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EDUCATION IN GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND—-1903.
Great B.itain and Ireland, constitutional monarchy; area, England and Wales, 59,186 square
miles; population, 32,526,075 in 1901. Scotland, 29,82) square miles; population (estinat-d, 1899), 4,281,850. Ireland, 32,583 square miles; population (estimated, 1896), 4,535,516.
Information on education in Great Britain in previous Reports.
Title of article.
Detailed view of the educational system in England
comparison with 1876 (England); 1880 (Scotland)
the development of the English system Education in Great Britain and Ireland:
Statistics, legislation, 1870-1897
Elementary education in London
administration of the system; to the improvement of tho teaching forte;
1870-1899- Board of education; organization and scope-University move-
by Cloudesley Brereton-The royal commission on the state of university education in Ireland, paper by Judge O'Connor Morris... Education in Great Britain and Ireland: Current statistics Elementary education (England); retrospective statistics; the education law of 1902, reactionary and progressive tendencies; text of the law; opinions on: James Bryce M. P., London Times; D. C. Lathbury, T. J. Macnamara - Historical survey of secondary education in England, with statistics and typical programmes-State of secondary education in Scotland and Ireland -Higher education in Great Britain and Ireland; statistics and current notes..
Current educational statistics, Great Britain and Ireland.
Elementary education.-Brief conspectus of the system of education in England as organized under the law of 1902.-Conspectus of the Scotch system.--Salient features of progress in elementary education.-The present educational ferment making for larger opportunities for the common people.-The educational problem involved with political issues in England. -- Passive resistance to the education law of 1902.-Progressive aspects of the law.- The new law for London: Original draft, changes effected by the opposition.- London as an administrative area.Criticism of the law by Dr. Macnamara, James Bryce, and others.---Final text of the law.-Retrospective tables.
Secondary and technical education.—England: New classification of schools under the law of 1902; statistics of evening and of science and art schools for 1902-3; secondary schools accepting Government inspection; local administration of technical education.
Scotland: Inspected secondary schools; application of Government grants for secondary and technical education; present needs of secondary education in England and Scotland; Mr. Acland, M. P., on the situation in England.
Universities and university colleges in Great Britain.-Increasing influence of universities.Recent foundations: The transformed London University; Birmingham University; the university colleges, number, character, and scope.-Proposed technical university for London.-University statistics, 1897-1X02 (Ireland included).
Education in Ireland.-System of national education (elementary), brief conspectus.-Schools of the Christian Brothers.--Statistics, current and retrospective.
Secondary and technical education: Scope of the International Education Board; report of temporary inspectors.-Administration of technical education,
The university problem in Ireland, report and recommendations of the royal commission.Historical outline of universities in Ireland.—Dublin University votes to admit women.
Summary of current educational statistics, Great Britain and Ireland.
England and Wales.
Oxford (22 colleges, 5 halls, 1902
hotel, and noncollegiate
1902 Victoria (3 colleges).
1902 University of Wales (3 col- 1902
leges). University colleges...
1902 University colleges for 1902
women. Official report, 1902-3. Elementary day schools
1902 Night schools.
1902 Glasgow (1 college
1902 St. Andrews (3 colleges)
1902 Glasgow Technical College 1902 Official report, 1901-2. Elementary day schools
1902 Galway, Queen's College 1902
University College, Dublin. 1902 Official report, 1902 Elementary day schools
1901 Night schools
1901 Training schools for elemen- 1901
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. Official report, 1902-3. Science schools and classes 1902 Art schools and classes
a Average enrollment.
bGrants by board of education.
BRIEF CONSPECTUS OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION IN ENGLAND.
The system of public elementary education in England is in the process of transition from the basis established by the law of 1870 to that of 1902, which went into operation March 26, 1903.
The new conditions established by the law of 1902 relate almost exclusively to the local administration of schools. The provisions of the law of 1870 and subsequent amending laws are continued in force excepting so far as they are explicitly annulled by the law.
Local authorities.—The local authorities in charge of elementary schools are county and county borough councils, replacing the former elected school boards, and having general charge of (1) board schools, henceforth to be known as provided schools, and (2) voluntary (i. e., chiefly church) schools, to be known as nonprovided. The county councils become the local agents for the disbursement of the Government grant for elementary education. The councils are further empowered to raise the additional moneys required for the maintenance of elementary schools by local taxes, which are henceforth to be applied to both the provided and the nonprovided schools.
The educational functions of the councils, excepting that of raising school money by taxation, may be delegated to education committees constituted under schemes formed by the respective councils and approved by the board of education (central authority, substituted by law of 1899 for the committee of council on education"). Every scheme for the formation of an education committee must provide for the appointment by the council of a majority of the members of the committee and for the inclusion of women in the committee.
Where the local education authority is a county council, all public elementary schools must have a body of managers, to be constituted by the local authority. In the case of nonprovided (i. e., church schools), these managers must include foundation managers, not exceeding four (excepting in special cases), and managers appointed by the local authority, in the proportion of two to every four foundation managers.
The managers of a nonprovided school must carry out any directions of the local education authority as to the secular instruction to be given in the school, including any directions with respect to the number and educational qualifications of the teachers to be employed for such instruction, and for the dismissal of any teacher on educational grounds, but if the managers fail in these respects then the local education authority shall have the power themselves to carry out the direction in question as if they were the managers; but no direction given under this provision shall be such as to interfere with reasonable facilities for religious instruction during school hours.
It is expressly provided that the local education authority shall have power to inspect nonprovided schools and that its consent shall be required to the appointment and dismissal of teachers, but the councils may not withhold consent to the appointment nor interfere with the dismissal of teachers on religious grounds. Moreover, in nonprovided schools “ assistant teachers and pupil tea hers may be appointed, if it is thought fit, without reference to religious creed and denomination. [Head teachers are appointed independently of the local authorities and are naturally chosen on denominational grounds.] In any case in which there are
a In the reorganization of the department of education Mr. R. L. Morant becomes secretary to the board of education, replacing Sir G. W. Kekewich, who resigned the position November, 1992. On the 12th of May, 1903, Mr. Michael E. Sadler resigned the position of director of special inquiries and reports, which he had held from its establishment in 1895. This action was taken by Mr. Sadler on account of proposals on the part of the board of education which, in his judgment, would impair the scientific value and thoroughness as well as the practical efficiency of the work of his office. In June following Dr. H. F. Heath, academic registrar of the university of London, was appointed to the vacant directorship.
more candidates for the post of pupil teacher than there are places to be filled, the appointment shall be made by the local education authority, and they shall determine the respective qualifications of the candidates by examination or otherwise."
Religious instruction.-In provided schools no sectarian instruction is allowed. Nonprovided or denominational schools are prohibited by a conscience clause from forcing religious instruction upon children whose parents object to the same.
Compulsory school attendance.—The provisions with respect to compulsory school attendance are unchanged. Every local authority is obliged to make by-laws under which the upper limit of age for compulsory attendance must not be less than 12 years, and at the discretion of the local authorities may be raised to 14 years.
Sources of support for elementary schools.--The Government grant, which furnishes at present very nearly half the support of elementary schools, is applied on the same conditions to provided and nonprovided schools. The balance of the support for both classes of schools is provided by local taxes. In the case of a nonprovided (i. e., denominational) school in which fees have hitherto been charged the local authority shall, “ while they continue to allow fees to be charged in respect of that school, pay such proportion of those fees as may be agreed upon, or, in default of agreement, determined by the board of education and the managers.”
Free tuition.-In the third schedule of the law it is declared that “the duty of a local education authority under the education acts 1870 to 1902, to provide a suficient amount of public school accommodation, shall include the duty to provide a sufficient amount of public school accommodation without payment of fees in every part of their area.''
Definition of elementary school.—The law declares that,
The expression “elementary school” shall not include any school carried on as an evening school under the regulations of the board of education.
The power to provide instruction under the elementary education acts 1870 to 1900 shall, except where those acts expressly provide to the contrary, be limited to the provision in a public elementary school of instruction given under the regulations of the board of education to scholars who, at the close of the school year, will not be more than 16 years of age: Prorided, That the local education authority may, with the consent of the board of edncation, extend those limits in the case of any such school if no suitable higher education is available within a reasonable distance of the school.
[Higher elementary schools) are organized for the purpose of providing more advanced instruction than can be given in the ordinary elementary schools for children between 10 and 15 years of age who are certified by an inspector of the board as qualified to profit by such instruction. The special object which they have in view is to qualify the children taught in them to enter any of those callings in which scientific methods have to be employed. With this intention the course of instruction, though not exclusively scientific, is based on science, and all the scholars are trained to make accurate measurements and to perform and record simple experiments. One foreign language and elementary mathematics are included in the curriculum, while careful attention is given to drawing. The course of instruction extends over four years.
Twenty-nine such schools have been recognized by the board of education, having in 1901–2 an average attendance of 7,364 pupils, of whom 450 were over 15 years of age, and therefore can not be included in estimating the amount of Gorernment grant to be applied to the schools.
The number of certificated teachers was 265, of whom 36 were graduates. There were also 8 graduates who were not certificated, 6 assistant teachers, and 61 teachers of special subjects, making up a total of 340. The principal teachers received an average salary of £292 14s. 5d.
In the 24 board schools of this class inspected during the year the average cost of maintenance per pupil was £7 18s. 31d., and in the one voluntary school, £4 19s. 8d.
The 65 training colleges for elementary school-teachers (20 for men, 32 for women, and 13 for both men and women) under inspection by the board of education and in receipt of Government grants are also included under the general head of elementary education.
Higher education. The local education authorities are empowered
To supply or aid the supply of education other than elementary, and to promote the general coordination of all forms of education, and for that purpose shall apply all or so much as they deem necessary of the residue of the liquor duties under section 1 of the local tixation (customs and excise) act, 1890, and shall carry forward for the like purpose any balance thereof which may remain unexpended, and may spend such further suins as they think fit: Prorided, That the amount raised by the council of a county for the purpose in any year out of rates (local taxes) under this act shall not exceed the amount which would be produced by a rate of 20. in the pound, or such higher rate as the county council, with the consent of the local government board, may fix.
Government inspection.—The Goverment supervision of elementary schools is maintained by an inspectorial service, which has been reorganized in connection with the general changes in administration consequent upon the passage of the law of 1902. The official report says:
Hitherto there has been a senior chief inspector in charge of the metropolitan division and 11 chief inspectors, of whom nine were in charge of the other divisions of England and Wales, and the other two were inspectors of training colleges. The chief inspector, who under the new arrangement takes the place of senior chief inspector, is not attached to any district or division, but has general control over the whole inspectorate of elementary schools and is the channel of communication between the inspectorate and the board. The officers hitherto known as chief inspectors will now be entitled divisional inspectors. They will as before be eleven in number, and each of them will be in charge of a geographical division conterminous with the area of a group of local education authorities. Each divisional inspector will be to a large extent responsible for the inspection of the training colleges within his division. He will be required to supervise in a more specific and effective manner than has hitherto been the case the work of all the district inspectors in his division, and the district assigned to him for his direct inspection will be smaller than that hitherto intrusted to a chief inspector, in order that he may have time for carrying out the increased duties incident to the responsibilities of his post. He will be expected to make himself acquainted by frequent personal visits with the work of each of the inspectors of his division and to hold periodical conferences with all his inspectors, upon which he will furnish reports to the board through the chief inspector in regard to any matters which seem to suggest the desirability of administrative changes. Siinilarly the chief inspector will visit each divisional inspector as frequently as possible, and will also hold periodical conferences with them as a body, in order that he may be able to place at the disposal of the board the best information and advice which the inspectorate as a whole is in a position to afford. The administration of the board will be largely guided by the expert advice given them in the full sense of the responsibility involved and with full knowledge of local circumstances by the body of inspectors. (:
It is also expected that the local authorities, or, in particular, the local education committees, will come into close relations with the inspectors and will be guided in a measure by their expert knowledge of the school conditions of their respective
The inspectorate thus organized pertains to elementary schools exclusively. The similar service for the higher grades of schools that the new law has brought into relation with the central authority has been provided for temporarily, but will probably be organized on a permanent basis in the near future.
a The death of Sir Joshua G. Fitch, which occurred July 14, 1903, recalls his eminent service to English education by his conduct of the inspectorship, which he held for thirty-one years, the limit of the time allowed by the civil-service rules. Liko Matthew Arnold, Sir Joshua Fitch was frequently called from his post to serve on special commissions both at home and abroad. His reports of these special investigations and his “ Lectures on Teaching” have given him worldwide reputation.