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ommends running, football, quoits, and dancing as suited to the needs of sedentary persons.

Doctor Rosh, in an essay “On the amusements and punishments proper for schools,” dated August, 1790, proposed that "the amusements of our youth shall consist of such exercises as will be most subservient to their future employments in life.” The amusements he favored were“ agricultural and mechanical employments,” and he notes with approval that the Methodists in their college in Maryland “have wisely banished every species of play.”

Quite naturally the most comprehensive schemes proposed for the physical education of American youth were of a military character. In January, 1790, President Washington transmitted to the first Senate of the United States a report from General Knox, the Secretary of War, recommending the enrollment and military training of all men between the ages of 18 and 60. His plan, which failed of adoption, called for the formation of “annual camps of discipline” in each State. In these camps

the advancel corps,"composel of the “ youth of eighteen, nineteen, and twenty years of age,' was to receive its schooling in the art of war. It was provided that “no amusements should be admitted in camp but those which correspond with war." Evidently the correspondence between football and war, which in the eyes of certain of its modern admirers is one of its most laudable features, was not sufficiently clear in 1790 to elicit the commendation of General Knox, else he might naturally have approved it along with “the swimming of men and horses, running, and wrestling as a means of rendering the bodies of his advanced corps “flexible and vigorous." Possibly he agreed with King James I of England, who in his “ King's Book of Sports” hal in 1618 characterized football as “meeter for lameing than making able;' but it is most likely that football “scrimmages" in 1790 partook less of the tactics of dismounted cavalry than in our own day. It is noteworthy that since the Boer war some Englishmen have openly doubted the validity of the alleged statement of the Duke of Wellington that the field of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton College.

In 1817, in response to a suggestion from President Madison, a report was made to Congress upon the reorganization of the militia, in which it was recommended " that a corps of military instructors should be formed to attend to the gymnastic and elementary part of instruction in every school in the United States, whilst the more scientific part of the art of war should be communicated by professors of tactics to be established in all the higher seminaries.” This scheme did not receive the sanct on of law, either in 1817 or in 1819, when it was bronght forward again. The credit for the first considerable successes in combining physical with mental training in America should be awarded to the United States Military Academy at West Point and to certain schools modeled on it while it was still young. Physical training at West Point has a continuous history of nearly ninety years, since the administration of Maj. Sylvanus Thayer as superintendent, to whose shaping influence the West Point course of instruction owes its most salient characteristics, began in 1817.

In 1818 Capt. Alden Partridge, Thayer's immediate predecessor at West Point, resigned from the United States Army, apparently for the purpose of attempting to reform the superior education of the country, whose defects, including an utter neglect of physical education, he vigorously criticised in his well-known “ Lecture on Education.” In 1820 Captain Partridge opened the “American Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy" at Norwich, Vt. In 1825, on the eve of his departure to Middletown, in Connecticut, where he started a similar seminary, he issued a card in which he claimed that at Norwich, his plan of “connecting mental improvement with a regular course of bodily exercises and the full development of the physical powers” had succeeded beyond his most sanguine expectations. Captain Partridge was directly concerned in the establishment or

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rehabilitation of no less than six military academies, two of which were opened in 1853, the year of his death. It does not appear that the example of the military academies had any appreciable effect upon the public school system of instruction in any city or State of the Union. During the civil war military drill became popular as a means of physical education for boys in private schools and high schools. Since then there have been ceveral exacerbations of military ardor, which have lel to futile attempts to induce Congress and various State legislatures to sanction schemes for providing places in which ambitious veterans and militiamen should aid schoolboys to play at soldiers. Judging from the experience of France, England, and Germany, if the introduction of military drill should become general in the public schools, the experiment would most likely prove short-lived and disappointing. It is a most significant fact that in every first-class European army gymnastics, rather than the manual of arms, are employed to strengthen, supple, and “ set up the recruit.

Jefferson and Rush commended the use of tools as a form of exercise. Rush also favored gardening and agriculture as means of directing and training the rising generation. In accordance with the prevalence of such notions several farm, manual labor, and Fellenberg schools were started in various parts of the country prior to 1825.

In the early years of our second period a widespread interest in educational reform arose. In 1825 and 1826 physical education became a matter of almost epidemic interest in New England. Boston in particular was affected. The outburst was owing, in large measure, to contagion imported from abroad by exiles seeking asylum and employment; by scholars returning from foreign universities; by teachers fresh from pilgrimages to the wonderworking shrines of the new educational cult in Great Britain and on tho Continent. Glowing accounts were multiplied by voice and pan of the revival of gymnastics in Europe, particularly in Germany, Switzerland, France, and England. At the same time physical education was vaguely conceived by many writers and lecturers as including pretty much everything that pertains to personal hygiene from the cradle to the grave. Physical education fired the imagination of reformers for a time, but so did monitorial instruction, manual training, vegetarianism, and phrenology.

The Round Hill School, established at Northampton, Mass., in 1823, and the high school, fomded in New York City in 1825 by Dr. Jchn Griscom, each introduced many features that were novelties in the education of American boys, but their most striking innovations were copied from Lancastrian, Fellenbergian, or Pestalozzian schools in Europe. In both schools physical training was accorded a place in such wise as to fix the attention and stimulate imitation by a host of pedagogical adventurers. Although a rude attempt at gymnastic instruction was made in the Monitorial School for Girls in Boston in tho spring of 1825, the claim of Messrs. Cogswel and Bancroft, of Round Hill, that they were tho first intre new continent to connect gymnastics with a purely literary establishment" appears to be a valid one. The Round Hill gymnasiun was opened in 1825. It was a turn-platz or outdoor gymnasiun, laid oui, fittel, and managed in accordance with the Jahn system of turning. Dr. Charles Beók, the “instructor in Latin and gymnastics." at Round Hill, where gymuastics fourished for some years, hed been a pupil of Jahn's, it is said.

Harvard College started the first American college gymnasium in one cf its dining halls in March, 1926, and later in the same season a variety of gymnastic machines were put up in the playground known as the “Delta." Doctor Follen, an instructor in Gerinan and a German exile, who was familiar with the Jahn turning, was the instructor and leader in gyinrastics. The Boston Gymnasium, opened in the Washington Gardens Octoler 3, 1826, with Doctor Follen as its principal instructor, seems to have been the first public gymnasium of any note in the

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United States. Dr. Francis Lieber, who was warmly recommended by Father Jahn, succeeded Doctor Follen in 1827, Jahn himself having declined the invitation from the managers to assume charge of it. The patrons of the gymnasium, about 200 in number at its opening, rose to 400 in the first twelve-month, but dwindled to 4 in the second, it is said. A contemporary observer dec'ared " no talent could keep the gymnasium alive after the novelty had ceased, and some of the gymnasts had been caricatured in the printshops.” Gymnastic grounds were established at Yale in 1820, and at Amherst, Brown, and Williams in 1827, and fully a dozen schools, inostly in New England and New York, proffered to follow the example set by Round Hill and Harvard. Beck, Lieber, and Follen became college professors; the aims of gymnastics were not fully grasped, competent instructors were lacking, no one knew how to produce them, and so the whole movement lapsed into neglect and forgetfulness within five years of its beginning.

Between 1830 and 1860 there was no general or extensive revival of interest in gymnasties, and athletic sports led a feeble and inconspicrous existence; but a crusade for popularizing the doctrines of physiology and hygiene set in which served to perpetuate the essential spirit of the period 1825–1830 and to prepare the way for the gymnastic revival that occurred just before the war broke out. This crusade, which had its beginnings at least as early as 1825, was greatly stimulated by the books and lectures of the phrenologists Spürzheim and George Combe, who aroused much interest among teachers, parents, and even medical men in the claims of their pseudo-science as the foundation of a natural and health-giving system of education. Through the multiplication of popular manuals of physiology, which usually contained much hortatory matter on physical education and sometimes s.'t forth rules for gymrastic and “calisthenic" exercise, the general public came to entertain the notion that serviceable and disciplined bodies were much to be desired and that some sort of school machinery ought to be provided for the purpose of securing them. Soon after the collapse of the gymnastic movement a considerable party, including many benevolent and influential parsons, arose which favored manual labor in preference to gymnastics. Between 1829 and 1835 very many enthusiastic attempts were made throughout the Atlantic and the then Western States to provide college and seminary students with facilities for gaining health, amusement, and money by means of agricultural and mechanical labor. The movement did not lead to conspicuously encouraging educational or pecuniary results.

This period vas signalized by an unexampled interest in elementary education, which resulted in the rapid multiplication of common schools in the newer parts of the country and in radical improvement, as respects their organization and administration, of the public schools of the Eastern and Middle States. The educational literature of the time teems with articles, resolutions, and reports of discussions relating to physical education in the sense of personal and school hygiene---witness Barnard's Journal, the Proceedings of the American Institute of Instruction, the reports of Horace Mann, and a considerable list of text-books of physiology and manuals of calisthenics, etc. Both in the field of discussion and authorship, teachers as well as physic ans played an active part. Hitherto the interest of teachers in physical education had been rather languid and vague.

While discussion w.s still rife in the United States, Dr. E. Ryerson, chief superintendent of schools in Upper Canada, supplemented his recoumendation of gymnastics (contained in his report of 1816) by issuing a semiofficial manual of free and apparatus gymnastics, and promised governmental aid toward the purchase of apparatus for use in the public schools. When, in 1852, the new normal school for Upper Canada was opened, a gymnasium, in charge of “a master of the art of gymnastics," forined a part of its equipment. This was a year before the Boston school committee enacted the following rule: “ The masters, ushers, and teachers in the grammar and writing schools shall so arrange the daily course of exercises in their respective classes that every scholar shall have daily, in the forenoon and the afternoon, some kind of physical or gymnastic exercisa.” Probably this rule was passed in deference to views expressed by Mr. Nathan Bishop, first superintendent of schools in Boston, in his first and second reports. In his second report, that of 1852, Mr. Bishop dec'ares that every plan of classification in which the children have not frequent opportunities for practicing physical exercises suited to their tender ages must be essentially defective," and he goes on to describe, in general terms, what he considered "a wellarranged series of exercises to call the muscles of the chest and limbs into healthful play.” There is reason for thinking that Mr. Bishop had been instrumental in 1842 in promoting free gymnastics in the public schools of Providence, R. I., where he was then superintendent of schools. Mr. Bishop, it may be remarked in passing, was the first man in the country to be appointed a superintendent of schools.

After the failure of the revolutionary attempts of 1818 in Germany, there was a large influx of German Liberals into this country. Wherever the German immigrants settled in nuinbers turnvereins quickly sprang up. Thus a new factor, destined in later years to exercise a large influence in the development of American physical training, was introduced. In the North American Turnerbund, which for over half a century has been the largest, most widespread, and efficient gymnastic association in the country, we have a genuine and vigorous offshoot from the German stock, but American educationists practically ignored its evistence for more than a generation.

We have abundant eviden e that there was a new and increasing intere:t in gymnastic and athletic forms of exercise in the latter half of the decade ending in 1860. Such evidence is to be found in efforts to raise funds for the building of school and college gymnasia, in the increased addiction of collegians and others to rowing and ball matches, in the instant popularity accorded the Tom Brown books, and in the prominence given to topics relating to physical education in general and school gymnastics in particular by speakers at teachers' conventions, by the conductors of educational journals, and by superintendents of public schools.

The time was ripe for a new movement, and in 1860 it broke out. Diocletian Lewis, usually called “ Dr. Dio Lewis," is popularly considered a sort of gymnastical Peter the Hermit, to whose preachings and teachings the crusade of the new gymnastics was chiefly due. Most certainly he was an extremely active, fluent, and conspicuous evangelist; but his main service, as regards gymnasties, lay in the assiduity and shrewdness with which he raked together the embers and fanned the flames that had been kindled by others. It is evident that the gymnastic revival of 1860 grew out of the muvement for disseminating knowledge of the laws of health and the consequent desire to have them effectually applied in the management of the public schools. The gymnastic revival may be said to date from the meeting of the American Institutof Instruction in Boston in August, 1860, at which Dio Lewis, who had recently established a gymnasium in the city, won a signal triumph for his “new gymnastics," which were unanimously pronounced “eminently worthy of general introduction into all our schools and into general use.” Die Lewis was singularly adapted, by reason of his energy and enthusiasm and his gifts as a lecturer and writer, to command popular attention and create a following.

For some years before his advent in Boston he had traveled extensively in the Southern and Western States as a week-day lecturer on physiology and hygiene and as a Sunday orator on temperance. Moreover, he had acquired some familiarity with German gymnastics and had unbounded confidence in himself as an


adapter of old and an inventor of new forms of exercise. His doctrines and methods, which were novelties and seemed original to most of his followers and imitators, spread rapidly over the country, and, if certain eulogists of his system are to be credited, even into “ Europe, Asia, and Africa." Teachers and school managers, particularly in New England, showe: unprecelented interest for a time in the new gymnastics,” which seemed destined soon to form a part of the curriculuin of the public schools of the more progressive cities of the country, as well as in a inaltitude of private institutions. For instance, the school board of Cincinnati in 1861 and that of Boston in 1864 forinally adopted schemes looking to the general introduction of instruction in gymnastics into their public schools; but these schemes, and most others like them, soon proved illusory and impracticable owing to a variety of reasons that it would be tedious to recount here. In Boston, where a special committee of the school board in 1860 recommended the adoption of the “Ling free gymnastics,” vocal culture and military drill obtained the upper hand.

Dio Lewis achieved praiseworthy results by convincing the public of the utility of “light gymnastics;” i. e., exercises with hand apparatus and by popularizing school and home gymnastics for children of both sexes. Possibly his most considerable contribution to the cause of physical education was the establishment in 1861 of the Boston Normal Institute for Physical Etlucation, which he “presumed to be the first ever established to educate guides in physical culture.” That was a presumptuous statement, inasmuch as the Prussian Government had maintained a normal school of gymnastics in Berlin since 1851, the Royal Saxon Normal School for Teachers of Gymnastics, in Dresden, had existed since 1850, anıl the Royal Central Gymnastic Institute, of Stockholm, dated from 1814. The Boston Normal Institute had two terms a year, of ten weeks each, and in the seven years of its continuance 421 persons were graduated from it.

The civil war checked educational reform, and the interest excited by the gymnastic revival soon spent its force or was transferred to military forms of drill and exercise. In the year 1860 the colleges of Harvard, Yale, and Amherst erected gymnasium buildings, but their example aroused but little emulation in other colleges until after the close of the war. Amherst College, in 1860, established a department of hygiene and physical education. Dr. Edward Hitchcock, sr., has served continnously as professorial head of the department since 1861. He introduced a system of periodical physical measurements which served to excite the interest of the students and as a criterion of their progress in growth. The main feature of the Amherst system of physical education was, and is still, a memorized musical drill with light dumb-bells and marching exercises. Prior to 1890 Amherst's example in making gymnasti:s a compulsory part of college work had but little effect upon the other colleges of the country.

Th: building of college gymnasia was resumed aiter the close of the war, when a large contingent of young men who had been subjected to strenuous physical training in the Army entered the preparatory schools and colleges. The influence exerted by this contingent in reviving and developing an interest in physical training was far more potent in the department of athletics than in that of gymnastics. Baseball anil rowing, followed by football, developed rapidly and led to the multiplication of intercollegiate contests. The inadequacy of the facilities afforded by the older gymnasia for the indoor training of crews, teams, and individual aspirants for athletic honors had much to do with inaugurating a new era of gymnasium building and with improving the organization and conduct of the departinents of “physical culture” in the leading colleges for both sexes, and indirectly aroused an imitative spirit in some preparatory schools. This era opened irr 1879-80 with the completion of the Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard University. This gymnasium, for whose erection and equipment Mr. Augustus

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