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1. THE apostle Peter, i Pet. ii. 9. has, in very high terms,

I declared, that the chosen, the regenerate, and the aá , dopted fons of God, are a HOLY NATION. And this holiness being really the most excellent ornament of the house of God, Psal. xciii. 5. is a subject which ought not to be passed over in filence, especially as it is none of the least of the promises in the covenant of grace, that God will be the sanctifier of his people Israel.

II. In order profitably to explain the nature of sanctification, we must consider, not so much the etymology and import of the Latin word, as of the Hebrew ways and Greek áyórntos, aywon' uvas, aliyeous, and OPLOTNtOs, with words of the like original, as' most frequently made use of by the sacred penmen. It will be proper therefore to enquire more distinctly first, whr" is meant by holiness, and then, what by sanctification.

III. The word holy in scripture is afferted first of whatever is separated from a promiscuous and civil, but especially from a profane ufe: In this sense even the elect are called holy, as being separated from the profane world, Lev. xx. 26. « And ye Thall be holy unto me, because I have severed you from other people, that ye should be mine.” 2 Cor. vi. 17. “Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, faith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing, and I will receive you.” It is no less true of the mystical, than of the literal Ifrael, that they are a peculiar people, whose laws are divers from all people, Eph.

iii. 8.

'VOL. II.

IV. Bå

IV. Balaam has beautifully prophesied of them, Num. xxiii. 9. “Lo! the people shall dwell alone, and shall not be reckoned among the nations.” Ifrael is called the people: ift, On account of their prodigious numbers, ver. 10. “ Who can count the dust of Jacob, and the number of the fourth part of Israel;" 2. On account of those sacred ties, by which this vast congregation was united together. They were not a promiscuous afsembly but a multitude, under a proper polity, or form of goveriment, united together by covenant, governed by falutary laws, with rights and an inheritance, and having God himself for their head. Thus the apostle, 1 Pet. ii. 10. o córe s rados, võr de acos Oes, which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God. This is the meaning of by, accos, the people, when used in its emphatical sense, and distinguished from 243, Gentiles. And op xb, not a people, Deut. xxxii. 21. is a multitude that has no such privileges. Balaam testifies of the former that they dwell alone, or are separate, not reckoned among the nations : they are severed and distinguished from the rest of the world, by peculiar laws, customs, and institutions. Tacitus in his history, book 5. says, “ Mofes, the better to attach the peo. ple afterwards to himself, appointed them new rites, contrary

to those of the rest of the world. There all things are accounted profane, which we look upon as facred; and those things are allowed by them which we hold to be incestuous.”

V. This separation of the Jewish people, in as far as it was the effect of ceremonial institutions, constituted a ceremonial holiness; but if we consider it as the effect of the excellency of those laws, which prescribed moral duties, in that respect, they much surpassed other nations, yet that constituted a holiness common to the godly in all ages. Hence the church of the New Testament is called, “ the flock of thine heritage, which dwell solitarily.” Micah vii. 14. And Christ says of his people; "they are in the world, but not of the world; for he has chosen them out of the world,” John xv. 19. “ Deli

vering them from this present evil world, according to the · will of God, and our Father," Gal. i. 4. To this purpose is the admonition of Paul, Rom. xii. 2. Mn aucxmualicec be tw arwa

781w, “ Be not conformed to this world.” " . VI. And this is that singularity of piety fo recommended by some, which does not confist in external niceties of an over-strained will-worship, and an austerity of discipline, as was generally the practice of the Pharisees among the Jews, and of the Afcetics formerly among the ancient Christians; concerning whom Casaubon may be seen in his Esere, ad Baron, Exerc. 1. No. 9. A manner of life significantly called by

Ephiphanius,

olitarily." Milled, “ the lockence the chur

Epiphanius, £8£moderegolata dixaloouins, the utmost piteb of self-righteousness: but in shunning the vices of the age, pride, drunkenness, luft, and vanities of every kind. 1 Pet. iv. 3, “ For the time past of our life may suffice us, to have wrought the will of the Gentiles, when we walked in lasciviousness, lusts, excess of wine, revellings, banquetings, and abominable idolatries.” Eph. v. 7, “Be not ye therefore partakers with them:" and v. 11.“ and have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness.” Tertullian, in his Apologetica, advises us, that in what we say, see and hear, we correspond in nothing with the mad- ness of the circus, the lewdness of the theatre, the mocking cruelty of the amphitheatre, and the vanity of the Xy/tus; we are not to attend on such shows and representations as these. 2. That in opinions and sentiments we keep at a distance from those of the vulgar: that is what Paul hints in what follows: “ but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove . what is the will of God.” By the vulgar I mean, not only the lowest class of people, of whom Tacitus says, they have neither judgment nor truth; but even such as seem to themselves and others extremely wise in this world; from whom God generally conceals those mysteries of his, which he reveals to babes, Mat. xi. 25. 3. In will and affections, i Pet. i. 14. “Not fashioning yourselves according to the former lufts in your ignorance.” 4. In the exercise of such a generous and noble virtue, or holiness, as is infinitely beyond the reach of other people, Phil. ii. 15. “ That ye may be blameless and harmless, the fons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation, among whom ye shine as lights in the world.”

VII. Secondly, the word holý, denotes whatever is dedicated to, or set apart for God and his service. Thus the altar, and what belonged to it, are called most holy, Exod. xxx. 29: also, Aaron with his sons, i Chron. xxiii. 13. So in like manner the truly godly are so a peculiar treasure to God above all people," Exod. xix. 5. In the Hebrew it runs : mbadas anunla

To Segullah the last of these, the Latin word figilluni has an affinity : so that mbad SEGULLAH denotes a thing, which a person declares to be his own property, by impressing it with his seal; nay indeed, it denotes such a thing, on account of which, persons and kings themselves are accounted rich, and by which they display their grandeur, Ecclef. ii. 8. “ I gathered me also silver and gold ogban mbad, and the SEGULLAH peculiar trea fure of Kings.” Thus « God hath chosen Israel nbsp for his Segullah, or peculiar treasure,” Pf. cxxxv. 4. Con, A 2

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cerning this word, see Waferus de nummis, lib. 1. c. 1. The Septuagint express it by tipistlaspeor éwuta, Deut. vii. 6. Abd by, “ą special people ;". which Paul, in imitation of the LXX. calls Acosa igéolos, “a peculiar people;" Tit. ii. 14: And Jerome affirms, he could not learn the meaning of that Greek word from any one, that was conversant in profane literature ; but gathered it from the above place in Deuteronomy, and the like. Yet I think Grotius has not improperly observed, that tigrécies is derived from ridicīvat, which signifies, to excel; and hence Tégiegues denotes the same as ežárgelos, excellent : and tigrésoce superabundance : in which sense Clemens Alexandrius uses it in Admon. ad Gentes. p. 5. feistar npery ons recetýcsws, izsprécies, Basinezev šgevay ŠTEYYEN děle: proinises to us, fuperabundantly, or over and above, the kingdom of heaven, as the reward of our doćirine. And again, p. 69. Pegs ipīv, .sx Higovoices, Toy Figi 78 2078 Forgadnaouego wadw; Į shall abundatly bring a convincing proof concerning the word. In the same manner, as Demosthenes says, ŠTOS, EX msgierias, flex zalnyogsão be fuperabundantly accuses me: Polybius, book 4. c. 38, oppoles περισσια to the αι αναγκαιαι τα βιε χρεναι, the neceffaries of life. The godly therefore are God's excellent poflession, which he claims and preserves, and in which he boasts, as his crown of glory and royal diadem, Ifa. lxii. 3: Which he esteems as his riches, and suffers not to become the property of another: and in this sense also may holiness be ascribed to them : s8yaç ánov, ndos sis megstanowv, a holy ratio, a peculiar people, are joined together, 1 Pet. ii. 9.

VIII. God also truly feals his servants, as his property, which he would keep from being lost, and in this sense, he likewise accounts such sacred or inviolable. Rev. vii. 2, 3: John saw an angel ascending from the east, distinct from the four ministring angels, and giving orders unto them : now Christ himself is availoan eg if os, the day spring froin on high, Luke i. 78. and the Gospel was published chiefly from Jerusalem to the west, namely to the isles of the fea, or to Europe. This ange! had the seat of the living God, viz. the Spirit of God, who is also the fpirit of the Son, Gal. iv. 6. and by whom the elect are sealed, Eph. i. 13. because he imprints upon them the character of holiness declared in the Gospel, whereby they are known to, be the property of God. This angel gave his orders to the others not to hurt any one, till, says he, we have fealed the fervants of our God in their foreheads; from which words we are not to imagine, that God has any fellow labourers in this sealingwork, but Christ says this concerning himself and his Spirit; who may well call God the Father, their God, as both are sent from him, Ifa. xlviii. 16. The Lord God hath fent me and his fpirit;

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as thus the Hebrew may very properly be rendered. Moreover, this seal was in the foreheads of God's servants; because, as the forehead is the most conspicuous part of man, so the truth of the Gospel and the efficacy of true piety, which is impressed upon their hearts by the Holy Spirit, discover themselves in the public profession, and open practice of holinefs, which strike the eyes and ears of all. Nor is it improbable, there is here an allusion to a received custom in the East, by which the names of masters were stamped on the foreheads of their servants, as Grotius has observed from Hesychius and Aristophanes. The godly then are God's peculiar property; for they bear his name on their foreheads, Rev. xiv. 1. They also profess themfelves to be set apart for his service.

IX. And as God sets his seal upon them, so in like manner they subscribe with their hand to be only the Lords, Isa. xliv. 5. The Roman soldiers of old according to Vegetius de re Milit. Lib. 2. c. 5. being marked with indelible characters in the skin, were wont to be sworn when they were enlisted: and hence in the law of Mauritius, Signati in manu, they who are marked in the hand is a circumlocution for soldiers: for, siypalé sso TWY SECTEUO. Héves év tais xiqrov, the marks of soldiers are in their hands, says Ælian. This is what Chrysostom on Rom. iv. 11. calls op payida iš spałowie, the feal of the foldier : see Grotius on Revelations xiii. 16. In much the same manner, believers being sealed by God with the efficacy of the * flaming fpirit, and a truly indelible and never fading character, do, at the same time, bind themselves by an oath, to be faithful to God, as foldiers to their general. For, while they profess themselves to be God's, they also give themselves up to his service alone, Acts xxvii. 23. Whose I am, and whom ļ ferve. In a word, the chosen and called are all saints, because feparated from the rest of the world, they are declared to be God's on several accounts. But we have not yet mentioned the principal thing,

X. Thirdly, Holiness denotes that purity of a man, in his nature, inclinations and actions, which consists in an imitation and expression of the divine purity or holiness. God is the great pattern of his rational creatures. His will is expressed in the law, which was the pattern fhewn to Moses in the mount, according to which the sanctuary of our soul ought to be framed. But his divine virtues or perfections are a pattern, which we

are * I suppose the author here alludes, by this defignation, to the defcent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles, when there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and fat upon each of them, Acis ii. 3. and he is called the spirit of burning, Ifa. iv. 4. and John the Baptift declared, that Chrilt should baptise with the Holy Chofi and with fire. Mat. iü. 11.

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