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glorious one of Israel shall be of him, and the governor shall proceed from the midst of him," Jer. xxx. 21, " who is over all, God blessed for ever; but from the fathers as concerning the flesh,” Rom. ix. 5.
XLIII. The works ascribed to him are these two. ift, The fmiting (breaking] of the sides or corners of Moab. That is, the subduing of those, who were before sworn enemies to himself and his church. And that two ways, either by grace, when, by his word and Spirit, he subdues them to the obedience of faith, so that they willingly submit to his sceptre, “ casting down every high thing, that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringeth into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ,” 2 Cor. x, 5. Or, in a way of justice and vengeance, when he subdues the obstinate and forces them, however unwillingly, to acknowledge his power and supereminence, « breaking them with a rod of iron, dashing them in pieces like a potter's vefsel,” Pf. ii. 9. But the Moabites are here mentioned as an instance; because Balaam was, at that time, principally concerned with them. 2dly, The destruction of all the children of Seth. This signifies his triumph over all men, whom he shall subdue to himself, either by his grace, or by his righteous vengeance. Because all men in the world are propa. gated from Seth ; while the progeny of Cain, and of the other sons of Adam, perished in the deluge. From Seth Noah dem scended; and all mankind from Noah: so that we are all the children of Seth. But we shall all be made subject to Chrift, “ who shall deliver up the kingdom to God, even the kingdom to his Father: when he shall have put down all rule, and author rity, and power, 1 Cor. xv, 24,
XLIV. In the last place, he shews the time and nature of Christ's kingdom; when Ifrael fall do valiantly againit his enemies, by making off the tyrannical yoke of Antiochus and others: when Edom and Seir a noted mountain of Idumea, shall become the possession of Israel; which happened under the second temple, when the Idumeans were subdued, and submitting to circumcision and the other Jewish rites, were added to the republic of Israel : as not only Josephus, but also Strabo relates, Geogr. lib. 16. “ they joined themselves to the Jews, and had laws in common with them.” When, I say, all these things shall happen, “out of Jacob shall come he, that shall have dominion :" namely, that great ruler, that “ mighty one of Jacob,” Ifa. lx. 16. « whose right it is, and I will give it him," Ezek. xxi. 27. “He shall destroy him that remaineth of the city.” He will overthrow the city and all human power, VOL. II.
which shall made head againit him to the utmost : “ for he bringeth down them that dwell on high, the lofty city he layeth it low, he layeth it low, even to the ground, he bringeth it even to the dust. The foot shall tread it down, even the feet of the poor, and the steps of the needy,” Isa. xxvi. 5, 6. And thus we have carried down the doctrine of salvation in one con tinued series to the times of Moses.
CHA P. IV.
Of the Decalogue.
I. THINGS had a quite different appearance under Mofes,
1 What was spoken here and there, and delivered only by word of mouth, was now enlarged with very many additions digested into one body, and, at the command of God, consigned to lasting records; which neither the rage of enemies, nor fire, nor sword, nor all-consuming time shall be able to abolish. But neither the nature of our design, nor our intended brevity will permit uş to prosecute every thing at large,
that comes under this head. In this chapter we shall treat · concerning the giving of the law, and the covenant of God with the Israelites, founded on that law,
II. It was the prerogative of the people of Israel above other nations, that to them pertained the covenants and the giving of the law, Rom. ix. 4.. And there were several kinds of laws given them, of which there are principally three mentioned by divines. The moral, or the decalogue, the ceremonial, and the political, or forenfick. The people of Israel may doubtess be confidered three ways. ift, As rational creatures, depending upon God, as the supreme reason or cause both in a moral and natural senfe. And thus the law of the decalogue was given them; which, as to its substance, is one and the same with the law of nature, and binds men as such, 2dly, As the church of the old Testament, who expected the promised Messiah and happier times, when he should make every thing perfect. And therefore they received the ceremonial law, which really shewed, that the Mefliah was not yet come, and had not yet perfected all things; but that he would come, and make all things new. 3dly, As a peculiar people, who had a polity or government, suited to their genius and disposition in the land of Canaan. A republic conftituted not so much according to those
chur peculiar refortheless, as are all bolled trinity,
forms which philosophers have delineated, but which was, in a peculiar manner, a thescracy, as Josephus fignificantly calls it, God himself holding the reins of government therein, Judg. viii. 23. Under that view God prescribed them political laws.
III. We are first to speak of the decalogue and its promulgation. Mofes has accurately described it, Exod. xix. and xx. The law-giver, or if you will the legislator, is God himself. “ The one law-giver, who is able to save and to destroy, James iv. 12. Who has a right of dominion over the consciences of men. As the sumpreme reason or cause, he is the rule of all reasonable creatures; and as the supreme Lord, is the ruler of all, and by taking Israel to himself for a people, in an especial manner thewed himself to be their God. In the first words of the law, he asserts his own divinity, proclaiming, I am Jehovah thy God.
IV. But we judge it criminal for any to doubt, that this is to be understood of the whole undivided trinity, whose equal majesty, in one Deity, we are all bound to acknowledge and worship. Nevertheless, as the Son of God was then, in a certain peculiar respect, the king of the people of Israel and of the church at that time ; the giving of the law is also, in a singular manner, ascribed to him. For Stephen, in express words, declares, Acts vii. 38. compared with v. 35. that it was an angel who spoke with Moses and the fathers on mount Sinai, even that very angel, who appeared to Moses in the bush, and said, that he was the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. But no Christian will deny, that this was Christ. And Christ, certainly is, he « who ascended on high," &c. Pl. lxviii. 18. compared with Eph. iv. 8. But he himself “ went forth before his people in the wilderness, when the earth shook, the heavens also dropped at the presence of God s even Sinai itself was moved at the presence of God, the God of Israel,” that is, at the giving of the law, Ps. Ixviii. 7, 8. Certainly the Apostle Heb. xii. 26. fays, that he who spoke from heaven, and whose voice then (namely, at the giving of the law) ftook the earth, was our Lord Jesus Christ to whom we are now also to hearken; as Zanchius has learnedly observed T. IV. lib. 1. c. 12. Who professedly and at large proves, that he who promulgated the law, was the Son of God, de tribus Elohim, lib. 2. c. 3.
V. What the celebrated Iac. Altingius has observed on Deut. v. 6. from a catechism of the ancient Jews very much deserves our notice. The Jews say, “ three spirits are united in one ; the lowest spirit, which is called the holy spirit : the middle, spirit which is the intermediate, and called wisdoon and intelligence ; and this is the spirit which proceeds from the midst of the most
ing of the us that he was of the lawnow alio to 2
consummate beauty, with fire and water: the supreme spirit, which is absolutely in filence, in whom all the holy spirits, and and all the bright persons confift,” Rahanat. fol. 132. col. 3. They also say, that yx and .nx ,and arn, I and Thou and he, are names of God, denoting three persons, and, at the feast of tabernacles, they all profess it in their prayers : I and HE, save I pray. Moreover, they say, that when the law was promulgated, there were two persons. For, quite to the end of the second commandment, the discourse runs in the first person, “I the Lord thy God, &C. For I the Lord God, &c. of those that hate me, &c. of those that love me, Egc." In the third and following comandments, God is mentioned in the third person. “ Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God, &c. The fabbath of the Lord thy God.” Which having observed, they proceed thus : “ that the two first words” or commandments, “ were spoke by the supreme spirit; but the other words, by his glory, called EL SCHADDAI, known to the fathers, by whom the prophets prophesied, who is called JAH, in whom is the name of God, the beloved of God, who dwelt in the temple, and the mouth of God, and face of God, and the rock, and that goodness which Moses faw, when he could not see God," Bechai fol. 88. col. 3, 4. Elsewhere they call him the “ Schekinah, by whom there is access to God, by whom prayers are poured out to God: who is that angel, who has the name of God in him, who also himself is called God and Jehovah." I enquire not now, how solid these reasonings of the Jews are. It is sufficient to have mentioned these remarkable records of an ancient catchism concerning the plurality of the divine perfons; of which there are also indications in the Decalogue itself.
VI. Angels were present, as ministers, at the giving of the law by the Lord Christ. Whence Stephen fays, Acts vii. 53. that the “ Ifraelites received the law by the disposition of angels,” kus doce cenya's pyénww. Grotius observes, that és here signifies amidst, and that doeleya's denotes troops, ranged in military order: that the meaning is, the law was given in a magnificent mana ner, amidst many troops of angels, and that there was a reference to Deut. xxxiii. 2. these things are not improper. But others would rather take Satayin for a command, ordinance, and fančtion : as * Rom. xiii. 2. And they render is.at ; in which sense the Son is said to act at the pleasure of the Father. Ludovicus de Dieu has learnedly expressed that meaning ; and as his words tend to explain several passages, we shall not scruple to insert them as follows. Stephen had said, v. 38. that
* Whosoever therefore resilieth the power, refifteth Tñ batayñ the ordinance of God.
and then formed them, les mount Therefore the was the
the angel spoke with Mofes in mount Sinai, even the fame, ' who had appeared to him in the bush, v. 35. who, though he ( was in himself God, yet is here economically considered as
the angel of God, and the captain of the other angels. He
gave the law to Mofes, from the midst of the angels, who • surrounded him on all hands. Of which there was a figurrative representation in the fanctuary, where God fitting be<tween the cherubims delivered his oracles-Hence Pf. lxviii.
17. when he had said, the chariots of God are twenty.thour sand, even thousands of angels, the Lord is among them; he " adds, Sinai is in the sanctuary: to teach us, that as God,
when formerly surrounded on Sinai with myriads of angels, " and riding on them, as on chariots, gave forth the law, fo " the sanctuary resembles mount Sinai, where God rides on a
chariot of cherubims. Seeing therefore the law came forth." from an assembly of angels, whose president was the supreme angel Jehovah, the Apostle justly said, that it was pronounced
and ordained by angels. Stephen, that it was received by the people • by the disposition of angels. Alateyin diyyéday is here the same thing, • as the decree of the watchers, and the word of the holy ones,
Dan. iv, 17. The decree and mandate of the angelic senate r is understood, over whom the Son of God presided as fup
reme: in regard of whom the same decree is called, v. 24. " the decree of the most high." Thus far de Dieu.
VII. But what kind of minifry did the angels perform to God at giving the law ? First, It is certain, that, with their heavenly choirs they surrounded the mount, and added to the majesticí pomp of the Lawgiver, and were witnesses of all that was transacted. The consideration of this was capable of striking not only terror into the Ifraelites, but should also have inspired their minds with reverence, that the angels, in whose assembly the law was given, might not be witnesses of their perfidy. To this purpose is Deut. xxxiii. 2. « Jehovah came from Sinai, he came with ten thousands of saints; from his right hand went a fiery law for them.” Secondly, It is not improbable, that the sound of those words, in which the law was conceived, was formed in the air by the means of angels. For, God properly uses not a voice : this is a degree of imperfection : but yet it is called the voice of God, formed in the air in some
10 pripit alles he wide of Conducted fome extraordinary manner, to express the mind of God, for which purpose he uses the ministry of angels : namely, the law was given in thunder and lightning; the thunder indeed, which formed the matter of the voice, which proclaimed the words of the law, mult certainly have had an articulation, superadded, which was framed by the means of angels. Philo, in ennarra