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affairs of life, as a cultured parent would do were the boy so fortunate as to possess one. In Boston they are coming to think that an industrial club is more successful than any other.
The main object of those who began the club movement was to remove the boys and girls from the temptations of the street, and especially of the saloon.
A second good object is the forming of intimate friendships and gaining the ability to cooperate.
A third is a training in manners and cleanliness through the influence of the director and of the club as a whole. Clubs train boys to be gentlemen. In this way the work has been very successful.
A fourth good object may be a training in morals through talks by the leader and the penalties inflicted on offenders by the club itself.
A fifth object in any well-regulated club is a training in gooil citizenship through the development of a sense of loyalty to an organization and its members and through obedience to self-elected leaders and self-enacted laws.
1 Vacation homes and summer camps.-During the suminer a large part of the regular activities of setilements are discontinued and the club members and children are sent to some camp in the country for one or two weeks. They usually pay about half their expenses. The plan adopted by most of the New York settlements has been to secure an abandoned farm with a good farmhouse. A matron is placed in charge and there is some worker to organize gaines.
PERMANENCE OF SETTLEMENTS.
One sometimes hears the questions asked, “Is the settlement a permanent institution?" "Is it to be a feature of our social life in the years to come?” The answer seems to be that the settlement, as a setilement, is a phase of the "battle with the slum." To those of us who are sanguine enough to believe the slum is going to be conquered in its struggle with civilization, it would appear that the settlement as a place of residence for another class must disappear with the slum, but it may be maintained as a neighborhood center. To us, however, the fight with the slum is peculiarly difficult, for however well we subdue the evil conditions in our midst, each steamer that comes to us from southern Europe brings us a new slum, and we have to begin the battle over again. The slum must be conquered there before we can escape from its influence here.
There are many who believe that our present slum condition is due to the separation of the rich and poor, who have come to live in different sections of the city, This has brought about a failure to understand each other and an almost complete breach of sympathy between the classes. These theorists believe the solution of the whole problem is to bring the rich to live amcag the poor, and the able will thus become popular leaders, and labor and capital will understand each other, and their cooperation will lead to kindlier feelings and the wiping out of slum conditions.
When we consider the efforts which the more fortunate classes are making for those less fortunate, when we regard the vast sums of money which are being contributed by the rich to raise the condition of the poor, when we see the manifold activities now being carried on to relieve their wretchedness or give them real pleasure, we can not but ask ourselves, Can the laboring people who see all this ever again regard society as their enemy? If an era of better understanding and better feeling between rich and poor is really approaching, as the writer believes is the case, the settlements have had no small part in reestablishing this harmony.
Practical Socialism. Rev. A. B. Barnett.
GENERAL LAWS RELATING TO AGRICULTURAL AND
MECILAXICAL LAND GRANT COLLEGES.
This compilation forms a contiruation of that whi h appeared in the Commissioner's Report of 1022 (Chny). 1, pp. 1-4, and which included the acts of Congress relating to the land giant colleges and the liu's of Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas California, Colorado Connecticut, Delaware, r'lorida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iuwa, Kansas, Kentucky', and Louisiana.)
Constitution (1820): ART. VIII. A general diffusion of the advantages of education being essential to the preservation of the rights and liberties of the people, to promote this important object, the legislature is authorized, and it shall be their duty to require the several towns to make suitable provision, at their own expense, for the support and maintenance of public schools; and it shall further be their duty to encourage and suitably endow, from time to time as the circumstances of the people may authorize, all academies, colleges, and seminaries of learning within the State: Provided, That no donation, grant, or endowment shall at any time be made by the legislature to any literary institution now established, or which may hereafter be established, unless at the time of inaking such endowment the legislature of the State shall have the right to grant any further powers to alter, limit, or restrain any of the powers vested in any such literary institution as shall be judged necessary to promote the best interests thereof.
(The matter which follows is taken from the Revised Statutes of the State of Maine, passed August 2, 1993, and a Supplement to the Revised Statutes of the State of Maine, for the years
135, inclusive, by Elias Dudley Freeman, esq. Portland, N45.) (hapter 11: SEC. 123. Presidents of colleges are removable at the pleasure of the trustees and overseers, whose concurrence is necessary for their election.
SEC. 124. No officer of a college shall receive as perquisites any fees for a diploma or medical degree conferred by such college, but such fees shall be paid into the college treasury.
Sec. 127. If an innholder, confectioner, or keeper of a shop, boarding house, or livery stable gives credit for food, drink, or horse or carriage hire to any pupil of a college or literary institution in violation of its rcles or without the consent of its president or other officer authorized thereto by its government, he forfeits a sum equal to the amount so credited, whether it has been paid or not, to be recov. ered in an action of debt by the treasurer of such institution; half to its use and half to the town where it is located; and no person shall be licensed by the municipal officers for any of said employments if it appears that within the preceding year he had given credit conirary to the provisions hereof.
Chapter 58: SECTION 1. The Maine board of agriculture for the improvement of agriculture and the advancement of the general interests of husbandry consists of the president and the professor of agriculture of the State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts, together with one person from each county elected by ballot by any county agricultural or horticultural society at its annual or other meeting called for the purpose, and they hold their offices for three years from the third Wednesday of January thereafter.
SEC. 4. The board, by its secretary and one of its members, shall hold annually two farmers' institutes in each county and as many more as it deems expedient or finds practicable with the means at its disposal for the public discussion of topics relating to husbandry and the best methods of building and maintaining public ways, either independently or in connection with any organization devoted to the same general object, and it may issue bulletins, employ experts, lecturers, a reporter, or other aids to enhance the usefulness of said institutes to the public, and shall so far as practicable aid and encourage agricultural societies and associations in their efforts.
SEC. 5. It shall also be the duty of the board with such experts, lecturers, and assistants as it may employ, by means of maps, charts, cuts, drawings, printed or written articles, lectures, or otherwise, to disseminate knowledge throughout the State concerning the best known methods for the building and maintaining of highways, including bridges and sidewalks in the cities and towns of the State, and particularly to impart such information, in manner as aforesaid, to the county commissioners of counties, the street commissioners of cities, the selectmen of towns, and other municipal officers whose duty it may be to have the care and management of the expenditures of money and the building and keeping in repair of the highways of the State. The members shall receive no compensation for time and services, but shall be reimbursed for expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties $2 a day for subsistence and 6 cents a mile for travel. The whole expenses under this section shall not exceed $3,500 annually. (As amended by chapter 266 in the acts of 1897.)
Chapter 6. [Property exempted from taxation]: All property which by the articles of separation is exempt from taxation, the personal property of all benevolent and charitable institutions incorporated by the State, the real estate of all literary and scientific institutions occupied by them for their own purposes or by any officer thereof as a residence,
and any college in this State authorized under its charter to confer the degree of bachelor of arts or bachelor of science and having real estate liable to taxation shall, on the payment of such tax and proof of the same to the satisfaction of the governor and council, be reimbursed from the State treasury to the amount of the tax so paid: Provided, however, The aggregate amount so reimbursed to any college in any one year shall not exceed $1,500: And provided further, That this claim for such reimbursement shall not apply to real estate hereafter bought by any such college.
Acts and Resolves, 1863, chapter 275, Resolves: Full assent is hereby given to the provisions and conditions of the act passed at the second session of the Thirtyseventh Congress and approved July 2, 1862, and the same is hereby accepted, and the governor is hereby authorized and directed to notify the President of the United States of said acceptance by the State of Maine and to receive from the Secretary of the Interior the scrip for Maine's proportion of 210,000 acres of land donated by said act and to hold the same subject to the order of the legislature. (Approved March 25, 1863.)
Ibid., 1864, chapter 312, Resolves: Whereas, information has been received from Governor Corey of the reception of the land serip issued for the benefit of the agricultural college under the law of Congress approved July 2, 1862; and whereas a suggestion of concert of action between the States with regard to the sale of the same has been made by Governor Andrew of Massachusetts, which commends itself as a wise and prudent measure, therefore resolved that the governor of this State is hereby authorized and empowered to act in concert with the governors of the other States in selling the land scrip issued to this State for the benefit of an agricultural college. He may unite with them in the einployment of such selling agents in the cities of New York, Philadelphia, or Boston as he may deem expedient and fix the price per acre at which said scrip shall be sold at such sum as may be mutually agreed upon, and such agents so employed shall receive a compensation not exceeding one-half of 1 per cent on sales. All moneys received for the sale of said scrip shall be paid to the State treasurer and be by him invested in the 6 per cent stocks of this state and such stock, with the interest accruing thereon, shall be inviolably held for the sole benefit of said agricultural college. (Approved March 24, 1864.)
Ibid., chapter 302, Resolves: Resolved, That the governor and council be authorized to appoint three commissioners whose duty it shall be to memorialize Congress for an extension of the term during which the college for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts may be provided. Said commissioners are also hereby authorized and directed to invite and receive donations and benefactions in aid of said college, and also proposals for the location thereof, to visit and examine all such proposed locations when so directed by the governor and council, to consider the respective advantages of all such locations, to entertain all propositions which may be made for this purpose, to confer with other States engaged in the same enterprise, and to learn what they can of the history, present working, and prospect of usefulness of similar institutions, and to gather all such other information regarding the establishment of such an institution as they may be able to do, and report thereon to the next legislature. (Approved March 25, 1864.)
Acts and Resolves, 1865, Private and Special Acts: SECTION 1. Samuel F. Perley, etc. (fifteen other persons), are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate, by the name of the trustees of the State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, having succession as hereinafter provided, with power to establish and maintain, subject to the provisions and limitations of this act, such a college as is authorized and provided for, by the act of the Congress of the United States, passed on the 2d day of July, in the year 1862. They shall be entitled to receive from the State the income which shall accrue from the funds granted to the State by the act aforesaid, and shall apply the same, together with all such income as they shall receive from any other sources to the maintenance of the college in conformity with the act of Congress.
SEC. 2. The trustees shall annually elect one of their number to be president of the board. They shall appoint a clerk and treasurer, both of whom shall be sworn, and shall hold their offices at the pleasure of the trustees. The clerk shall record all proceedings of the board, and copies of their records certified by him shall be evidence in all cases in which the originals might be used. The treasurer shall be required to give suitable bond, and to renew the same whenever the trustees shall require.
SEC. 3. The governor and council shall at all times have the power, by themselves, or such committee as they shall appoint, to examine into the affairs of the college, and the doings of the trustees, and to inspect all their records and accounts, and the buildings and premises occupied by the college. Whenever the governor and council shall have reason to believe that the trustees are exercising or attempting to exercise any unlawful powers, or unlawfully omitting to perform any legal duty, they may direct the attorney-general to institute process against the trustees in their corporate capacity, in the nature of a complaint in equity before the supreme judicial court in the county in which the college may be established, and the court after notice, shall hear and determine the saine, by summary proceeding in term time, or by any judge in vacation, and may make any suitable decree restraining the trustees from performing or continuing the unlawful acts complained of, or requiring them to perform whatever is unlawfully omitted, and may enforce such decrees. In like manner a complaint may be instituted against any individual trustee, and be heard in the county where he resides, alleging against him any cause deemed by the governor and council sufficient to disqualify him for the trust; and if in the judgment of the court such allegation shall be sustained, a decree shall be made removing such trustee from office, and his place shall be thereby vacated.
SEC, 4. No person shall be a trustee who is not an inhabitant of this State, nor any one who has reached the age of 70 years. The clerk of the trustees shall give notice of all vacancies to the governor and council; vacancies occurring in any of the foregoing modes, or by the resignation or decease of any trustee, shall be filled in the following manner: The first vacancy that shall occur shall be filled by the legislature at the next session thereafter by joint ballot of the two branches; the second vacancy shall be filled by the trustees at their next meeting; and all succeeding vacancies shall be filled in like manner, alternately by the legislature and the trustees.
SEC. 5. The trustees in their corporate capacity may take and hold in addition to the income which they shall receive through the State from the endowment made by Congress, such other real and personal property as may be granted or devised to them for the purpose of promoting the objects of this act. But they shall not be entitled to receive any benefactions made to them upon conditions inconsistent with the act of Congress aforesaid or for purposes different from what is therein prescribed.
SEC. 6. The governor and council shall take measures, as soon as may be adrantageously done after the passage of this act, to sell the land scrip received by this State under the act of Congress, and to invest the same as required by the fourth section of said act. The securities shall be kept by the State treasurer, and he shall report annually to the legislature the amount and condition of the investments, and of the income of the same. He shall from time to time, as the income shall accrue, pay over the same to the treasurer of the college.
SEC. 7. It shall be the duty of the trustees, as soon as may be after their organization, to procure a tract of land suitable as a site for the establishment of the college. If no other provision shall be made therefor, there shall be placed at the disposal of the trustees for this purpose, such proportion as the governor and council may deem suitable of that part of the fund which is authorized by the fifth section of the act of Congress to be expended for the purchase of lands for sites or experimental farms.
SEC. 8. The trustees shall appoint such directors, professors, lecturers, and teachers in the college, and employ such other persons therein from time to time as the means at their command may permit for the accomplishment of the objects