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heed betimes, ever borrowing and never paying, she shall be fain to keep her house as bankrupt. For then doth our tongue naturally and praisably utter her meaning, when she borroweth no counterfeitness of other tongues to attire herself withal, but useth plainly her own with such shift as nature, craft, experience, and following of other excellent doth lead her unto, and if she want at any time (as being unperfect she must) yet let her borrow with such bashfulness, that it may appear, that if either the mould of our own tongue could serve us to fashion a word of our own, or if the old denisoned could content and ease this need we would not boldly venture of unknowen words. This I say not for reproof of you who have scarcely and necessarily used where occasion serveth a strange word, so as it seemeth to grow out of the matter and not to be sought for: but for mine own defence, who might be counted over-straight a dreamer of things, if I gave not this accompt to you, my friend, and wise, of my marring this your handiwork. But I am called away, I pray you pardon my shortness, the rest of my sayings should be but praise and exhortation in this your doings, which at more leisure, I should do better. From my house in Wood Street the 16th July. 1557. Yours assured,

JOAN CHEEK. The Translator, Sir Thomas Hoby (1530–1566), and “The Courtier" are also praised by Roger Ascham. See the Scholemaster, Mayor's edition, 1884, p. 119, where he says:

To join learning with comely exercises, Conte Baldesar Castiglione in his book, Cortegiano doth trimly teach: which book advisedly read, and diligently followed, but one year at home in England, would do a young gentleman more good, I wisse, than three years travel abroad spent in Italy. And I marvel this book is no more read in the Court, than it is, seeing it is so well translated into English by a worthy gentleman Sir Th. Hobbie, who was many ways well furnished with learning, and very expert in knowledge of divers tongues.

The following is given as the Final end of a courtier.

Is to become an instructor and teacher of his prince or Lord inclining him to virtuous practices: And to be frank and free with him, after he is once in favour in matters touching his honour and estimation, always putting him in mind to follow virtue and to flee vice, opening unto him the commodities of the one and the inconveniences of the other: And to shut his ears against flatterers, which are the first beginning of self-seeking and all ignorance.

His conversation with women is to be always gentle, sober, meek, lowly, modest, serviceable, comely, merry, not biting or slandering with jests, nips, frumps or railings, the honesty of any. His love towards women, is not to be sensual or fleshly, but honest and godly, and more ruled with reason than appetite: and to love better the beauty of the mind than of the body. Not to withdraw his mistress's goodwill from his fellow-lover with reviling or railing at him, but with virtuous deeds, and honest conditions, and with deserving more than he, at her hands, for honest affection's sake. Final end for a gentlewoman.

The final end whereto the Courtier applieth all his good conditions, properties, feats, and qualities, serveth also for a waiting Gentlewoman to grow in favour with her Lady, and by that means so to instruct her and train her to virtue, that she may both refrain from vice and from committing any dishonest matter, and also abhor flatterers, and give herself to understand the full truth in every thing without entering into self-seeking and ignorance, either of other outward things or yet of her own self.

The education sketched out is rather æsthetic than intellectual. In fact, all effort of education is to be obscured. The courtier is to do everything as if it were natural rather than learned with study. He is to be well spoken and fair languaged, to be wise and well seen” in discourses upon states, and to frame himself to the manners of the country where he stayeth. Upon every matter he is to be able to allege good and probable reasons. Of languages he must at least be provided with Italian, French and Spanish. He is to be good company, and not to play dice and cards merely to win money. He is to be “ more than indifferently well seen in learning in the Latin and Greek tongues.” Castilio does not offer any views on methods. The courtier must dance, sing, and play on the lrte and

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viol. He is not to become a jester or scoffer “to put any man out of countenance.” Above all, he is to be skillful in all kinds of martial feats, both on horseback and on foot, and well practiced in them. In these he must bear himself nobly and magnanimously. The education of gentlewomen.

The gentlewoman must be taught to do all with a good grace. She is to commit no'vice, and not to be had in any suspicion of vice. To have the understanding. so that when married she can order her husband's substance, her house, and children, and play the good housewife. She is to be heedful in her talk, that she offend not when she meant it not. She is not, in her playing upon instruments or in singing, to use •* too much division and busy points, that declare more cunning than sweetness." She is to “set out her beauty and disposition of person with meet garments that shall best become her, but as seemingly as she can, making semblant to bestow no labor about it nor yet to mind it.” She is to “have an understanding in all things belonging to the courtier, that she may give her judgment to commend and to make of gentlemen according to their worthiness and deserts.” She should be learned and seen in the most necessary languages.” She should draw and paint. She is to dance, and to be able to devise sports and pastimes. Above all, she is to make herself beloved for her deserts, amiableness, and good grace.

(It is interesting to notice the importance of printing in these days. The printer offers a greeting to the reader: “Now at the length, gentle reader, through the diligence of Mr. Hoby in penning, and mine in printing, thou hast here set forth unto thee the book of the Courtier. * * Use it, therefore, and so peruse it, that for thy profit, first he, and then I, may think our travail herein well employed. Farewell.”)

As to Sir Thomas Hoby (knighted 1565), there is little to say. He died at 36 years of age, in 1566. He had been educated at Cambridge, and had traveled abroad in France, Italy, and other countries. (See Dictionary of National Biography, vol. xxvii, p. 55.)

For Life of Castiglione, see edition of Courtier of 1727, by A. P. Castiglione. There is also a biography in Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, vol. 8, pp. 406–410. He was born 1478, near Mantua; learned Latin and Greek. For the latter he had as master Demetrius Chalcondylas, and for the Latin George Merula. Raphael and Michael Angelo are said to have consulted Castiglione on matters of art, admiring his knowledge and judgment. Engaged in military service and embassies, once ming to England. Completed the Courtier in 1516. Castiglione frequently refers to classical writers, or, as Chalmers puts it, “ We may perceive how intimate Castiglione was with the Greek and Latin authors, having here gleaned together the first flowers of their wit, and treasured up as it were in a single cabinet the richest jewels of antiquity." In 1514 he married the daughter of Bentivoglio, who died in about four years after her marriage. Castiglione was sent as a legate of the Pope to Charles V. He accordingly went to Spain, in 1524, and was very successful. He stayed there and became bishop of Avila. It is said that the Pope intended to make Castiglione a cardinal. However, he fell sick at Toledo and died in 1529. Though written in 1516, the first edition of the Courtier was published in 1528 at Venice. The Italians, says Chalmers, call the Courtier “il libro d'oro" (the golden book).

Professor Raleigh has given a full account of Castiglione and a particularly valuable life of Sir Thomas Hobya in his introduction. He shows the relation of Castiglione's views to the spirit of the age of Elizabeth and traces of its influence in later literature.

a Professor Raleigh's account of Hoby is founded on the manuscript autograph diary in the British Museum, entitled “A Booke of the Travaile and Lief of Mr. Thomas Hoby, with diverse things woorth the notinge,"

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The Castel of Memorie: wherein is conteyned the restoryng, augmentyng and

conservyng of the Memorye and Remembraunce, wyth the safest remedyes, and best preceptes thereunto in any wise apperteyning: Made by Gulielmus Gratarolus Bergomatis Doctor of Artes and Phisike. Englished by Willyam Fulwod. The Contentes whereof appeare in the Page next the following. Printed at London by Rouland Hall, dwelling in Gutter Lane at the sigme of the halfe Egle and the Keye 1563. 8vo.“ B. L. Also 1573. Gratarolus was born at Bergamo in Italy, 1516, educated at Padua, and became a learned physician. He became a Protestant and had to leave Italy, first to Basle and then to Marburg, where he became professor of physic. He died at Basle abont 1562. He wrote many books. Among them was the De Memoria reparanda, augenda, conservanda et Reminiscentia, translated as above.

William Fulwood, the translator, lived in reign of Elizabeth. The exact years of his birth and death do not seem to be certain. He was a member of the Merchant Taylors' Company. Besides his translation of the Castel of Memorie, he wrote the Enimie of Idleness.

The following are the contents of The Castel of Memorie, referred to on the

title page:

The i Chapter declareth what Memorye is, where it flourisheth, how profitable and necessary it

is, etc.
The ii containeth the chief causes, whereby the Memorie is hurt, with their signs and cures.
The iii showeth the principal endomages of the Memory in what sort soever they be.
The iiii telleth likewise the particular helps of the Memory.
The v comprehendeth certain best approved and chosen medicinable compound remedies, and

preservatives greatly increasing the Memory.
The vi expresseth Philosophical Judgments, Rules and Precepts of Remembrance.
The vii chap. entreateth in few words of local or artificial Memory.
Last of all is put a brief Epilogue of the aforesaid things.

Then follows a dedication. in verse, to Lord Robert Dudley, in which Fulwood speaks of Maximilian, King of Bohemia, as having praised the original work, and of Edward VI, King of England, as having accepted a French translation as a “ right needful thing." The translator then addresses a preface to the reader of the book, and breaks forth afterwards into the following verses:

A Castell strong I doe present

Well furnished and sure:
Munited eke with armoure bent

For ever to endure.
Whiche hitherto long ty me hath bene

In (limbo patrum) hidde,
But now at last may here be sene,

From daunger, men to rydde;
Procurying them a perfecte state,

And safe securitye,
Whereby they may fynde out the gate

Of Wysedomes lore. For why?
He that hath lost his Memorye,

By me may it renewe:
And he that will it amplifye,

Shall fynde instructions true.
And he that will still kepe the same,

That it shall not decay:
By me must learne the way to frame

And my preceptes obeye.
Lo here ye see my full effecte:

And that I doe entende
The secretes thereof to detecte,
That thereby wittes may mende.

Then Judge me,
As I am werthie.

After discoursing on the nature of memory, in which, of course, Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero are called in for testimony, the author gets to his point that memory may be helped by physic. The student is treated as a patient and is put through an appointed regimen, which may become very severe if milder measures are not effective. He then insists on the exercise of memory, for it is soon "corrupted by sluggishness."

I give the epilogue, which summarizes this curious early treatise on the memory: Last of all, instead of an epilogue and as it were a conclusion I will add that

which Erasmus Roterodamus writeth in his 3 book of Eccles. Erasmus Roterodamus: To the power (saith he) of native Memory being good of third book of Eccles.

nature, must be joined intelligence, care, exercise, and

order. Physicians also do promise some aid to the conMarcillius Ficinus.

firming of the Memory, and to this agreeth Marcilius Ficimus. But besides those things that we have said, a perpetual sobriety of life doth most of all help. For gluttony and drunkenness, like as they do dull the wit, so do they also utterly overthrow and destroy the Memory. Also the variety of cares, and the heap of businesses is hurtful, the tumultuous reading of divers volumes of books is also noyous. I suppose this to be the chief cause why age should be forgetful: because the power of strength of the mind is overthrown with the multitude of things. Also an immoderate bashfulness, the newness or strangeness of Auditors, care and trouble of mind do annoy the Memory; but bashfulness and novitie are overcome or remedied by use and custom.

Also great or careful study is likewise hurtful, in as much as it is not without an earnest and greedy desire. In another place he sayeth thus: The best art of the Memory is to understand things throughly, and being understanded

to reduce them into order and best of all to repeat often Erasmus

that which you would remember. Hitherto Erasmus. If therefore you will have an excellent Memory of good things, you must take diligent heed, that you understand the perfect reason of that you go about to learn by heart.

For reason is an undissolvable bond of the verity and of Plato.

the memory. For this cause possibly Plato said, that thing which is once well understanded, can never be altogether forgotten. Also those things are to be committed to the memory which are not only profitable but also pleasant. For such nourishments as being that sweetest taste, do the easlier pass and are converted into our nature: and with

how much the better appetite that any thing is taken, it Aristotle.

remaineth so much the longer. Add hereunto that which Simonides.

Aristotle and Simonides thought good to be throughly observed (to wit) that there shonld either be indeed a certain and stire order in teaching or else at the least excogitated and supposed. Order consisteth in a certain proportion and connexion. And if you take any one thing of those that are set in an exquisite and perfect order, the rest will follow forthwith by a certain necessary continuation either of Nature or of Art. It is moreover to be observed that we do meditate many times those things that we have learned: for so be the nourishments of the mind digested, and as it were, turned into the mind. It is very good also to renew and rehearse very often such things as are committed to the Memory, with an elegant oration or a sweet song, as it is heretofore declared. For pleasure is the sauce of things, the food of love, the quickening of the wit, the nourisher of the affection, and the strength of the Memory. The sonl also must be purged from evil things, that it may be filled with good things.

Another book on the same subject, but less curious, is:
Libellus de Memoria, verissimaque bene recordandi scientia. Authore G. P.a Cantabrigiense.

Huc accessit eiusdem Admonitiuncula ad A. Disconum, de Artificiosce Memoriæ, quam publice profitetur, vanitate. Londini excudebat Robertus Waldegrave, Anno 1584. 8vo. Both parts are in Latin. The former is divided into chapters, and treats of: 1. De Memoriæ facultate. 2. De Memoriæ Arte et de Propositione. 3. De Syllogismo. 4. De Methodo. 5. De exercitatione.

The Admonitiuncula contains a list of herbs or drugs supposed to preserve the brain if it be (a) moist and cold, (b) dry and cold.

A third book is:

Mnemonica, Sive Reminiscendi Ars: e puris artis naturæque fontibus hausta, et in tres libros

digesta. Necnon De Memoria naturali fovenda libellus: e variis doctissimorum operibus sedulo collectus. Jam primum in lucem edita, authore Joanne Willisso, sacræ Theologice bacchalaureo.

Omne bonum, Dei Donum.


Londini Per Humfredum Lounes, sumptibus Nathanaelis Browne. 1618. 8vo.
Mnemonica; or, The Art of Memory, Drained out of the Pure Fountains of Art and Nature

London, Printed and are to be sold by Leonard Sowersby, at the Turnstile, near New-Market,

in Lincolns-Inn-Fields, 1061. (Translation into English of the above.)

Maister Willis his book of Memory, called Mnemonica sive Reminiscendi, are gathered out of the best who have written thereof; out of which the most profitable things may be selected and used by them who are judicious. (John Brinsley in “A Consolation for our Grammar Schools, pp. 79, 80.)

llis states that the authors who have been most useful in fur shing him with “precepts” for his work are:

Theologi: St. Tzegedinus, Guil Perkinsus.

Medici et Philosophi: H. Gualt. Ryff, Guil. Gratarolus, Fernelius, Leon. Fuchsius, H. Ranzovius, D. Brightus.

The following are the subjects of the chapters, as given in the English translation:

Book i: Of remembering common affairs-Of remembering words-Of remembering PhrasesOf remembering Sentences-Of remembering long Speeches.

Book ii: Of remembering without writing-Of remembering by certain Verses purposely borne in mind-Of remembering ex tem Verses-Of ex ting things charged on Memory ex tempore.

Book iii: Of Repositories-Of Places-Of Ideas in General-Of the Quantity of Ideas-Of the Position of Ideas-Of the Colours of Repositories and Ideas--Of direct Ideas-Of Relative IdeasOf Fictitious Ideas--Of written Ideas–Of Compound Ideas–Of choosing ideas—The manner of reposing Ideas-Of the practice of the Art of Memory-Of Dictation and Reposition-Of irregular Reposition-Of Depositing Ideas.

A Treatise of Cherishing Natural Memory: Chap. i: Of such as debilitate Memory--Chap. ii: Of things corroborating Memory-Chap. iii: Of a prescript order of life--Chap. iv: Of restoring a debilitated Memory-Chap. v: How to discern the temperament of the Brain-Chap. vi: Of diet properly convenient to every temperament-Chap. vii: Of diseases of the Brain.

Gratarolus (Gulielmus).
(A direction for the health of Magistrates and Studentes

* * Englished from the Latin

by T. Neuton. B. L. (London, 1574.) Svo. The only reason for including this book in a bibliography of education is the special reference kept throughout to the case of students, their probable ailments,

* *

a Probably Guil. Perkinsus.

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