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with comparison. Whole passages may be noted down, abridgments, and the making of drafts, particularly expressing literary form by geometrical figures where possible. To observe these things and to set them in their proper places doth greatly help us to practice and imitate and of itself is very pleasant to understand.”
For composition it must be remembered the first precept is: Let the whole nature of the thing about which you write be known. Then choose from the matter before you. In the beginning choose to write about plain things. Then practice quickness of writing.
Imitation, according to Sturm, consists in an evident desire and love to attain to that in the oration and speech of another which seemeth worthy of praise and admiration. Cicero is the model, par excellence. Cicero must be followed first of all; and besides him the best of everyone in his kind," e. g., in poetry, history, etc. Only those should " imitate” who know the precepts of rhetoric: therefore it is quite unsuited for “ children and boys." There are three stages in this art: First, when we are learning it; second, when we have learned it; third, when we perfectly know and understand it. As for the third stage, Sturm says:
In so great variety and excellency of philosophers, orators, historians and poets, there will always be somewhat, which either we have not read or not marked before: so that still we have something to increase our knowledge. For it is a hard matter to read and understand all things: and to remember all things, I think it can never happen to a mortal man.
With this matter and mode of study, Sturm suggests, “ These three years' space may both make our speech beautiful and furnish us with wisdom and knowledge of divers things.”
T. BLUNDEVILLE (Translator).
T. Blundeville translated from the Italian of Alfonso d'Ulloa the following work, written originally in Spanish by Federigo Furio: A very briefe and profitable Treatise declaring howe many Counsells and what
maner of Counselers a Prince that will governe well ought to hare [Trans
lated by T. B. from the Italian version of A. d'Ulloa). Lond. 1570. 8°. The qualities of the minde requisite in anye counseler in generall, are in number as mine Author sayth XV. that is
1. To be wise. 2. To be eloquent. 3. To speake dyvers languages. 4. To be a good Hystoriographer. 5. To be a good Morall Philosopher. 6. To be politique. 17. To be a traveler, 8. To knowe the force as well of hys Prince, as of his enymies and neyghbours.
9. To love hys common wealth, and to preferre the profite, and honor thereof before his owne gain & estimation.
10. To have a right judgement in all things without partialitie, esteeming honestie and truthe more than friende or kinsman, and to be no maintainer of any sect or faction, which be perillous members in anye common wealth.
11. To be just in correcting the evill without rygour, and in rewarding the good according to their due desertes.
12. To be liberall.
14. To be affable, that is to saye, courteous and gentle, in hys speech and behaviour towards all sortes of men both poore & ryche.
15. And finally, to have a noble, stowte, couragious, and constant minde, not fearing to lose both lyfe and goodes for the truth sake.
Sir GEOFFREY FENTON, 1539-1603.
A forme of Christian pollicie gathered out of French by Geffray Fenton. Lond.
1574. 4to. I have not been able to gather the French source of the book, but it is no doubt due to John Calvin's influence, direct or indirect.
Eook V treats of Education: Chapter i. Of the institution of youth, which is a thing profitable and necessarie in a common
weale: the prayse of free scholes: what provision ought to be made to builde and enduo them. Chapter ii. What Principall and Regents ought to be called to institute a Colledge: it is requi
site they be learned and of good life: instructions who they ought to be by many comparisons. Chapter iii. A continuance of the discourse of Colledges by other comparisons. Chapter iiii. Wisdome, science, vertue, diligence, and fervent zeale with love to their Disciples,
are very necessarie for Schoolemaisters. Chapter v. Instructions to know by the way of contrary oppositions, by the comparisons of the
other Chapters, the iniseries which happen to the world by reason of leude schole Masters. Chapter vi. Amplifications of the sayd comparisons touching wicked Masters: with aunswere
to the objections made to reject Doctrine: prayse of Science: evils of ignorance, and levde
education. Chapter vii. Continuance of the said Comparisons. Chapter vii. Masters onght to instruct their disciples wbome they receive into commons touch.
ing the body with the same labour wherewith they institute their mindes; praysus of Science. Chapter ix. A continuance of the praise of science: exhortation too builde Colleges in Townes. Chapter x. Examples of commodities which Science bringeth to the learned: with a briefe
enumeration of the profites which happen to the world by men of knowledge. Chapter xi. It is necessary for many reasons that all schollers remaine in one colleadge. Chapter xii. In a Colledge or Schoole, there ought to hee statutes authorised by the Universi
ties: the dutie of Governours and townesmen to the Principalies and Regentes: the offic: of
maisters to their Disciples, and of the schoilers to their maisters. Chapter xiii. Refutation of the falsa judgements of some proude worldlings touching the pro
fession of schoolemasters: with a praise of that profession. Chapter xiiii. An exhortation to young Children to studie.
In one of the chapters of Book VI Fenton diseusses the office of fathers and mothers toward their children and the duty of children to their parents, and in a further chapter he treats directly on the education of young children. They must be“ first entered in the knowledge of God and elementary grounds of faith and the commandments, sacraments, and principal points of salvation," and for this wise masters must be chosen; but for the rest it is folly to attempt to change “their vocation, natural or rather divine," and some “ peculiar trade“ may be more to their “ proper profit” than study. Amongst the philosophers “it was an opinion to do nothing against nature;” but in no case ought a parent to discourage or despair the lively will and spirit of a young child taking pleasure to study."
As for maids, they should be kept under close supervision and stern subjection. Due occupation should be provided for poor men's maid children, to draw their minds from foolish and vain thoughts; for the rich "science and labor” are necessary. "There are six things to keep maids from corruption: Doctrine, shame, fear, subjection, sobriety, and perpetual travell” (i. e., work).
Sir Geoffrey Fenton was the translator of certain epistles, as follows: Golden Epistles, gathered as well out of the Remaynder of Guerarae's workes as other authours, Latine, Frenche, and Italian, 1575.
Edward Hellowes had translated Familiar Epistles of Sir Anthonie of Guenara, 1574, 1577, 1584.
Fenton's best-known translation is the Certaine Tragicall Discourses written out of French and Latin (i. e., the tales of Bandetto), which have recently appeared in the series of Tudor Translations of Mr. David Nutt. They illustrate the reading of a Tudor gentleman.
A Touchstone for this time present, exprestly declaring such ruines, enormities,
and abuses as trouble the Churche of God and our Christian commonwealth at this daye. Whereunto is annexel a perfect rule to be observed of all Parents and Scholemaisters, in the trayning of their Schollers and Children in learning. Newly set forth by E. H. Imprinted at London by Thomas Hacket, and are to be solde at his Shop at the greene Dragon in the Royall Exchange.
(1574.) 12mo. From the epistle dedicatory to Master Edward Godfrey, merchant, E. H. is seen to be Edward Hake. Very little is known of Hake. He appears to have been a lawyer. In 1576 he was recorder of Windsor, 1578 a bailiff, and 1588-9 was member of Parliament for Windsor. (Mr. A. H. Bullen, in Dictionary of National Biography.)
He wrote the following works: 1. News out of Paules Churchyard, 1579. Reprinted in 1872 by Mr. Charles Edmonds in the "Isham Reprints."
2. A Translation of Thomas à Kempis' Imitation of Christ, "amended and polished by Sebastianus Castil."
And other small works.
Hake's view of the condition of the clergy.
Would God (I say) that the holy house were not pestered at this day with such hypocrites and damnable sort of lurkish, loitering lubbers, who (notwithstanding their great blockishness their palpable ignorance and extreme want of learning) do keep within their claims(?) the livelihood of true pastors and painful labourers.
Hake is an emphatic pessimist, as the following passage will serve to show: Religious pathology.
All have heard, all have seen, yea and all have felt as well salvation proferred, as plague for sin threatened. Ignorance may not be pleaded, neither is there at all any excuse to be received. But alas, of so much seed, what is the fruit? Of so much travail, what is the gain? Even this forthwith to be reaped: Stubble for the fire, and horrible sins for the scorching flames of hell: And for this cause, came light into the world, that man seeing should not believe: and not believing should be damned. The natural history of the age.
From our very cradles we are nourished in sin, we are practised in our infancy and made perfect in our childhood. In man's age we are very sin itself, in middle age monsters, and in old age, devils. O terror, O horror. O rusty beaten Age! Oh age wherein iniquity is so much and so mightily prevaileth, and wherein Belzebub so greatly beareth rule. What should I say of us but even this? Sin, receive thy guerdon. Man, receive thy doom. Thy doom (I say) to be burned in the glowing gulf of perpetual damnation.
The full force of Hake's Inorbidity is only realized when it is remembered that his age was the age of the defeat of the Spanish Armada. It seemed necessary to give the above passages that the reader may the better judge of his estimate of current education, and also judge of the difficulties of educators to undo so much of the tendency to the thought of hopelessness of progress induced by such writers as Hake. The education of girls.
This passage a receives extrinsic importance through the rarity of references to the education of girls in early times.
a Part of which is quoted by Warton, History of English Poetry, ed. Hazlitt, vol. iv, p. 305, and by Vicesimus Knox in Liberal Education, p. 297.
If I should speak of the education of daughters * the very Pagans, Infidels and Turks would stand up against us. I cannot tell whether through sorrow, I should cry out and Dewail them, or for shame commit them to silence: so immoderate in apparel, so lascivious in talk, so bold in behaviour, and so unszemly in gesture is the universal estate, almost as well of wives as of damosels. And that which most of all should be regarded, I mean the provident care of parents over their daughters in their young and tender years: that is altogether neglected and set aside. No sooner is the daughter of age of understanding but she straightway and therwithal learneth the high path to whoredom, and the principles of vanity and lewdness. Either she is altogether kept from exercises of good learning, and knowledge of good letters, or else she is so nouseled in amorous books, vain stories and fond trifling fancies, that she smelleth of naughtiness even all her life after, as a vessel which being over seasoned doth never forego the scent of the first liquor.
Such words Hake dares to use in the days of Queen Elizabeth. What vestige of truth there is in the account is a matter of great difficulty to investigate. But there are indications sufficient to show that Hake's generalizing is quito unwarranted. Yet in another passage he says:
But even as I do see very few, and almost none at all in this our extreme and too impious time anything desirous to attain either unto virtue or learning: so that some small number which have any knowledge at all, do so greatly abuse it, that much better were it they should unlearn that again which they have already learned than miserably to abuse it as they do. Trades and occupations for girls.
I would to God that maids at the least wise might be brought up, if not in learning, yet in honest trades and occupations as amongst the very infidels hath been used, accustomed, and most carefully observed. Aim of parents in bringing up girls.
It is to be lamented (as a case too grievous) such parents as do bring up their daughters in learning, do it to none other end, but to make them companions of carpet lights, and giglots for amorous lovers. The cost of daughters' apparel.
I am ashamed, and do tremble to utter-of a truth, the substance which is consumed in two years space upon the apparel of one mean gentleman's daughter, or upon the daughter or wife of one citizen, would be sufficient to find a poor student in the University, by the space of four or five years at the least. Mine eyes have seen the experience, and with sorrow have I found out the truth thereof.
To make the measure of his pessimism complete, Hake next attacks the sons. Small hope, also, for sons.
But even as the lives of parents and elders are, so is the bringing up of children and younglings; not only of daughters, which I have before touched, but also of sons, of whose education in learning I have somewhat written, though briefly in a few quires hereunto annexed. As into whose education in life and manners, I am much loath to descend, the field being so large, and the hope of amendment so small. Omitting therefore the first ill, handling of them in their infancy, the other great neishness and delicacy that by parents is infused into their little sons, even in those years when as they should chiefly be framed unto such constitution of body as the importance of study doth look for and require, and as through want whereof, they become unfit in after age both for learning and all other good exercises tending to the succour of a common wealth, as falling through their said ill-education into feminine delights and vain curiosities, I come only to that looseness of manners whereunto they are haled and set at liberty, at such time as their frail youth ought chiefly and carefully to be held in restraint, namely and universally, the contempt of superiors and government; whereunto they are directly procured or rather enforced by two spurs of wicked provocation ministered unto them by the mean vanity of parents; I mean through excess in their apparel and liberty in their speech; whereof dispositions of their sons never so temperately set, That one vanity were of itself able violently to withdraw them from virtuous delights and forwardness to learning, unto a very sea of fantasies and wicked behaviours.
The compendious form of education for this time present annexed to the Touchstone is a translation of the Latin tractate. It is in verse, and the following passages will illustrate its style and matter: Learning better than toys for the very young.
Nay, what will children sooner do
Which once have power to cheat
Than still to think on that?
That that same age should be
So mean have his degree?
They bring their infants unto feasts
Of strange and divers food:
In banquets that till midnight last. Parents indiscreetly dress up their children.
They pinch and crook their bodies in,
The little corpse they strain
And to be thought as vain.
They use them for their squires,
And apes in their attires. Instead of setting them to school, the fathers listen to their friends who presage careers for them. “This child will prove well learned," says one. The father at once declares, “I will procure some prebend or provostship for him.” Another says, " This child will make a man; see how his limbs be pight." The father says, “He shall be a courtly knight." But if anyone says the child ought to be trained in learning, the parents reply, “He is too young.” The mother particularly insists that the child“ hath how to live" (i. e., a competency).
He shall (I trust) a living get
Although he never give
And travail at his book.
And hath he so in deed, good wife?
What shall he have such stay?
To shield him from decay.
And freighted up with wares,
Should be the shipman's cares.
A steersman's having skill,
Fal'th into danger still.
All men may plainly see
-Med by the fear of one,
To be no school at all,
A school in general.