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the graded schools of the State upward; (2) a knowledge of geometry and elementary physiology would be required for all teachers after 1875.

The condition of public education in any State is fundamentally determined by what the people are permanently willing to pay for. After ten years of experience, including one entire change in the system, this condition was represented in Maryland by the following figures: Total expenditure for schools in 1866, $566,866.60; in 1875, $924,108.95. The State Normal School was the soul of the system. Begun on January 15, 1866, with 10 students, in an inconvenient hall, it grew with every year despite a constantly increasing difficulty in providing for the housing of the students. At the close of the first year the number of students was 48. In the succeeding years the number increased from 129 to 137, 144, 170, 163, 162, 146, 174, 207. During the first four years the appropriation for its support was $8,000 annually. In 1870 it was increased to $9,500, and in 1872 to $10,500, exclusive of rent. On a salary of $2,500, Doctor Newell built up the State Normal School with one hand and with the other supported the State of Maryland in the development of its new system of common schools. In 1875 the total number of pupils in State and city schools in Maryland was 142,900; in average attendance, 67,000. The entire expenditure for the common schools in 1875 was $1,640,047.77.

The improvement in the agencies for the education of the colored children of the State had been great. The original system of 1865 made no account of them, although there were 87,000 of the emancipated in the State-in several counties one-half and in one or two a majority of the population. The second school law of 1868 gave the colored people the amount paid by them in taxes for the support of the schools, leaving to private philanthropy and friends from the generous in other States and countries to provide the remainder. In 1869 the city of Baltimore took the colored schools into the public system, supported at public expense. Superintendent Newell ventures the question that “ If the State will follow this example it will cost more money, but will it not cost more to educate them for the penitentiary?"

By the new organization of the State board of education Doctor Newell, principal of the State Normal School, assumed the title of secretary of the board—the same as Horace Mann and all his successors in Massachusetts-and, like his illustrious predecessor, his fatherly care was extended over the entire system.

The endowment of Johns Hopkins University, in Baltimore, with three million dollars suggested that it would be possible to establish a system of county high schools and leave the colleges of the State in reach of this the great central educational institution of the Commonwealth. The year 1875, the tenth of the existence of the new common school of Maryland, is declared a year of satisfactory progress and hope of performance.” The death of Supt. W. R. Crary of the Baltimore city schools was a great shock. The city was passing through a movement of progress, including new buildings, the introduction of drawing, more attention given to English, and other notable signs of advancement. The school term of the State was being advanced from seven and one-half toward ten months. Despite the general depression of business during the year 1875-76 there was no serious diminution in the expenditure on the schools, the total expenditure being $1,623,319.29, including the city of Baltimore.

The State Normal School, in its new and satisfactory building, reported 206 students. Principal Newell, ex officio State superintendent, returns again and again to the protest against combining the duties of the two offices. The unwillingness of the legislature to comply with his request was owing doubtless to (1) the expense and (2) the increasing conviction that the State had in Doctor Newell the one man in Maryland best qualified to be at the head of the normal school and to oversee the educational affairs of the Commonwealth. The Johns Hopkins University was getting into position and promised to supply the upper story of the educational

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structure for the State. The population of Maryland, according to the census of 1870, was 780,894, of whom 175,391 were colored; of the city of Baltimore, 227,794, with 39,558 colored. In twelve counties the colored were one-half the entire population. The entire school population, from 5 to 20 years, was 276,120. There had doubtless been a steady increase of numbers during the eight years before 1878. In that year 156,274 pupils were enrolled in the city and country schools, and only 81,829 were in average daily attendance. In regard to the general handling of the school funds, it is asserted by Superintendent Newell that during the fifteen years that had elapsed since the advent of the school system nearly twelve millions of dollars had passed through the hands of forty different treasurers, not only without the loss of a single dollar, but without one important mistake in its direction.

The common school system in the counties had almost abolished the old-time private schools and partly crippled the academies. It was therefore of the first importance that the graéled school with a secondary department or high school annex be developed to supply their place. The Maryland Institute, in Baltimore, had become “ one of the most reliable educational institutions of the State." It is claimed that this was the first and largest art school in the country, and hope is expressed that it might become the best. The Johns Hopkins University in its fourth year had 145 students, and great satisfaction is expressed over its attitude toward the public school system of the State. The State Normal School had sent forth 567 students, who had taught each two years. A short summer session was held for the accommodation of teachers whose schools closed in April.

The chronicle of the decade from 1870 to 1880 suggests a comparison in the superintendent's report for the latter year which was certainly very encouraging to the friends of universal education in Maryland. During these ten years there had been an increase of population of the State of 19.7 per cent, from 780,894 to 934,943. The increase in number of public schools had been 41 per cent, 1,360 to 1,919; in teachers 40 per cent, 1,664 to 2,326; enrollment 47.5 per cent, 77,454 to 114,365; average daily attendance 43.5 per cent, 40,150 to 56,361; total expenditure 21 per cent, $728,058 to $886.378; county taxation 35 per cent, $262,668 to $355,052. By 1880 the common school system of Maryland was fifteen years old, had outlived the perils of infancy and early youth, and as far as its methods of organization, supervision, and administration were concerned had evidently come to stay."

During the ten years from 1880 to 1890 nothing happened to seriously disturb the growth of what had been so well inaugurated. In 1888–89, the closing year of Doctor Newell's administration, the State appropriations had not materially increased from 1881; indeed in 1889 were only $1,000 in excess. But the county levy had risen from $389,240 in 1881 to $500,783 in 1888. The total expenditure in 1881 was $1.604,580; in 1889, $1,819,352, the excess largely caused by the increased county levy. The Commonwealth as late as 1890, twenty-five years after the beginning of the system, experienced the revival that promised to bring forth its resources in a very decisive manner. That action was acknowledged to be largely dependent on a revival of material prosperity in the old Commonwealth, which had suffered so greatly by its extreme conservatism in industrial affairs up to 1860 and by the demoralization of its people through the decade ending with 1870. By 1890 a new era of prosperity had dawned on the great city of Baltimore, in which was stored a great majority of the available wealth and the forces of the higher civilization of the State. With the increasing prosperity of Baltimore and its steady growth to one of the great educational centers of the country came in a new sense of the importance of universal elucation through the entire Commonwealth.

From 1881 to 1889 there had been an increase in the school enrollment of the

State from 158,900 to 179,460, of which Baltimore showed 47,048 and 59,506. The daily school attendance had risen from 73,739 to 99,220. The average number of months in the school term was 9%; 10 in Baltimore, and 8; in the counties at the latter date. $60,531 in the cities and $79,441 in the counties was expended for colored schools in 1881; in 1889, $98,565 for the counties and fully as much for the cities. In 1881, $174,638 was expended in school buildings, $86,000 in counties and $88,000 in the city, and $190,922 in 1889, $105,000 of which was by the counties, by which we may infer that the movement for reforming the primitive arrangements for housing school children already described had gathered force as the years went on. The number of pupils in the sixth grade in 1889 was 4,125. From these statistics we must infer that the public school interests of the State had hardly kept pace during the decade 1880-1890 with the increase of population; the population in 1830 being 934,627 and in 1890 1,342,290.

The State Normal School had grown until every seat in the building was occupied, with the attendance well divided among the counties. The institute work had been pushed with vigor in the more progressive parts of the State, and the Teachers' Reading Association, district and county libraries, and the support and circulation of the Educational Journal were all factors on the side of improvement.

The establishment of Johns Hopkins University in Maryland had so increased the opportunities for the higher education of its own men and through its system of popular lectures of the young women of the State that the interest in the revival of the old colleges by public support had partially spent its force. The State Agricultural College was learning to become what its name included, an agricultural and mechanical school. St. John's College started out with the intent to become a polytechnic school. Washington kept on in its highly respectable but moderate gait with some 40 pupils a year. Johns Hopkins, even at its beginning, with an outfit of three times the sum of the annual expenditure of the State for common schools, was proving its capacity to deal with the entire field of the higher education, reenforced by the Peabody Institute, the Maryland Institute, and the newly established College for Women in Baltimore. The superintendent in 1881 urged the appointment of a legislative committee to take into consideration the entire policy of the State toward the secondary and higher education. The belief was expressed in 1888 that the establishment of an agricultural experiment station in connection with the agricultural college and the organization of the board of trustees and the appointment of a president abundantly qualified for his difficult position would commend the institution to the hearty support of the people. Johns Hopkins University in 1888 had a faculty of 57 teachers and an attendance of 420 students—199 residents of Maryland, 96 from 36 other States, and 24 from foreign countries. Its attendance had risen from 89 in 1876-77 to 420 in 1887–88. Of the students, 231 were graduates from 93 different colleges and institutions of learning, 127 candidates for the degree A. B., and 62 special students. The average attendance on the public lectures had risen from 60 to 192. It was demonstrated that much of the need for the higher education was now for the first time being supplied in the State.

Among the details of the history of the public schools from 1880 to 1890 may be mentioned the printing by the State superintendent of the statistics of illiteracy in Baltimore in 1881. In that year there were 28,433 children and youth of school age growing up without school education, apart from those who had received a partial training in early youth. In 1874 Doctor Newell, in connection with Superintendent Crary, of Baltimore, had established the Maryland School Journal. These gentlemen had also been associated in the authorship of a series of school readers. The death of Superindent Crary, of Baltimore, left this work on the hands of Superintendent Newell. It is doubtful if during this period of fifteen years

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that the journal was under the editorial supervision of the State superintendent there was a more vigorous ard inspiring publication of its sort in the country.

The year 1885 is noted in the annual report of the State board of education as the twentieth anniversary of the establishment of the public school system in the State. The report was used especially to give a record of the progress of school legislation. The successive acts of the general assembly in response to the annual representations of the superintendent are noted. The most important of these wera (1) by the laws of 1870 and 1874 conferring ample powers of a general supervision of schools on the State board of education. (2) In 1870 district trustees were appointed by the county school commissioners. (3) In 1872 it was enacted that there should be one assistant examiner in connties having more than 85 schools. (4) In 1870 the number of county commissioners of schools was reduced to three in the smaller and five in the large counties. (5) In 1872 the supply of school books was left to the discretion of school boards. In 1884 the city of Baltimore made school books free. (6) In 1874 the county commissioners were given power of confirmation and rejection of all teachers appointed by the district trustees. (i) In 1872 and 1873 appropriations of $50,000 and $100,000 were made for the education of colored children and youth throughont the State. (8) The transfer of the old-time county acade nies to public schools had been anticipated in most of the counties by mutual consent. (9) An improved system of certification and a regular schedule of study for primary schools had been adopted by the State board of education.

One of the important institutions of the State is the McDonogh Institute, opened in 1873, founded by the gift of John McDonogh, a native of Baltimore and for many years a resident of New Orleans, La. In the record of schools in Louisiana, in Chapter X, report 4, Stato board of education, pp. 1900–1901, will be found a full account of this remarkable man. His donation to Baltimore in 1875 amounted to $373,228. In this institution 60 boys were in attendance, the number being limited to 100. These students were supportad entirely in the institution and given a proper high school education. In addition a beqnest of Dr. Barnard of $40,000 was used for a manual-training department. An institution, the Academy of Sciences, founded in 1859, only awaited an adequate building for the display of its valuable collection of natural history. The year 1885 was also made memorable by the gift by Mr. Enoch Pratt to the city of Baltimore of $1.145,000 for a free public library. A central building and four branch buildings had been erected and filled at once with 32,000 volumes. The city accepted the gift, which was made on condition of an appropriation of $50,000 annually for the support of the library, free to all the people. The call of Mr. Louis Steiner, of Frederick, to the office of librarian was a fit tribute to one of the best-known friends of education in the State.

In 1886 the general assembly of Maryland joined the increasing number of legislatures which, during the post twenty years, had provided by law for instruction in physiology, with special reference to the use of alcoholic drinks. The State Normal School had reached its limit in the education of pupils, 200 being all that could be included with the present arrangements. In 1886 the legislature responded to the persistent demand of the State board of education for more money by enacting a law by which the State school tax should be 10.5 cents instead of 10 cents on $100, and added $25,000 to the $100,000 already appropriated for the education of colored youth. This appropriation was said to amount to about the same per capita for the colored as the regular distribution to the white pupils. The colored schools still suffered greatly for lack of competent teachers, the colored normal school at Baltimore, a private institution, being generally filled with Baltimore students who could not be persuade:1 to go to the country districts as teachers. In 1886 Caroline County reports progress under the able

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superintendency of Examiner D. B. Stephens, and Exaininer Alexander Chaplain had become identified with the best interests of education for both races in Talbot County. In the year 1889 occurred the retirement of Dr. M. A. Newell from the positions of principal of the State Normal School and ex officio State superintendent of schools, which he had held with such distinguished ability and marked success from 1868, a period of twenty-one years. This long and honorable service had so identified Doctor Newell with the birth and development of the common schools of Maryland that it is as difficult to think of the cause of popular education in that State apart from him as to recall the history of the people's schools in Massachusetts and Connecticut without the names of Horace Mann and Henry Barnard. On his retirement Doctor Newell removed to the city of Havre de Grace, Md., where, with his accomplished wife, a graduate of the State Normal School, he conducted a private seminary until his death on August 14. 1893.

The successor of Doctor Newell in the twofold position of principal of the State Normal and superintendent of the common schools was Mr. E. B. Prettyman. This gentleman was called from a long experience in the conduct of private seminaries in the State, where he had become an influential friend of education and a public man of large experience. He signalized his first report, for 1890, by urging that the tax levy for the common schools should be 12 cents on $100, and holding forth the increase of the county collections as an example of liberality to the State. In 1890 there were in Maryland 2,189 common schools, with an enrollment of 184,251 pupils and an average daily attendance of 102,351, one-third of the number being in the city of Baltimore, 63,575 enrollment and 39,664 in daily attendance. This multitude of children and youth were under the instruction of 3,826 teachers. The schools were open on an average of 9.2 months-10 in the city and 8.8 in the counties. The entire income from State and local taxation and other sources was $1,942,197.33, of which $915,720.77 was expended in Baltimort, an increase of $107,165.59 over the previous year; $167,428 had been paid for building, repairing, and furnishing schoolhouses, nearly one-half where it was most needed, in the counties.

The decade from 1895, the year of the accession of Superintendent Prettyman, was on the whole auspicious for the cause of popular education in Maryland. The great work of organizing the system on right lines and committing the people to a policy of educational expansion had been so well done by Superintendent Newell in his twenty-one years connected with the public schools that it was only necessary to take advantage of every occasion for the further development of the system. Superintendent Prettyman vindicated the wisdom of his selection by his policy assumed at the beginning, of “giving more attention to teaching than words."

By a careful estimate of public opinion he was able at any decisive opportunity to cast the entire weight of his position into the scale of reform. When Superintendent Newell retired in Maryland he left behind in the body of school examiners, the county superintendents of public instruction in the 23 counties of the State, such a boily of men as certainly did not exist in any Southern, and might have been hunted for without success in a majority of the Northern States. Superintendent Prettyman used this exceptional group of assistants to the best advantage by requiring from them every year a detailed account of the schools of their districts and making copious extracts from their communications in his annual reports. In this way several of the most important reforms had been advocated. In 1891 the total expenditure for schools was increased by $294,967 to $2,237,164.33. There was an increase of 4,963 pupils enrolled and 3,819 in daily attendance, of 141 teachers and $61,717.30 in their salaries, with $219,190.20 increase in buildings. The population of Maryland, according to the census of 1890, was 1,010,15:3—218,000 of whoin were colored. The city of Baltimore claimed

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