the per cent of increase in the number of volumes in each State.
The North Atlantic division has 3,006 of the 6,869 public, society, and school libraries of the United States and 27,805,980 of the 54,414,002 bound volumes, also 5,281,714 of the 9,314,913 unbound pamphlets reported.
New York alone has 924 libraries, with 9,079,863 volumes; Massachusetts 624 libraries, with 7,616,994 volumes, and Pennsylvania 491 libraries, with 4,580,312 volumes. These three States have nearly 30 per cent of the number of libraries and almost 40 per cent of the whole number of volumes reported by the whole United States.
The North Central division has 2,284 libraries, with 14,542,460 volumes. Illinois has 395 libraries, with 3,170,932 volumes, and Ohio 354 libraries, with 2,841,401 volumes.
The South Atlantic division has 548 libraries, with 6,025,022 volumes. The 90 libraries of the District of Columbia have 2,712,693 volumes. Maryland has 89 libraries, with 1,303,964 volumes, and Virginia 85 libraries, with 532,811 volumes.
The South Central division has 494 libraries, with an aggregate of 2,524,283 volumes. Kentucky has 85 libraries, with 582,018 volumes; Tennessee 86 libraries, with 454,762 volumes, and Texas 104 libraries, with 420,517 volumes.
The Western division has 547 libraries, with an aggregate of 3,521,257 volumes, California alone having 297 of these libraries, with 2,142,867 volumes. Colorado has 77 libraries, with 468,741 volumes.
The largest per cent of increase in the number of volumes since 1900 is shown for the South Central division, although the actual number of accessions was smaller than for any other division. The percentage of gain for this division was nearly 34, for the North Central nearly 30, for the Western division nearly 27, for the North Atlantic almost 19, and for the South Atlantic nearly 14.
Table 2 shows the number of libraries having reading rooms supplied with periodicals, the number of volumes reported as added during the year preceding the closing of this report, and the number of books issued. It is seen that 3,248 of the 6,869 libraries in the United States are supplied with an aggregate of 186,880 periodicals. The number of bound volumes added during the year by 4,464 libraries was 2,563,550.
Only 2,988 libraries reported the number of books issued for home use. This number aggregated 59,188,407 for the year. In 836 libraries 11,663,438 books were issued for use in the library.
As shown in Table 3, only 1,376 libraries own the buildings they occupy, 744 are in rented buildings, while 4,749 occupy buildings or rooms furnished free. These latter are nearly all libraries connected with schools, colleges, and other institutions.
The number of libraries supported by public taxation or appropriations is 3,148. Corporations, including private schools and societies, sustain 3,078 libraries; 227 are supported by donations, and 416 receive their support from various sources.
There are 2,875 libraries reported as free to the public, 2,932 are free for reference, and 1,042 are subscription libraries.
The number of circulating libraries is given as 477, those for reference only as 1,485. Libraries which are both circulating and reference number 4,907.
Table 4 attempts to give a general classification of the 6,869 libraries reporting. The classification is not entirely satisfactory, as most school and college libraries should also be classed as general. Some Government and State libraries are general and others are scientific. Many libraries supported by societies are also general. For practical purposes an inspection of the list printed in this chapter will prove more satisfactory than a general statement or summary.
Table 5 is a classification according to size. There are only 4 libraries in the United States having over half a million volumes each, 5 more have over 300,000 each, and 50 others have over 100,000 each. Between 50,000 and 100,000 volumes there are 116, and 211 more above 25,000. There are 649 libraries having between 10,000 and 25,000 volumes, and between 5,000 and 10,000 there are 1,024 more. The number having 1,000 and over but less than 5,000 volumes is 4,810. Of the 6,869 libraries only 2,059 have 5,000 volumes or over.
Table 6 classifies the sources of income of 3,726 libraries. The amount received by 959 libraries from direct taxation for libraries was $2,671,623. The largest source of income was State, county, and city appropriations, the aggregate of $3,651,404 having been received for 1903 by 1,622 libraries. From endowment funds 707 librariez received $1,196,657, from membership fees and dues 1,022 libraries realized $396,077, from book rents 361 libraries received $54,371, and from donations 899 libraries received $692,168. The aggregate income of 3,726 libraries was $10,059,858. Of this sum $1,397,553 came from sources not stated.
Library expenditures are exhibited in Table 7. Books and pamphlets were purchased by 3,064 libraries at a cost of $2,304,554; periodicals were supplied at a cost of $305,197 to 1,980 libraries; 2,167 libraries paid $3,603,572 for salaries, and 526 libraries paid rents amounting to $255,881. The total expenditure of 3,630 libraries was $8,636,265. Of this aggregate the sum of $2,167,061 was for purposes not indicated.
Table 8 exhibits the value of property and endowment of all the libraries from which these items could be obtained. The aggregate money value of endowments reported by 729 libraries is $.31,077,728; the value of books and pamphlets owned by 3,060 libraries is estimated at $39,476,064; the value of equipment, furniture, etc., of 2,180 libraries is $3,370,328, while 866 libraries have buildings of their own aggregating in value $39,303,952.
The Census Office estimates that the population of the United States in 1903 was 79,900,389. Table I will show that there are 11,632 people per library and that there are 68 books per 100 people, based upon total population, total number of libraries, and aggregate number of volumes.
In the North Atlantic division there are 126 books to each 100 people. Massachusetts has 236, New York 119, and Pennsylvania 69 books to each 100 people.
The South Atlantic division has 55 books to the 100 people, the largest proportion being in the District of Columbia, where there are 925 books per 100 people. Maryland has 105 books per 100, while Florida and West Virginia have 15 volumes per 100 population.
The South Central division has 17 books per 100 people, the lowest being 2 to the 100 in Indian Territory and the highest 26 to the 100 in Kentucky and Louisiana.
In the North Central division the number of books per 100 population is 53, North Dakota having the lowest, 19, and Ohio the highest, 66.
The Western division has 80 volumes per 100 population, the lowest being New Mexico with 22 and the highest California with 137 books to every 100 people. Only the District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Vermont have a greater number of volumes in proportion to population than has California.
No special effort was made to secure returns from libraries having less than 1,000 volumes. Reports were received from several thousand of these small but useful libraries, and the returns from those having 300 volumes and over were tabulated. Table 10 is a summary of these reports. There are 2,242 libraries, with an aggregate of 1,215,695 volumes. Of these libraries, 864 are free, 1,216 free for reference, and 162 subscription. There are in this list 1,697 school libraries, 56 college libraries, 323 general libraries, all others numbering 166.
Statistics of libraries were collected by this Bureau in 1875, 1885, 1891, 1896, 1900, and 1903. Table 11 is historical, showing the number of libraries and the number of people per library for each of the years inentioned. In 1875 each library sup