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which was in 1424 wrested from the renowned Cineis by the still more successful conqueror Sultaun Amurat the Second.
ABOUT this period the struggles of the Greeks but feebly maintained the few possessions which had resisted the Mahommedan's encroachments; and the enervated minds of their chiefs, subdued by a constant succession of misfortunes and discomfitures, gave up all hopes of recovering their country. The banner of Mahommed floated upon every remaining rampart in the Archipelago; and every Grecian family submitted to the fortunate destinies of its conqueror.
PARALISED as were the efforts, and deranged as were the pursuits of this great but successless nation, the Greeks did not long remain in indolence and inactivity. The engagements of commerce attracted their attention, and soothed the misery of their reflections. New branches of trade were added to the renewal of their former commercial connections; and comfort and affluence again appeared to them attainable.-Smyrna, from its position, as well as from previous habits to which its remaining residents were accustomed, became again one of the principal marts, and has continued (with such variations, however, as most commercial cities in a long series of time experience) to preserve its pre-eminence over all the other towns in the Levant.
I HAVE already stated that the merchants of Smyrna live in a style of elegance much superior to that usually met with in England. Game, fish, fruits of peculiar flavor, and wines which "need no bush," supply their tables. A spirit of hospitality prevails amongst the families, who all promote the enjoyments. and comforts of strangers; and where a system of politeness and civility is so general, it would be neither candid nor consistent to particularise. At the different consuls' houses, however, it may be allowable to remark, that the societies are more numerous, and (what is not always a consequence) more interesting, particularly to travellers of observation. The attractions of an advantageous trade bring together natives of every part of Europe; and the allurements of scientific research induce many learned individuals to explore the neighbouring countries. Those of distinction, engaged in either pursuit, are almost invariably recommended to the attention of some consul; and an introduction to one leads as securely to many others, as the door of their morning chamber to the entrance of their saloons. In short, they vie with each other in the flattering and hospitable endeavor to welcome and amuse a stranger. I hardly know how to offer a more respectable panegyric on the society of Smyrna..
Ar a public dinner at the English consul's, I observed a custom of which I had seen no precedent. After the first course, the whole of the company rose, and removed to another room, where a
splendid and elegant second course was already set out, and, as had been practised at the first table, the name of each guest was written and laid on the plate opposite to the chair in which it was intended he should be seated.
The fruits which abound here are of delicious flavor, particularly the water-melons, pomegranates, and grapes. Amongst the latter is a variety without either stone or seed, called the virgin grape, from which an extremely delicate wine is sometimes made without the aid of expression. The fruit is merely put into conical bags of flannel, and, after fermentation, supplies a juice, which, upon being preserved, produces this elegant and curious luxury. Here are also pomegranates without seed; but I believe these to be brought from the island of Scio.
THE import-trade from England is principally confined to woollen cloths, camlets, lead, tin, and other metals; watches made after the Turkish fashion, that is, with Turkish characters upon the dial-plates, and with three cases, the outermost generally of shagreen; and an infinite number of articles that come under the denomination of hardware. For these are exchanged, cotton, coffee, mohair, drugs, galls, raisins, figs, &c. &c.
THE ships arrive in September and October; and if, in answer to the first question, it is ascertained that clean bills of health
are granted, a joy and chearfulness are manifested throughout the ship's company, who feel themselves relieved, not only from present apprehension, but also from the annoyance of a forty days quarantine on their return to port.
WITH respect to the stowage of cotton, it is said the men called Steevadores are particularly expert; and, by application of a sort of windlass, they sometimes use a force sufficient to start a plank from the side of a vessel. Their exertions on board the ship in which I arrived were such as to raise the deck, and would have been productive of more injury had not the captain prevented it. Were these people acquainted with the advantage of applying a mechanical power to compress the bale previous to shipping, accidents of this nature would not occur; but they are ignorant of the cotton screws, by which the thickness of a bail may be reduced to eighteen inches, and most probably could not be easily prevailed upon to substitute them for the mode to which they have been so long accustomed.
DEPARTURE FROM SMYRNA-TURKISH BOAT-TEMNOS-FUNERAL
At the head and stern of a Turkish kaïck a sort of cabin