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restrain their vehement race * * * I condemn not universally the art, but thereto get they me nor counsellor nor favourer; it hath plenty enough of praisers. The fine of their whole study.
Be the fine of their whole study, first to know God, next themselves, to govern well their family, the state. Thus leave I much to private reading, and overpass both Christian and heathen writers of later age or nearer years. I pass by also the Catechisms and institutions of Christian religion. Wherein the chief of our age is John Calvin.
Humfrey commends the reading of Alexander Severus, “wherein as a most compendious form is closed the sum of their [the nobles') whole study. For he was not altogether estranged from our religion. But in his oratory and secret closet, besides the images of Alexander and Apollonius he had also Christ's and Abraham's counterfeits."
The following work gives an idea of the nobleman's character and office, though the eclucational methods and material of instruction are not so clearly described as in Humfrey: Tre Fire Bookes of the Famous learned, and eloquent man, Hieronimus Orosius, contayminge a discourse of Civill, and Christian Nobilitie. A worke no lesse pleasant than profitable for all, but
especiallye the noble Gentlemen of England, to view their lives, their estates, and conditions in. Translated out of Latine into Englishe by William Blandie late of the Universitie of Oxeford, and
Nou" fellow of the middle Temple in London. Lond. 1570. to.
Doctor Furnivall refers in his Forewords to the reprint of Sir IIumphrey Gilbert's Queene Elizabeth's ichademy to an essay on Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, by John Payne Collier. In that essay an account is given a of: Articles derised for the bringing up in vertue and learning of the Queenes
Majesties Hurdes, being heires male, and whose landes, descending in possession and coming to the Queenes Jajestie, shall amount to the cleere yearly
rulue of c markts, or above. This paper was sent t) Sir William Cecil in 1561, when he had been appointed master of the wards. Bacon describes his view as toThe ulty of reform with the uurds.
That the preceiling hath bin preposterons appeareth by this: the chiefe thing, and most of price in war leship is the wardes mynde; the next to that, his bodie; the last and meanest, his land. Nowe, hitherto the chiefe care of governaunce hath bin had to the land, being the meaneste; and to the bodie, being the better, very small; but to the mynde, being the best, none at all, which methinkes is playnely to sett the carte before the horse.
The following is Mr. Payne Collier's account of Sir Nicholas's suggestions:
It may appear singular that in these articles, drawn up by Sir Nicholas, so much stress is laid upon instruction in music; but it only serves to confirin the notion that the science was then most industriously cultivated by nearly every class of society. The wards are to attend divine service at six in the morning: nothing is said about breakfast, but they are to study Latin until eleven; to dine between eleven and twelve; to stay with the music-master from twelve till two; from two to three they are to be with the French master; and froin three to fivo with the Latin and Greuk masters. At five they are to go to evening prayers; then they are to sup; to be allowed honest pastimes till eight; and, last of all before they go to bed at nine, they are again to apply themselves to music under the instruction of the master. At and after the age of sixteen they were to attend lectures upon temporal and civil law, as well as de disciplina militari.
a Archeologia, vol. 33, pp. 343, 344; there printed from manuscript.
Mr. Collier says: It is not necessary to insert further details," though one can not help wishing we had been given the whole essay. He says that “the education of wards was shamefully neglected, while their lands were carefully cultivated for the benefit of the Crown or of the private guardian appointed by the Crown,” anr? that even Lord Burghley was unable to cope with the mischief. It lasted,” adds Collier, more or less, as long as wardship was maintained.”
Queene Elizabethes Achademy. By Sir Humphrey Gilbert. Lansdowne MS., 98,
art. 1, leaf 2. Edited by F. J. Furnivall, M. A. Early English Text Society,
1869, The erection of an Achademy in London for educacion of her Vajestes Il'ardes,
and others the youth of nobility and gentlemen.
One schoolmaster to teach grammar, Greek, and Latin; salary to be 40 li.
A teacher of logic and rhetoric, who shall also on certain days, weekly, “ see
When the Orator shall practice his scholars in the exercise thereof, he shall chiefly do it in Orations inale in English, both politic and military, taking occasions out of Discourses of histories, approving or reproving the matter, not only by reason, but also with the examples and stratagems both antique and modern. For of what commodity such use of art will be in our tongue may partly be seen by the scholastical rawness of some newly commen from the universities: besides, in what language soever learning is attained, the appliance to use is principally in the vulgar speech. as in preaching, in parliament, in council, in commission and other offices of Common Weal. I omit to show what ornament will thereby grow to our tongue, and how able it will appear for strength and plenty, when, by such exercises, learning shall have brought unto it the choice of words, the building of sentences, the garnishment of figures, and other beauties of Oratory,– whereupon I have heard that the famous knight Sir John Cheke devised to have declamations, and such other exercises, sometimes in the universities performed in English. Training towarıl pouer as uell as knowledge.
This kind of education is fittest for them, because they are wards to the prince, by reason of knight's service. And also, by this exercise, art shall be practised, reason sharpened, and all the noble exploits that ever were or are to be done, together with the occasions or overthrows, shall continually be kept in fresh memory; whereby wise counsel in doubtful matters of war and state shall not be to seek among this trained Company when need shall require. For not without cause is Epaminondas commended, who, riding or journeying in time of peace, used oftentimes suddenly to appose his company upon the opportunity of any place, saying, " What if our enemies were here or there, what were best to do?” The teaching of moral philosophy.
The “reader" (who is to receive 100ii. per year) shall divide his readings into civil policy and martial policy.
By directing the lectures to the ends aforesaid, men shall be taught more wit and policy then school learnings can deliver. And therefore meetest for the best
sort, to whom it chiefly appertaineth to have the managing of matters of estate and policy. For the greatest school-clerks are not always the wisest men. Doctor Furnivall quotes Chancer, Canterbury Tales, 1, 4051, 4052:
* The grettest clerks beth not the wisest inen,
As whilom to the wolf thus spık the mare." The reader of natural philosophy is to receive 4011. There are to be two mathematicians, one to teach arithmetic and geometry with their applications to military science, at salaries of 1001i. each, an engineer at 100li., and two ushers to teach the principles of arithmetic and geometry at 401i. per year each, a horseman who is to have due allowance (the figures are all given) for the provision of horses, a “ soldier" at a salary of 6611. 13s. 4d. The second mathematician is to teach cosmography and astronomy, with navigation, to be paid Coli. 138. 41. There is to be one to teach how to draw maps, sea charts, and perspective at 40li., and a doctor of physics to read physic and chirurgerie, at 100li. per year. Gilbert's reason for the realer of physic.
The physician shall practice to read Chirurgerie, because through want of learning therein, we have very few good Chirurgeons, if any at all. By reason that Chirgurgery is not now to be learned in any other place than in a barber's shop, And in that shop, most dangerous, especially in time of plague, when the ordinary trimming of men for cleanliness must be done by those which have to do with infected persons.
10011. is allotted for the philosopher and physician to have a garden for all kinds of simples. Other teachers are the following:
Yearly pay. Reader of the civil law.
1001i. Reader of divinity
1001i. Lawyer for grounds of common law, who shall set down and teach exquisitely the office of a justice of the peace and sheriff
100li. One teacher of the French tongue
2017. With an usher.
101i. One teacher of the Italian tongue.
261i. With an usher.
101i. One teacher of the Spanish tongue
261i. One teacher of the High Dutch tongue
2017. One master of defense
261i. Dancing and vaulting teacher
2017. One teacher of music "and to play one the lute, the bandora, and cittern 2017. With an usher.
1011. Yearly allowed for a steward, cooks, butlers, and other necessary officers.. 100/1. A minister and clerk.
66li. 13s. 40. One herald of arms
261i. Keeper of library
2611. For the buying of books and instruments.
4011. All printers in England shall be charged to deliver into the Library of the Academy at their own charges, one copy, well bound, of every book, proclamation or pamphlet that they shall print.
This anticipates the copyright act, whereby the British Museum claims a copy of every work published in Great Britain. Of the chief officers of the Academy,
Per year. The treasurer is to be paid
1001i. The rector, “who shall make trial of the nature and inclinations of the wards!
10071. The master of the court of wards, i. e., the chiefest governor
2001i. For the first furnishing of books and instruments and for the buying of houses
2,000li. The total yearly charge
2, 966li. 13s. 4d. 8vo. 1545, fol. Lyons, 1553, 16mo. 1562, 16mo. 1580, 8vo. 1333, 8vo (edited
The extra duties of the staff.
The public readers every six years shall ““ set forth some new books in print, accoriling to their several professions, and every three years some translation. Twice a year serinons shall be preached in the academy in honor of the founder.”
Gilbert points out that gentlemen's sons could only be educated at Cambridge or Oxford. But in those universities they regard learning only. The commodity of the academy.
Whereas in the Universities men study onely school-learnings, in this Academy they shall study matters of action meet for present practice, both of peace and
And if they will not dispose themselves to letters, yet they inay learn languages, or martial activities for the service of their country. If neither the one nor the other, then may they exercise themselves in qualities meet for a gentleman. Anel also, the other Universities shall then better suffice to relieve poor scholars, where now the youth of nobility and gentlemen, taking up their scholarships and fellowships, do disappoint the poor of their livings and advancements. The outcome of such an academy.
By erecting this Academy there shall be hereafter, in effect, no gentleman within this realm but good for somewhat, whereas now the most part of them are good for nothing. And yet thereby the Court shall not only be greatly increased with gallant gentlemen, but also with men of virtue, whereby your Majesty's and Successors' Courts shall be, for ever, instead of a Nursery of Idleness, become a most noble Academy of chivalric policy and philosophy, to your great fame. And better it is to have renown among the good sort, then to lord over the whole world. For so shall your Majesty make yourself to live among men for ever (whereas all fiesh hath but small continuance), and therewithal bring yourself into God's favour, so far as the benefits of good works may prevail.
Mr. C. H. Coote, the writer of the article on Sir Humphrey Gilbert in Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 21, p. 327, says that the above was probably written after Gilbert's return from the Netherlands in 1572.
Italian and other foreign editions in Britis . Museum of Castiglione's Courtier (translated by Sir Thomas Hoby): Il libro del Cortegiano del Conte Baldassare Castiglione. Velle case d'Aldo
Romano e d'Andrea do Asola. Venetia, 1528, fol. Also 1533, 8vo. Another edition was published at Florence, 1528, 8vo. Also 1531. Also 12.no,
1537. Also 1884, 12mo, and 1894, 8vo. Vinegia, 1538, 8v0, 1511, 8vo, 1517, 8vo, 1551, 12mo, 15.72, 8vo. Venetia, 1944,
a (J. Milton: “I call therefore a complete and generous education that which fits a man to per. form justly, skillfully, and magnanimously all the offices, both private and public, of peace and war."
6 Rather a hard judgment on the gentlemen of Queen Elizabeth's reign.
English editions of Castiglione's Courtier:
sary and profitable for yonge Gentilmen and Gentiluomen abiding in Court, Palaice or Place, done into Englyshe by Thomas Hoby. Imprinted at Londom by Wyllyam Seres at the signe of the Hedghogge, 1561. 4to. (Pages
unnumbered.) Other editions: 1577, 1to. 1603, 4to. The ('ourtier
done into English by Thomas Hobby. Ital. Fr. Eng. B. L. John Il'olfe, London, 1588. 8vo. B.Castilionis
de Curiali sive Aulico, libri quatuor, ex Italico sermone in Latinum conversi; B. Clerke
interprete. Non ante æditi. London, 1571. 8vo. Also 1585, 1393, and 1603. B. ('astilionis Comitis de Curiali sive Aulico, libri quatuor
* Quibus additus est in fine Aula, dialogus (G. Insulani Menapii) cum indice locuple
tissimo, etc. London, 1612. 8vo. Also 1619. Als), at Cambridge, 1713. 8vo. (Recensuit S. Drake.) The Courtier; or, the Complete Gentleman & Gentleroman-Translated from
the Italian original of Bulthasar, Count ('astiglione (by R. Sumber). In four books, London, 1729. 8vo. This edition describes itself as a “Treatise of the politest Manner of Educating Persons of Distinction of both Sexes, and the Qualifications requisite in People of all Ranks from the Prince to the private
Gentleman." There is a sumptuous edition giving the Italian text and the English translation by A. P. Castiglione, who proudly adds,“ of the same family," London, printed by W. Bowyer, for the editor, 1797. It is beautifully printed. There is a life of the author prefixed, and an excellent engraving of the count from the picture by Raphael.
In the Tudor Translations Series (London, David Nutt) appeared, in 1900, beantifully printed text, with a thorongh and most carefully written introduction by Prof. Walter Raleigh.
A glance at the number of editions of this book shows the vogue and influence which it had. Nor is the list of the British Museun Catalogus by any means complete. The English 1729 edition supplies the following, which may be addled (of the Latin translations): Frankfort, 1581, 1606; Strassburg, 1577, 1619, 16:9, 1663.
The first English edition contains a letter from Sir John Cheke to Mayster Thomas Hchy. It is worth quoting, for much as Sir John praised the use of English we look in vain to find any considerable utterances, of his own at any rate, on education in that language. He is reputed to have written a treatise De lui magistrorum officio, but this is not now forthcoming, and it clearly was in Latin.
Here, however, is a piece of his English: ('heke's letter to Hoby.
For your opinion of my good will unto you as you writ. you can not be di ceived: for submitting your doings to my judgment, I thank you. For taking this pain of your translation, you worthily deserve great thanks of all sorts. I have taken some pain at your request chietly in your preface, not in the reading of it, for that was pleasannt unto me both for the roundness of your sayings and well-speakings of the same, but in changing certain words which might very well be let alone, but that I am very curious in my friends' matters, not to determine but to debate what is best. Wherein I seek not the bestness haply by truth, but by my own fantasy, and show of goodness.
I am of this opinion that our own tongue should bè written clean and pure, unmixed and unmangled with borrowing of other tongues wherein if we take not
a There are 25 Italian editions (besides editions and translations in other countries) from 1528 up to Signor V. Cian's edition at Florence in 1894.