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may continue to hold the scholarship annually until a candidate is presented from the senatorial district unrepresented.

Sxc. 3. The scholarships shall be awarded to such pupils of the public schools of Massachusetts as shall be found upon examination to possess the qualifications fixed for the admission of students to said institute, and who shall be selected by the board of education, preference in the award being given only to qualified candidates otherwise unable to bear the expense of tuition.

SEC. 4. So much of chapter 103 of the resolves of 1887 as relates to State scholarships, and so much of chapter 70 of the resolves of 1895 as provides an amnal appropriation of $2,000 for the maintenance of 10 free scholarships, are hereby repealed. (Approved April 27, 1896.)

İbid., 1897, chapter 31: SECTION 1. The sum of $20,000 is hereby appropriated to be paid out of the treasury of the Commonwealth from the ordinary revenue to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (Approved February 2, 1897.) Same for 1898, 1899, 1900, 1901, 1902.

Ibid., 1898, Resolves, chapter 493: SECTION 1. The State board of education may in its discretion award that any free scholarship which either the Massachusetts Institute of Technology or the Worcester Polytechnic Institnte is required to maintain under the provisions, respectively, of chapters 310 and 407 of 1896, shall be divided between two pupils. The scholarships so divided shall be called half scholarships, and neither of said institutions shall require from any pnpil to whom a half scholarship has been awarded payment of more than one-half of the regular charge or fee for tuition paid by pupils not holding scholarships. (Approved June 2, 1898.)

Ibid., 1901, Resolves, chapter 51: Tliat there be paid annually for the term of ten years, from the treasury of the Commonwealth to the treasurer of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the sum of $25.000, to be so paid and allowed from the Ist day of January, 1902, and to be expended under the direction of the institute for the general purposes thereof. (Approved April 4, 1901.)

MICHIGAN.

Constitution (1850), Article IV: SEC. 40. No money shall be appropriated or drawn from the treasury for the benefit of any religious sect or society, theological or religious seminary, nor shall property belonging to the State be appropriated for any such purposes.

Article XIII: SEC. 2. The proceeds from the sales of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to the State for educational purposes, and the proceeds of all lands or other property given by individuals or appropriated by the State for like purposes shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest and income of which, together with the rents of all such lands as may remain unsold, shall be inviolably appropriated and annually applied to the specific objects of the original gift, grant, or appropriation.

SEC. 11. The legislature sball encourage the promotion of intellectual, scientific, and agricultural improvement; and shall, as soon as practicable, provide for the establishment of an agricultural school. The legislature may appropriate the twenty-two sections of salt spring lands now unappropriated, or the money arising from the sale of the same, where such lands have been already sold, and any land which may hereafter be granted or appropriated for such purpose, for the support and maintenance of such school, and may make the same a branch of the university for instruction in agriculture and the natural sciences connected therewith, and place the same under the supervision of the regents of the university.

[The following matter is taken from “ Tho ('ompiled Laws of the State of Michigan, 1897, 1 y Lewis M. Miller,'' 3 vols, and index, Lansing, 1995). ]

SEC, 1834. A board is hereby constituted and established which shall be known under the name and style of the “State board of agriculture." It shall consist of six members besides the governor of the State and the president of the State Agricultural College, who shall be ex-officio members of the board. The governor, by and with the consent of the senate, on or before the third Wednesday of Jannary of each biennial session, shall appoint two suitable persons to fill the vacancies that shall next occur, which vacancies shall be so filled that at least onehalf the members shall be practical agriculturists.

Sec. 1835. The State board of agriculture shall be a body corporate, capable in law of suing and being sued, of taking, holding, and selling personal and real estate, of contracting and being contracted with, of having and using a corporate seal, and of causing to be done all things necessary to carry out the provisions of this act.

SEC. 1836. Any vacancy in the said board caused by death, resignation, or removal from the State may be filled by a majority of the members. A majority shall be a quorum for the transaction of business. The members of the board shall receive no per diem compensation for their services, but shall be paid their traveling and other expenses while employed on the business of the board.

Sec. 1837. They shall meet quarterly at stated times at the State Agricultural College, and may meet at such other times and places as they may determine.

Sec. 1838. At their first meeting the members shall choose one of their number as president of their own board.

SEC. 1839. At their first meeting, or as soon after as a competent and suitable person can be obtained, they shall choose a secretary of the board. If chosen from their own number, a vacancy shall be thus created in the board. A treasurer shall also be chosen, at their first meeting, who may or may not be from the members of their board, as they shall determine. They shall take such bonds from the secretary and treasurer as shall be deemed adequate to secure the faithful performance of their duties by those respective officers. The secretary and treasurer shall be chosen biennially and shall hold their offices for two years from the last Wednesday of February, or till their successors are chosen.

Sec. 1847. The board shall direct the disposition of any moneys appropriated to the State Agricultural College.

Sec. 1841. The secretary of the board shall reside at or near the agricultural college, and keep his office at the city of Lansing in the State buildings, or at the institution, as the board shall direct. It shall be his duty to keep a record of the transactions of the State board of agriculture and of the State Agricultural College and farms, which shall be open at all times to the inspection of any citizens of this State. He shall also have the custody of all books, papers, documents, and other property which may be deposited in his office. (Here follows a long enumeration of duties not strictly appertaining to the agricultural college but rather to the agricultural and horticultural interests of the State.)

SEC. 1843. The secretary shall receive as a compensation for his services a salary of $1,000 per annum, to be paid quarterly from the State treasury, in the same manner as is provided by law for the payment of the salaries of State officers.

SEC. 1844. The State agricultural school, established by an act, No. 130, 1855, in obedience to section 11, article 13, of the constitution, shall be known by the name and style of "The State Agricultural College." The design of the institution, in fulfillment of the injunction of the constitution, is to afford thorough instruction in agriculture and the natural sciences connected therewith. To effect that object most completely the institution shall combine physical with intellectual education and shall be a high seminary of learning in which the graduate of the common school can commence, pursue, and finish a course of study terminating in thorough theoretic and practical instruction in those sciences and arts which bear directly upon agriculture and kindred industrial pursuits.

SEC. 1845. (Amended by act No. 202, 1901, q. v.] No student shall be admitted to the institution who is not fifteen years of age and who does not pass a satisfactory examination in arithmetic, geography, grammar, reading, spelling, and penmanship

SEC. 1846. The course of instruction shall embrace the English language and literature, mathematics, civil engineering, agricultural chemistry, animal and vegetable anatomy and physiology, the veterinary art, entomology, geology, and such other natural sciences as may be prescribed, technology, political, rural, and household economy, horticulture, moral philosophy, history, bookkeeping, and especially the application of science and the mechanic arts to practical agriculture in the field.

SEC. 1847. A full course of study in the institution shall embrace not less than four years. The State board of agriculture may institute winter courses of lectures for others than students of the institution under necessary rules and regulations.

SEC. 1848. The academical year shall consist of not less than nine calendar months. This academical year may be divided into such terms by the State board of agriculture as, in their judgment, will best secure the objects for which the college was founded. The board may at any time temporarily

suspend the college in case of fire, the prevalence of fatal diseases, or of other unforeseen calamity.

Sec. 1849. Three hours of each day shall be devoted by every student of the college to labor upon the farm, and no person shall be exempt except for physical disability. By a vote of the board of agriculture, at such seasons and in such exigencies as demand it, the hours of labor may be increased to four hours or diminished to two and one-half hours,

SEC. 1850. The State board of agriculture shall be vested with discretion to charge tuition or not, as they may deem most conducive to the interests of the institution, unless acts of the legislature making appropriations shall otherwise direct. The board may make discriminations in regard to tuition between students from this State and from other States. One-third of the tuition charged for the academic term shall be paid in advance and shall be forfeited in case the student abandons the institution.

SEC. 1851. The State board of agriculture shall have the general control and supervision of the State Agricultural College, the farm pertaining thereto, and the lands which may be vested in the college by State legislation; of all appropriations made by the State for the support of the same, and also the management of any lands that may hereafter be donated by the General Government to this State in trust for the promotion of agriculture and industrial pursuits. The board shall have plenary power to adopt all such ordinances, by-laws, and regulations not in conflict with this act, as they may deem necessary to secure the successful operation of the college and promote its designed objects.

SEC. 1852. It shall be the duty of the State board of agriculture to choose a president of the State Agricultural College before the commencement of the next term of the institution; they shall then proceed to choose such professors, tutors, and employees as the necessities of the institution demand. In case of vacancy in the office of president, or in case a suitable man can not be selected, the president of the State board of agriculture or such member of the board as shall be designated by them shall be president pro tem. of the college, who shall receive such coinpensation for his services as the board shall determine.

Sec. 1853. The board shall fix the salaries of the president, professors, and other employees, and prescribe their respective duties. The board may remove the president or subordinate officers and supply all vacancies.

SEC. 1854. The board shall have power to regulate the course of instruction and prescribe, with the advice of the faculty, the books to be used in the institution, and also to confer for similar or equal attainments similar degrees or testimonials to those conferred by the University of Michigan.

SEC. 1855 [as amended by laws, 1901, No. 202). The president, professors, farm manager, and tutors shall constitute the faculty of the State Agricultural College. The president of the college shall be the president of the faculty, and the faculty shall select one of their own number to act as secretary of the faculty.

SEC. 1856. The faculty shall pass all needful rules and regulations necessary to the government and discipline of the college, regulating the routine of labor, study, meals, and the duties and exercises, and all such rules and regulations as are necessary to the preservation of morals, decorum, and health.

SEC. 1857. The faculty shall have charge of the laboratories, library, and museums of the institution.

Sec. 1858. The faculty shall make an annual report by the first Wednesday of December of each year to the State board of agriculture, signed by the president and secretary, containing such information and recommendations as the welfare of the institution in their opinion demands. Any members of the faculty may make a minority report if they disagree with the conclusions of the majority, which the faculty shall communicate to the board. No communication at any other time, from members of the faculty, shall be entertained by the board, unless they have been submitted to a meeting of the faculty and sanctioned by a majority.

SEC. 1859. The president shall be the chief executive officer of the State Agricultural College, and it shall be his duty to see that the rules and regulations of the State board of agriculture and the rules and regulations of the faculty be observed and executed.

SEC. 1860. The subordinate officers and employees not members of the faculty shall be under the direction of the president, and, in the recess of the board, removable at his discretion, and he may supply vacancies that may be thus or otherwise created; his action in these respects shall be submitted to the approval of the State board of agriculture at their next meeting.

Sec. 1861. The president may or may not perform the duties of a professor, as the State board of agriculture shall determine. If he performs the duties of a professor, or in case the duties of president are exercised by a president pro tem., à superintendent of the farm may be appointed, who shall have the general superintendence of the business pertaining to the farm, the land, and other property of the institution and who shall be a member of the faculty.

Sec. 1862. The president and secretary, together with the superintendent of the farm, if there be one, and in case there is not one, then one of the professors, to be elected by the faculty, shall constitute a committee to fix the rate of wages allowed to students and rate of board. In assessing the board, it shall be so estimated that no profit shall be saved to the institution and as near as possible at the actual cost. The rate of wages allowed and the rate of charge for board shall, if practicable, be submitted to the State board of agriculture before they take effeot.

SEC. 1863. For current expenditures at the State Agricultural College specific sums shall be set aside, in the hands of their treasurer, by the State board of agriculture, which shall be subject to the warrants of the president of the college, countersigned by the secretary of the board. All moneys due to the institution or received in its behalf shall be collected and received by the secretary and deposited by him with the treasurer of the State board of agriculture. The secretary shall, with his annual report, render a full and complete account of all moneys received and all warrants drawn on the treasurer, as secretary of the college, and shall file and preserve all vouchers, receipts, correspondence, or other papers relating thereto.

Suc. 1864. The superintendents of the farm, horticultural, and other departments, the curators of the museums, and each of the professors, shall make a written and detailed report of the workings of their several departments annually to the president of the college, which said reports shall be kept on file in the office of the secretary of the State board of agriculture. Agricultural operations on the farm shall be carried on experimentally. Careful experiments shall be made annually in field crops, in keeping, feeding, and fattening stock, and the preparation and application of barnyard and commercial manures, and a detailed account of them shall be published in the annual reports of the board. The college shall serve also as an experimental station, making trial from time to time of new varieties of fruits, grains, and vegetables. The reports shall contain an account of the management of all the several fields, pastures, orchards, and gardens of the college, as designated by permanent names or numbers, and shall give an account of the preparation and enriching of the land, the planting, cultivation, harvesting, and yield of the crops and disposition of the same; the management of the stock, with a careful comparison of the cost of keeping, growth, and profit of the several breeds kept on the farm; also an account of the students' labor, specifying the amount used in each of the several departments of the college, with other details, in such a way that the reports as issued from year to year shall contain a continuous history of the college, farm, and garden: Provided, That the State board of agriculture shall deem the same practicable or advisable.

SEC. 1865. All the swamp lands granted to the State of Michigan by act of Congress approved September 28, 1850, sitnate in the townships of Lansing and Meridian, in the county of Ingham, and Dewitt and Bath, in the county of Clinton.of which no sale has been made, or for which no certificates of sale have been issued by the commissioner of the land office, are hereby granted and vested in the State board of agriculture and placed in the possession of the State Agricultural College for the exclusive use and benefit of the institution, subject only to the provisions relating to drainage and reclamation of the act of Congress donating the same to the State.

Szc. 1866. The State board of agriculture shall have authority to sell and dispose of any portions of the swamp lands mentioned in the preceding section of this act and use the same, or the proceeds thereof, for the purpose of draining, fencing, or in any manner improving such other portions of said lands as it may be deemed ali isable to bring under a high state of cultivation for the promotion of the objects of the State Agricultural College. The terms and the conditions of the sale of the portions of the above-described lands thus disposed of shall be prescribed by the State board of agriculture, and deeds of the same, executed and acknowledged in their official capacity by the president and secretary of the State board of agriculture, shall be good and valid in law.

SEC. 1867. David Carpenter (and 5 other persons) are hereby constituted and appointed the first State board of agriculture. At their first meeting, which the governor of the State is hereby authorized and directed to call at as early a day as practicable, they shall determine by lot their several periods of service, 2 of whom shall serve for two years, 2 of whom shall serve for four years, and 2 of whom shall serve for six years, respectively, from the third Wednesday of January last past, when they are superseded by appointments in accordance with the provisions of section 1834, or until their successors are chosen.

Sec. 1868. That the State board of agriculture be, and they are hereby, authorized to provide from time to time in bulletin form, for the dissemination among the people of this State and through the medium of the public press the results of experiments made in any of the different departments of the agricultural college and such other information that they may deem of sufficient importance to require it to come to the immediate knowledge of the farmers and horticulturists of the State.

SEC. 1869. The several professors of chemistry, zoology, botany, agriculture, horticulture, and veterinary science shall each, at least twice in each year, not excluding the president and other professors, prepare for publication an article embracing such facts as they may deem of public importance, a copy of which shall be simultaneously sent to each and every newspaper published in the State, and to such persons as the State board of agriculture may think proper; said professors to so arrange that at least one of said articles shall be sent out, as above provided, the first week of each and every month in each and every year.

SEC. 1870. The board of State auditors shall, upon the approval of the State board of agriculture, audit the accounts for printing, stationery, and postage incurred in the publishing and disseminating of said bulletins, and the same shall be paid out of the general fund: Provided, That no account for printing the same in any newspaper shall be allowed.

SEC. 1871. The legislative assent required by section 9 of act of Congress approved March 2, 1887, being an act to establish agricultural experiment stations," is hereby given, and the moneys thereby given are accepted under the conditions and terms in said act named.

SEC. 1872. The moneys derived by authority of said act shall be exclusively used in support of the department designated as an agricultural experiment station in connection with the State Agricultural College of Michigan.

SEC. 1873. The legislative assent required by section 2 of act of Congress approved August 30, 1890, is hereby given, and the moneys thereby given are accepted under the conditions and terms in said act named.

SEC. 1874. The moneys derived by authority of said act shall be used exclusively in support of the State Agricultural College of Michigan.

SEC. 1875. In addition to the course of instruction already provided for by law for the agricultural college of this State, there shall be added military tactics and military engineering.

Sec. 1876. The State board of agriculture are hereby authorized and required to make such additional rules and regulations for the government and control of the agricultural college as may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of section 1875.

SEC. 1877. The State board of agriculture shall, by and with the advice and consent of the governor, the adjutant-general, and quartermaster-general, procure, at the expense of the State, all such arms, accoutrements, books, and instruments, and appoint such additional professors and instructors as, in their discretion, may be necessary to carry into effect the provisions of this act: Prorided, That nothing in this act shall be construed to authorize the incurring of any indebtedness against the State, or the expenditure of money beyond the appropriations made to the agricultural college. (By act No. 165 of 1883 the quartermaster-general is “authorized, with the advice and consent of the military board, to deposit with the State board of agriculture, at the agricultural college, arms and accoutrements for the use of said college." ]

SEC. 1878. The State board of agriculture is hereby authorized to hold institutes and to maintain courses of reading and lectures for the instruction of citizens of this State in the various branches of agriculture and kindred sciences. The said board shall formulate such rules and regulations as it shall deem proper to carry on the work contemplated in this act, and may employ an agent or agents to perform such duties in connection therewith as it shall deem best.

Sec. 1879. When 20 or more persons, residents of any county in this State, organize themselves into a society to be called “The - - County Farmers' Institute Society,” for the purpose of teaching better methods of farming, stock raising, fruit culture, and all the branches of business connected with the industry of agriculture, and adopt a constitution and by-laws agreeable to rules and regulations furnished by the State board of agriculture, and when such society shall have elected such proper officers and performed such other acts as may be required by the rules of said board, such society shall be deemed an institute society in the meaning of this act: Provided, That not more than one such institute society in any county shall be authorized by this act: And prorided further, That any existing organization approved by the board of agriculture shall be considered a legally organized institute society under the terms of this act.

SEC. 1880. In each county where an institute society shall be organized and maintained under the provisions of this act the State board of agriculture shall hold one annual institute at such place in the county and at such time as said board may deem expedient and shall furnish for the institute a lecturer or lecturers with

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