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and the preventatives against illnesses to which they are prone. The author, interestingly, avows:
That which here we write shall be good and available in manner to all ages (childhood and extreme old age excepted) wherein my counsel is to all men, that what every man shall find, and by experience prove best to agree with his nature, the same to use as nearly as he may.
A pretie and Mery new Enterlude: called the Disobedient Child. Compiled by
Thomas Ingelend late Student in Cambridge. Imprinted at London in Fletestrete beneath the Conduit by Thomas Colwell. 4to. (n. d., but probably about 1570.) See F. J. Furnivall, Early Education in England, in the Babees
Book. (Early English Text Society.) In this interlude is a son very anxious not to go to school. He states his objections, we may safely say, in a very exaggerated form. He has had so pleasant a childhood that if he went to school he would seem “ driven out of paradise.”:
Like to the school none under the sun
Bringeth to children so much heaviness. Pressed on the point as to how he has learned this, he has to confess from boys who have been to school. Boys' tales of school life.
For as the Brute [i. e., the schoolmaster] goeth by many a one
Their tender bodies both night and day
That from top to toe, the skin is away.
None truly none, but that alas, alas
them do grow apace.
Till death be almost seen in their countenance.
Father, this thing I could not have believed
But of late days I did behold
Which through many stripes was dead and cold.
I will not obey ye therein to be plain,
Though with a thousand strokes I be slain. That the soa's testimony is exaggerated wildly may be gathered from the fact that the youth instead of going to school desires to marry a wife.
The father, unfortunately, allows the youth his way and this naturally leads into great trouble, and the moral of the whole piece comes out, as
Instruct your children and make them students
Qui parcit virgæ, odit filium.
In this same interlude there is, I think, a reference of more interest than the above. There is a scene between a man cook and a maid cook. There seems to be much difficulty in finding references to girls' schools in the early history of edncation, yet in this interlude is the following passage: The maid-cook had been to school.
Why callest thou me fool?
And of my Latin primer I took. assay.
Masters, this woman did take such assay,
Which of her master she learned then.
I trow it began with, Domine, labia aperies.
JOHN STURU. 1307-1589,
Translator, T. B. (given as Browne in British Museum Catalogue): but the writer of article in Dictionary of National Biography on Thomas Blundeville identifies this translation as Blundeville's.
If T. B. Gent is to be identified with Thomas Blundeville, he was the writer of exercises containing treatises in arithmetic, cosmography, astronomy and geography, and the art of navigation. Published in 1591, it reached the seventh edition in 1636, when it was reedited by Ro. Hartwell; it was still in use in 1658, when it is found in William London's Catalogue. Blundeville says that he wrote the arithmetic for and at the request of Elizabeth Bacon, the daughter of Sir Nicholas Bacon, for whom he made it “ so plain and easy as was possible (to my seeming)." Blundeville also wrote books on riding (1565) and the art of logic (1599). See also p. 312.
A ritch Storehouse or Treasurie for Nobilitye and Gentlemen, which in Latine
is called Mobilitas literata, uritten by a famous and excellent man, Iohn Sturmius, and translated into English by T. B[roune], Gent. Imprinted at London by Henrie Denham dwelling in pater noster rou at the sigme of the Starre. 15,0. 8vo. Sturmius Johannes was born at Schleiden in the Eifel, near Cologne, 1507. Educated with the sons of Count de Manderscheid, and afterwards at Liege. In 1524 went to Louvain and spent three years in study and two in teaching. Set up a printing press and printed some Greek authors. In 1929 went to Paris and lectured in Greek and Latin. Married at Paris and kept boarders, who came from England, Germany, and Italy. Became a Protestant. In 1537 went to Strasburg. In 1538 opened a school there. This made into a university by Maximilian in 1566. Died 1589, age above 80. At Paris he had studied medicine and published an edition of Galen's works. He edited all Cicero's works, in 9 volumes, in 1557.
a Joannes Sturmius ad Werteros fratres Nobilitas Literata. Argentati, 1519. 8vo.
A Ritch Storehouse gives the--
Kinds of authors: 1. As a holy man, ought to spend his life in holy writers so an eloquent man ought to be daily conversant in Tullie's works. Religion and eloquence joined together make life healthful. They ought therefore to be read and studied for ever.
2. Those we read for recreation. For these it is well to have a "Repeater” or Reader aloud.
3. Those we read in parts and for particular purposes. In the Latin tongue, should be known: Tullie throughout, Cæsar's Commentaries, Sallust and Virgil, and parts of Plautus, Terence, Varro, Lucretius. In Greek: Xenophon's Cyrus, Socratic Commentaries, Herodotus, Thucydides, Demosthenes, Aristotle's Ethics and Politics, Homer and Hesiod, parts of Theocritus, Pindar, Euripides and Sophocles. Geometry, Cosmography and Astronomy as far as they bear on these must be studied, and daily, style in composition be cultivated.
In three years, with this programme, we shall achieve the thing we would;" that is, that the “tongue and the mind may sound alike, which I think to be sweeter than any music.”
The following passage occurs in Roger Ascham's Scholemaster (Mayor's edition, pp. 160, 161):
If a Master would have a perfect example to follow, how in Genere sublimi to avoid Nimium, or in Mediocri, to attain Satis, or in Humili, to eschew Parum let him read diligently for the first, Secundam Philippicam, for the mean, De Natura Deorum, and for the lowest, Partitiones * For our time the odd man to perform all three perfectly, whatsoever he doth, and to know the way to do them skilfully, whensoever he list, is, in my poor opinion, Joannes Sturmius.
And again (Scholemaster, Mayor's edition, p. 98):
I could be over long, both in showing just causes, and in reciting true examples, why learning should be taught, rather by love than fear. He that would see a perfect discourse of it, let him read that learned treatise which my friend jcan. Sturmius wrote de institutione Principis, to the Duke of Cleves..
There is a third passage (idem, p. 189):
Ascham is speaking of imitation of classical models. He has mentioned Erasmus, Budaeus, Philip Melancthon, Camerarius, Sambucus, Cortesius, and P. Bembus. He goes on:
But Joan. Sturmius de Nobilitate literata, et de Amissa dicendi ratione, far best of all, in mine opinion, that ever took this matter in hand. For all the rest, declare chiefly this point, whether one, or many, or all, are to be followed: but Sturmins only hath most learnedly declared, who is to be followed, what is to be followed, and the best point of all, by what way and order, true Imitation is rightly to be exercised.
For modern accounts and judgments of Sturm, see Quick: Educational Reformers, 1890 edition, pp. 27–32 (founded on Henry Barnard's account in “German Teachers and Educators,'' and on Raumer). Also, Dr. Bossler's article on Sturm in K. A. Schmid's Encyklopädie.
Mr. C. S. Parker gave an account of Sturm in Essays on a Liberal Education, edited by F. W. Farrar (Essay i, p. 39). A complete survey of Sturm is given in the Die Pädagogik J. Sturms, historisch u. kritisch beleuchtet: by Ernst Laas. These references are given by Mr. R. H. Quick, in Educational Reformers.
The following list of Sturm's edcational works I have collected from the British Museum Catalogue:
1. J. Sturmii Epistolae ad R. Aschamum, etc. 1589, 1602, 1610, 1611. For English collection of Sturm's letters to Ascham, see Library of Old English Writers, edited by Dr. Giles.
2. Æschinis et Demosthenis orationes duae contrariæ. Commentariolum J. Sturmii in easdem Hecatommeres, 1550. 8vo. Also 1581. 3. ' Αριστοτελους 'Ηθικων.-De moribus
libri decem (edited by J. S.). 1540. 8vo.
4. Aristotelis Rhetoricorum, libri iii; in Latinum sermonem conversi et explicati a J. Sturmio. 1570. 8vo.
5. Beati Rhenani vita. 1551, 1610, 1886. 6. D. Catonis disticha
additis insuper J. S. lemmatibus. Lat., Gr., and Germ. 1672. 8vo.
7. M. T. Ciceronis librorum philosophicorum volumen primum emendatum a J.S., etc. 1541. 8vo. In addition, Sturm edited some of Cicero's books separately. 8. M. T. Ciceronis Epistolarum libri a J. S.
confecti. 1554. 9. Phrases linguæ Latinæ elegantiores
cum praefatione J. S. 1610. 8vo.
10. De educatione Principum. 1551. 8vo.
12. Hermogenis * de dicendi generibus sive formis orationum libri ii, Latinitate donati et scholis explicati atque illustrati a J. S. 1571. 8vo.
13. Hermogenis * de ratione inveniendi oratoria libri iiii. Latinitate donati, et scholis explicati atque illustrati a J. S. 1570. 8vo.
14. Hermogenis * de ratione tractandae gravitatis occultæ liber, Latinitate donatus, et scholis explicatus atque illustratus a J. S. 1571. 8vo. 15. Hermogenis * Partitionum rhetoricarum liber unus
* Latinitate donatus, et scholis * * illustratus a J. S. 1570. 8vo.
10. Commentarii in Artem Poeticam Horatii, confecti ex scholiis J. Sturmii. 1576. 8vo.
17. Pindari oda prima [secunda] cum praefatione J. S. 1564. 8vo.
18. Δυο Πλάτωνος διαλογοι * * * Duo Platonis dialogi, Alcibiades * et Menexenus. (With a prefatory epistle by J. S.) 1538. 4to.
19. Thesaurus verborum linguæ Latinae Ciceronianus, * cum prae'atione J. S. 1570. 4to. (Schorus A.) 20. Specimen et forma legitime
tradendi sermonis et rationis disciplinas ex P. Rami scriptis collecta. Cum praefatione J. S. 1572. 8vo.
21. Scholia M. Toxitae in Theocriti Idyllion primum. Ex scholis J. S. (1562.) 8vo.
22. Academicae Epistolae Urbanae Lib I. (1570?) 8vo.
27. J. S. de imitatione oratoria lib. iii cum scholis ejusdem authoris. 1574. 8vo. Also 1576.
28. J. S. de universa ratione elocutionis rhetoricae lib. iiii. 1576. 8vo. 29. J. S. in Partitiones Oratorias Ciceronis dialogi duo. 1539. 8vo.
30. Linguae Latinae resolvendae ratio iterum edita accurante J. G. Joch. 1704. 8vo. 31. Prolegomena. Hoc est praefationes in optimos quoque utriusque linguæ
* scriptores. 1541. 16mo. 32. Libri duo. J. S. de Periodis unus. Dionysii Halicarnassaei de Collocatione Verborum alter. 2 parts. 1550. 8vo. Also 1727. 8vo.
33. Poeticum (primum-sextum) volumen, cum lemmatibus J. S. 1565. 8vo. Also 1572-75. 8vo.
34. Scholae Lavinganae. 1565. 8vo.
The following accounts of J. Sturm may be added to those named in Mr. Quick's Educational Reformers: Schmidt, C. La vie et les travaux de J. S. 1855. 8vo. Veil, Dr. H. Zum Gedächtnis J. Sturm. Eine Studie. Strassburg. (Protestantisches Gym.
nasium.) 1888. 8vo. Zoepffel, R. J. Sturm, der erste Rector der Strassburger Akademie, Rede, etc. pp. 15. Strass.
burg, 1887. 8vo.
Sturm's Nobilitas Literata, Englished by “T. B." as A Ritch Storehouse for Nobilitye and Gentlemen, bears in the translation the date 1570. The Latin edition is dated 1549. It is a response to a desire expressed by the two youths, Werter, for some way, order, and trade of study." They have been for two years under George Fabricius, and Sturm undertakes to advise them for the next three years as to when to study, what their study and exercise shall be, and the order of studies. Without treating of virtue as a direct end, for it should always be joined to learning, it is necessary to say, that the virtue of diligence is requisite, also of temperance and an honest measure in delights, and of constancy in them both. The position of knowledge of the brothers may be taken to be that they have studied the precepts and rules of Latin necessary for the understanding of writers. They have got a store and choice of words and phrases for writing, and some knowledge of logic and rhetoric. For the future, then, are chiefly required annotations in reading and in writing, painfulness. In Greek the " precepts” of the language are known, so far as words and phrases are concerned.
A treatise of this kind may be divided into two parts: (1) The knowledge of things, and (2) exercise and practice of the language. As to knowledge of things, civil policy should be studied. Read on this subject Aristotle's Politics; but moral science must be studied at the same time. For this aspect of civil policy history must be read, e. g., Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Polybius, and Herodianus; Cæsar, Livy, and Tacitus. In all these, however, the greatest varieties of style will be found and some of them must not be imitated; but always it must be remembered that Christ's religion must be learned, not indeed so that our tongue should be hindered, but amended thereby. “Our tongue and heart should be pure, clean, and neat alike." Therefore civil policy should be pursued in the authors, doctors, and historiographers of our religion. Plato's Laws and Cicero on the same subject are to be read.
There are three kinds of study: Hearing, reading, and considering. For the time of hearing two helps are necessary: (1) The reader, professor, or schoolmaster to expound hard authors, viz, Plato, Gorgias, and Protagoras; Aristotle's Politics, Book 1; Thucydides, Lucian, Demosthenes, Cicero. By yourselves you can read Cæsar, Xenophon, Herodian, Polybius. (2) The repeater rehearses those things which we have learned of others. This is done at home. As to a teacher, choose the one who professeth the art he teacheth and hath long exercised the same," not one who is both student and teacher. First and last hour of the day to be given to religion. Religious study will supply material for exercise in style. Best of morning to Cicero and composition. All Cicero will be compassed in three years, reference to works referred to in his books looked up, and all kinds of sentences, counsels, deeds gathered from him. In the afternoons all authors, Greek and Latin, are, in some part or other, to be read.
How authors ought to be read: Sturm's advice is, read straight through, and afterwards try to understand the chapters, paragraphs, and sentences piecemeal. Three exercise books are to be provided, one for things and matter (commonplace books), one for words, and one for precepts of art. Every man should have his oun commonplace book. The practice of this begins with marking and ends
«E. g., parts of an oration, kinds and causes of rhetorical figures and periods.