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one animal play in one way and another animal in another? Surplus energy may account for the presence of play, but it can not account for its form. He says, further, that the young tiger, no longer fed by its parents, must inevitably starve if it had not gained that practice in its play which would enable it to spring upon and seize its prey. His solution, then, is that play is an instinct which gives the animal his education for the serious activities of life. He says: “The animal does not play because it is young, but rather it has a period of infancy in order that it may play."
Dr. Luther Gulick has also made some very interesting studies on play. In observing the differences between the plays of boys and girls, he finds that boys have a tendency, which begins to manifest itself about the age of puberty, to organize themselves into gangs and to play organized or team games. Girls have never invented team games, and it is much harder to teach them to play together as a team than boys. Doctor Gulick accounts for this by the past of the race. As human kind was emerging from savagery, the men had to organize for protection and aggression, or the ones that did not organize were killed off by those who did. Out of this grew the life of the tribe or clan. This tendency to organize is transmitted as an instinct in the male line and manifests itself about puberty. The women have never had any such necessity for organization laid upon them. Each has lived apart as an individual in the home, and the girls consequently have not inherited this instinct. Doctor Gulick sees in this organizing tendeney, and its resulting loyalty to tribe or clan, the second root of altruism, an unselfish element that has come to us through the male.
It is generally believed that the form of games is derived from earlier activities of the race. They are much conventionalized, ofttimes so that the original is hard to make out; but each game, which may have undergone many modifications before it assumed its present form, was once a serious activity of some kind. As such it was learned by imitation, and the tendency to play it was transmitted in the form of instinct. Thus the games of children between 6 and 13 are competitive; the ideas of choosing, striking, throwing, or hiding away are elements in nearly all. These are also elements in the life of a savage. The team games, such as football or baseball, represent the life of the tribe or clan and are derived from the old game of war. The best example we have of a war game was the tournament, the great game of the days of chivalry.
VALLE OF PLAY.
Physical.-The mission of play in the animal world seems to be to give physical strength and muscular coordination. It is the only gymnastic of the animal or the small child. Play, however, stands for more than mere physical strength; it is always graceful and represents a perfect coordination of impulse and movement. It is action completely expressing an idea. Play has a more healthful action on the vital organs than other activities, and is a greater stimulus to growth because it is activity for which we have inherited adjustments, and because the glow of pleasure with which it is accompanied gives tone to the whole system.
Intellectual.- Probably the stimulus that did most to arouse the dormant intellect of primitive man and goad it on to think, was the stimulus of war. When life hung in the balance, stupidity was fatal. For this reason very likely primitive races have craved this stimulus naturally, as they have craved food. It is our great organized games, too, which represent this period, that offer the greatest stimulus that is ever given to a boy. What else does a boy's world ever offer him that is comparable with the reward of a difficult touchdown on the football field? It gives him at once popular renown, the praise of the beautiful, and the admiration of his friends. He becomes a hero in an hour. Is there anything else that can awaken a stupid intellect to the same degree? “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.” Yes, and the way to brighten a dull boy is play. Play develops a quick reaction time, and the tendency to execute a purpose as soon as conceived. No halting Hamlet was ever produced on the football field. It stands for self-control under strain. But the best thing it does for a man, perhaps, is to give him the play spirit.
Social.—Socially, play stands for good fellowship, for the ability to get on with others, to take knocks and give them, and smile through it all. It stands for competition and cooperation.
Moral.-- Children acquire their manners and habits mostly from their play. Compare the ways of kindergarten children with those of similar children who do not go to kindergarten. A child has formed habits long before he comes to have serious activities. It seems to me that precept has very little to do with these; they are formed from imitation, impulse, and restraint, all acting together.
I doubt if any man ever grew up dishonest in business who had not been dishonest hundreds of times before in playing croquet, checkers, or dominoes. I doubt if many are untruthful in manhood who were not untruthful as children at their play, and vice versa. I doubt if there are many who are honest and truthful as children in their games who grow up dishonest or untruthful in business affairs.
To my mind the most valuable game is the team game. It is the most valuable in every sense. It gives the best physical training, it teaches the healthiest cooperation, it requires the most implicit obedience to law, it exacts the most manly spirit, it demands the constant subordination of the individual to the good of the whole. Corresponding to the life of the clan, it teaches all the virtues of unselfishness that have sprung from it. If we accept the recapitulation theory, then as this was the way the race first learned loyalty to each other and cooperation and obedience to law, then this is the natural way to teach these virtues to the child, or in other words, to teach him to be a good citizen.
The name “settlement” implies residence. The essential idea of this new movement is that people from the more fortunate ranks of life shall come down and live among the poor and wretched and seek to raise them by personal example and influence and by improving the conditions under which their life must be passed. It is an attempt to bridge the chasm between the classes by bringing them to live together, with the hope that neighborhood shall breed respect and sympathy and that the wise and the good may become the leaders to direct and inspire those who have had fewer advantages. As such, the settlements are located among the most crowded tenement sections in our great cities. In America they have to deal almost altogether with a population of foreign parentage and mostly with recent immigrants.
Only a very brief treatment of this subject is here admissible. Consequently no mention will be made of the early anticipations of this movement as found in the work and writings of Coleridge and Morris and Owens and Kingsley, and only the movement itself will be considered.
In England.—The work began on the theoretical and practical sides at almost the same time. Some thirty years ago John Ruskin was lecturing at Oxford on social conditions and seeking to make his students sympathize with the lives of the poor. One of the students who drank in his words and was fired by his spirit was Arnold Toynbee. The Rev. S. A. Barnett had already been laboring for some years among the poor in the Whitechapel district of London. To him Toynbee went to consult and confide his desire to do something to raise the lives of the wretched above the squalor and misery of their condition. In 1875 Toynbee, then tutor for the Indian service at Oxford, spent the summer in living among and in lecturing to the people of Whitechapel on economic subjects. After this he came every summer. He was much loved, both by the people with whom he labored and by his associates at Oxford, and when he died in 1883 his friends resolved to erect some sort of memorial to his life of self-sacrifice. At first they thought best to found and endow a university extension lectureship, but after consulting with Rev. S. A. Barnett, who came to Oxford to lecture at this time, they were convinced that the needs of the poor could not be met by outside influences or lectures, but that only those who had lived among them and knew their needs and had gained their confidences and sympathy were in a position to help them. The outcome of this talk was the founding of the University Settlement Society, which built Toynbee Hall in 1885. Rev. S. A. Barnett was made warden, and so the first settlement began its career under the guidance of one with long experience in work among the poor.
Toynbee Hall is situated just off from Whitechapel, in the interior of a very crowded block. It has accommodations for about twenty residents. A large part of its work, following the career of Toynbee, has been educational, consisting of university extension lectures, classes, clubs, etc. The residents have taken great interest in the municipal affairs of the neighborhood and have often held positions of public trust. They have been inspectors of schools, supervisors of charities, etc., but the warden holds the actual contact with the people and the influence that comes from it as their most important services. There is a great mass of literature on the work of Toynbee Hall, but it is hard for an American who can only travel during his summer vacation to get a personal estimate of the work, as it is closed and the residents are absent during most of the summer.
Oxford House, London, was also founded in 1885. St. Margaret's House, the ladies' branch of the Oxford House, was founded in 1889. There are now probably thirty or forty settlements in London, among which the Passmore Edwards Settlement is of especial interest, because it has been so closely associated with the name of Mrs. Humphrey Ward. Its aim is religious, and it may be said to represent the views promulgated by Mrs. Humphrey Ward in Robert Elsmere. This settlement is notable as having been the first to establish a school for crippled children. Wagons were sent out for the children in the morning and redelivered the children to their homes at night. While in school they were under the treatment of a trained nurse. The cost per child was two or three times the rate in the public schools, but a class of children was reached which would otherwise have been neglected. To them school meant pleasure, health, strength, and the possibility of becoming self-supporting. Since then there have been several such schools established in England. Last summer Mrs. Ward started in this settlement the first English vacation school.
There are settlements also in the other large cities of England.
In general, I believe lecture and class work is made more prominent in England than it is in our American settlements. The religious motive is also more prominent. The head worker, or warden as he is called there, is apt to be a clergyman, Athletics are emphasized much as gymnastics are with us.
The problem of the English settlement is greater than that of the American settlement. The slum with which it has to deal is more wretched and squalid and much more hopeless. The people are more poorly paid and a much larger class are living where a temporary loss of work brings suffering. However, the English slum is not largely foreign, and work among the adults is generally possible, which is not often the case in the American settlement.
Scottish settlements. There are settlements in Glasgow and Edinburgh, but the idea does not seem to have taken very deep root in Scottish soil, and the settlements there are much less developed than they are in England or America.
Settlements in Germany. -So far as known to the writer there are no true settlements in Germany, and there seem to be no slums in the German cities. No explanation of these very interesting phenomena has come to the writer's notice.
Settlements in America.-The first settlement to be established on American soil was the Neighborhood Guild, which was started by Stanton Coit at 146 Forsyth street, New York City, in 1887. Mr. Coit hired two rooms in this tenement and took up his residence there. He soon became acquainted with the boys of the neighborhood, and when he thought the time was ripe he asked one of the boys whom he knew well to invite all of his friends to come to his rooms on a certain evening. This invitation brought out 63 boys, who were organized into a: club. He then invited these boys to bring their younger brothers, and these were organized into a second club. Their older sisters formed the third club and their younger sisters the fourth. Thus the work of the first settlement began. It was not long before the guild outgrew its quarters and moved to 26 Delancy street, where it became the University Settlement in 1891. Since then it has built a magnificent home for itself at 184 Eldridge street. James B. Reynolds has been head worker of this settlement during most of its history. Under Mr. Reynolds's leadership the settlement has done good work in investigating social conditions in the neighborhood, and he has often been called to Albany or the City Hall to be consulted with reference to the needs of the tenement districts. In this way the settlement has played an important part in securing the legislation which was needed in this section. In the recent political campaign Mr. Reynolds was chairman of the executive committee of the Citizens' Union party.
Hull House in Chicago, which was founded in 1889, was the next notable settlement to be started in America. This has about thirty resident workers, and is the largest settlement in the world. Its different activities are almost as numerous as its residents. Miss Jane Addams, a woman of singular devotion to the work and insight into the needs of the people, is the head worker. None of the workers at Hull House receive any compensation, though they administer many thousands of dollars for their neighborhood every year.
The South End House of Boston (formerly Andover House) was founded in 1892. Mr. Robert A. Woods, who was lecturer at the Andover Theological Seminary, has been head worker from the beginning. Mr. Woods is a skilled investigator of social conditions, and is the most prolific writer and lecturer on settlement problems in America. ith End House stands the idea of a sr all settlement. Mr. Woods thinks that it is better for a settlement to swarm when it reaches a certain size and send off a colony to found another settlement elsewhere rather than it is for it to grow large.
These three settlements are mentioned because both they and their head workers are better known than any others in America. There are now about a hundred and fifty settlements in this country, of which forty are in New York City. Nearly half of these have been started in the last three or four years.
The settlement is not an entire stranger in American life. It has had many cousins and some brothers and sisters. The Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations have carried on many of the settlement activities for years. Church Missions have often had clubs, gymnasia, and industrial classes, as have also the institutional churches. Boys' clubs, and of late the evening play centers in the public schools, have been doing very similar work, though they do not have residents.
AIMS OF SETTLEMENTS. Settlements may be divided into two general classey-religious settlements and nonreligious settlements. Religious settlements may again be divided into church houses, and settlements not connected with any church, but in which religious teaching is carried on. The church house is a settlement planted and maintained by a particular church. It is the city mission of former days with the settlement activities superadded to it. Very often the activities of the settlement are mainly carried on by volunteer workers from the church. In this way it furnishes an opportunity for Christian activity to the parent church, the rich are brought to sympathize with the poor and the benefit is mutual.
The nonreligious settlements may again be divided into those which make the settlement idea prominent, and those which believe the best work of the settlement consists in organizing its community to work out its own salvation. This idea is often expressed by saying the settlement should be a neighborhood center.
The first class of settlements have three general purposes: First, to secure through investigation and legislation the conditions of a decent life to the poor. In this capacity settlements are working for clean streets and better tenements, for parks, baths, and playgrounds, and to improve the conditions of labor. It would be hard to estimate just how much direct influence the settlements have had in improving conditions in the slums, but it has certainly been considerable. Secondly, settlements seek to provide many utilities for the people in the form of legal aid, provident loans, cooperative stores, etc. These activities will be referred to later. Their third purpose is to reform the section from within by direct contact with its life. This is effected by the direct influence of the residents, by university extension, lectures and classes, by art exhibitions, music schools, classes, etc. One of the chief factors in tiris work is the settlement building itself. The buildings are always kept scrupulously clean, the rooms are generally models of taste in furnishing and arrangement, and there is always something to appeal to the love of the beautiful. Besides works of art, all the New York settlements have window boxes of flowering plants in their windows. Then too the settlement building furnishes a common parlor to a neighborhood that ordinarily has none, so that the social life can go on under decent conditions. But the chief factor in settlement work is naturally the worker. It is hoped that in the direct contact in neighborhood life and work of the cultured and the uncultured, that culture will tell and the workers will become the leaders in the community life and will be imitated in all their ways. Some of this influence will be direct and personal and some will come through their hold on elubs.
The idea of Stanton Coit in founding neighborhood guilds was that these guilds should organize the life of each community for common ends. He finds the source of many of the ills of slum quarters in the fact that there are no social ties that bind the district into a community. If neighborhoods are thus organized for self help, with a guild hall as'a neighborhood center which can serve as parlor and sitting room for the tenements that have none, then they can administer charity more wisely to their own members than can any outside agency. They can help each other to secure employment and in every way the neighborhood